Skip to main content

Functional neural correlates of mindfulness meditations in comparison with psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo effect. Is there a link?

  • Alberto Chiesa (a1), Paolo Brambilla (a2) (a3) and Alessandro Serretti (a1)

Chiesa A, Brambilla P, Serretti A. Functional neural correlates of mindfulness meditations in comparison with psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo effect. Is there a link?


Mindfulness meditations (MM) are a group of meditation practices which are increasingly receiving attention. The aim of the present work is to review current findings about the neural correlates of MM and compare such findings with other specific and non-specific treatments.


A literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, ISI web of knowledge, the Cochrane database and references of retrieved articles. Studies which focused on the functional neural correlates of MM, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and placebo published up to August 2009 were screened in order to be considered for the inclusion.


Main findings suggest that long-term MM practice allows a more flexible emotional regulation by engaging frontal cortical structures to dampen automatic amygdala activation. A large overlap exists between cerebral areas activated during MM, psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy and those activated by placebo. However, while MM, psychotherapy and placebo seem to act through a top-down regulation, antidepressants seem to act through a bottom-up process.


MM seem to target specific brain areas related to emotions and emotional regulation. Similar mechanisms have been observed also in other interventions, particularly psychotherapy.

Corresponding author
Alberto Chiesa, MD, Institute of Psychiatry, University of Bologna, Viale Carlo Pepoli 5, 40123 Bologna, Italy. Tel: +39 051 6584233; Fax: +39 051 521030; E-mail:
Hide All
1.Taylor, E. Introduction. In: Murphy, M, Donovan, S, Sausalito, CA, eds. The physical and physiological effects of meditation. Institute of Noetic Science, 1999.
2.Ospina, MB, Bond, K, Karkhaneh, M et al. Meditation practices for health: state of the research. Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 2007; 1263.
3.Barinaga, M.Buddhism and neuroscience. Studying the well-trained mind. Science 2003;302:4446.
4.Chiesa, A, Serretti, A.A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychol Med 2009:114.
5.Kabat-Zinn, J.Wherever you go, there you are: mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion, 1994.
6.Marlatt, GA, Kristeller, JL. Integrating spirituality into treatment: resources for practitioners. In: Miller, WR, ed. Mindfulness and meditation. Washington: American Psychological Association, 1999.
7.Buddhaghosa, B.Vissuddhimagga (The Path of Purification). Seattle: Shambala, 1976.
8.Kabat-Zinn, J. Indra's net at work: the mainstreaming of Dharma practice in society. York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser, 2000.
9.Ahir, DC.Vipassana: a universal Buddhist meditation technique. New Delhi: Sri Satguru Publications, 1999.
10.Mizuno, K.Essentials of Buddhism. Tokyo: Kosei Publishing Company, 1972.
11.Kabat-Zinn, J.Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Dell Publishing, 1990.
12.Segal, ZJ, Williams, MG, Teasdale, JD.Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for depression: a new approach to preventing relapses. New York: Guildford Press, 2002.
13.Bishop, SR.What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosom Med 2002;64:7183.
14.Proulx, K.Integrating mindfulness-based stress reduction. Holist Nurs Pract 2003;17:201208.
15.Allen, NB, Chambers, R, Knight, W.Mindfulness-based psychotherapies: a review of conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and practical considerations. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2006;40:285294.
16.Chiesa, A, Serretti, A.Mindfulness-based stress reduction for stress management in healthy people: a review and meta-analysis. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15: 593600.
17.Coelho, HF, Canter, PH, Ernst, E.Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: evaluating current evidence and informing future research. J Consult Clin Psychol 2007;75:10001005.
18.Chiesa, A.Vipassana meditation: systematic review of current evidence. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:3746.
19.Chiesa, A.Zen meditation: an integration of current evidence. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:585592.
20.Cahn, BR, Polich, J.Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychol Bull 2006;132: 180211.
21.Goleman, D.The meditative mind: the varieties of meditative experience. New York: Perigee Books ed., 1988.
22.Rubia, K.The neurobiology of Meditation and its clinical effectiveness in psychiatric disorders. Biol Psychol 2009;1:111.
23.Dougherty, DD, Rauch, SL, Rosenbaum, JF.Essentials of neuroimaging for clinical practice. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 2004.
24.Giove, F, Mangia, S, Bianciardi, Met al. The physiology and metabolism of neuronal activation: in vivo studies by NMR and other methods. Magn Reson Imaging 2003;21:12831293.
25.Price, DD, Finniss, DG, Benedetti, F.A Comprehensive Review of the placebo effect: recent advances and current thought. Annu Rev Psychol 2008;59:565590.
26.Faria, V, Fredrikson, M, Furmark, T.Imaging the placebo response: a neurofunctional review. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2008;18:473485.
27.Rupke, SJ, Blecke, D, Renfrow, M.Cognitive therapy for depression. Am Fam Physician 2006;73:8386.
28.Derubeis, RJ, Siegle, GJ, Hollon, SD.Cognitive therapy versus medication for depression: treatment outcomes and neural mechanisms. Nat Rev Neurosci 2008;9:788796.
29.Otto, MW, Deveney, C.Cognitive-behavioral therapy and the treatment of panic disorder: efficacy and strategies. J Clin Psychiatry 2005;66(Suppl. 4):2832.
30.Rowa, K, Antony, MM.Psychological treatments for social phobia. Can J Psychiatry 2005;50:308316.
31.Jonsson, H, Hougaard, E. Group cognitive behavioural therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2009;119:98106.
32.Choy, Y, Fyer, AJ, Lipsitz, JD.Treatment of specific phobia in adults. Clin Psychol Rev 2007;27:266286.
33.De Mello, MF, De Jesus Mari, J, Bacaltchuk, J, Verdeli, H, Neugebauer, R.A systematic review of research findings on the efficacy of interpersonal therapy for depressive disorders. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;255:7582.
34.Shepherd, J, Stein, K, Milne, R.Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: a review of an emerging therapy. Psychol Med 2000;30:863871.
35.Cipriani, A, Furukawa, TA, Salanti, Get al. Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 12 new-generation antidepressants: a multiple-treatments meta-analysis. Lancet 2009;373:746758.
36.Zohar, J, Westenberg, HG.Anxiety disorders: a review of tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 2000;403:3949.
37.Benedetti, F.Mechanisms of placebo and placebo-related effects across diseases and treatments. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2008;48:3360.
38.Pollo, A, Benedetti, F.Placebo response: relevance to the rheumatic diseases. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2008;34:331349.
39.Baerentsen, KB, Hartvig, NV, Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H, Mammen, J.Onset of meditation explored with fMRI. Neuroimage 2001;13:297.
40.Holzel, BK, Ott, U, Hempel, Het al. Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators. Neurosci Lett 2007;421:1621.
41.Farb, NAS, Segal, ZV, Mayberg, HSet al. Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self reference. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2007;2:313322.
42.Kozasa, EH, Radvany, J, Barreiros, MA, Leite, JR, Amaro, E.Preliminary functional magnetic resonance imaging Stroop task results before and after a Zen meditation retreat. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2008;62:366.
43.Pagnoni, G, Cekic, M, Guo, Y.“Thinking about Not-Thinking”: neural correlates of conceptual processing during zen meditation. PLoS Med 2008;3:e383e392.
44.Brody, AL, Saxena, S, Silverman, DHet al. Brain metabolic changes in major depressive disorder from pre- to post-treatment with paroxetine. Psychiatry Res 1999;91: 127139.
45.Mayberg, HS, Brannan, SK, Tekell, JLet al. Regional metabolic effects of fluoxetine in major depression: serial changes and relationship to clinical response. Biol Psychiatry 2000;48:830843.
46.Kennedy, SH, Evans, KR, Kruger, Set al. Changes in regional brain glucose metabolism measured with positron emission tomography after paroxetine treatment of major depression. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:899905.
47.Brody, AL, Saxena, S, Stoessel, Pet al. Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy: preliminary findings. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2001a;58:631640.
48.Brody, AL, Saxena, S, Mandelkern, MA, Fairbanks, LA, Ho, ML, Baxter, LR.Brain metabolic changes associated with symptom factor improvement in major depressive disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2001b;50:171178.
49.Davidson, RJ, Irwin, W, Anderle, MJ, Kalin, NH.The neural substrates of affective processing in depressed patients treated with venlafaxine. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160:6475.
50.Fu, CH, Williams, SC, Cleare, AJet al. Attenuation of the neural response to sad faces in major depression by antidepressant treatment: a prospective, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61:877889.
51.Goldapple, K, Segal, Z, Garson, Cet al. Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression: treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavior therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61:3441.
52.Anand, A, Li, Y, Wang, Yet al. Antidepressant effect on connectivity of the mood-regulating circuit: an FMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology 2005;30:13341344.
53.Chen, CH, Ridler, K, Suckling, Jet al. Brain imaging correlates of depressive symptom severity and predictors of symptom improvement after antidepressant treatment. Biol Psychiatry 2007;62:407414.
54.Kennedy, SH, Konarski, JZ, Segal, ZVet al. Differences in brain glucose metabolism between responders to CBT and venlafaxine in a 16-week randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry 2007;164:778788.
55.Fu, CH, Williams, SC, Cleare, AJet al. Neural responses to sad facial expressions in major depression following cognitive behavioral therapy. Biol Psychiatry 2008;64:505512.
56.Furmark, T, Tillfors, M, Marteinsdottir, Iet al. Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:425433.
57.Paquette, V, Levesque, J, Mensour, Bet al. “Change the mind and you change the brain”: effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the neural correlates of spider phobia. Neuroimage 2003;18:401409.
58.Straube, T, Glauer, M, Dilger, S, Mentzel, HJ, Miltner, WH.Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on brain activation in specific phobia. Neuroimage 2006;29: 125135.
59.Goossens, L, Sunaert, S, Peeters, R, Griez, EJ, Schruers, KR.Amygdala hyperfunction in phobic fear normalizes after exposure. Biol Psychiatry 2007;62:11191125.
60.Schienle, A, Schafer, A, Hermann, A, Rohrmann, S, Vaitl, D.Symptom provocation and reduction in patients suffering from spider phobia: an fMRI study on exposure therapy. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2007;257: 486493.
61.Prasko, J, Horacek, J, Zalesky, Ret al. The change of regional brain metabolism (18FDG PET) in panic disorder during the treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy or antidepressants. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2004;25:340348.
62.Lindauer, RJ, Gersons, BP, Van Meijel, EPet al. Effects of brief eclectic psychotherapy in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: randomized clinical trial. J Trauma Stress 2005;18:205212.
63.Lansing, K, Amen, DG, Hanks, C, Rudy, L.High-resolution brain SPECT imaging and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in police officers with PTSD. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005;17:526532.
64.Pagani, M, Hogberg, G, Salmaso, Det al. Effects of EMDR psychotherapy on 99mTc-HMPAO distribution in occupation-related post-traumatic stress disorder. Nucl Med Commun 2007;28:757765.
65.Felmingham, K, Kemp, A, Williams, Let al. Changes in anterior cingulate and amygdala after cognitive behavior therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychol Sci 2007;18:127129.
66.Petrovic, P, Kalso, E, Petersson, KM, Ingvar, M.Placebo and opioid analgesia—imaging a shared neuronal network. Science 2002;295:17371740.
67.Wager, TD, Rilling, JK, Smith, EEet al. Placebo-induced changes in FMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain. Science 2004;303:11621167.
68.Petrovic, P, Dietrich, T, Fransson, P, Andersson, J, Carlsson, K, Ingvar, M.Placebo in emotional processing—induced expectations of anxiety relief activate a generalized modulatory network. Neuron 2005;46:957969.
69.Zubieta, JK, Bueller, JA, Jackson, LRet al. Placebo effects mediated by endogenous opioid activity on mu-opioid receptors. J Neurosci 2005;25:77547762.
70.Zubieta, JK, Yau, WY, Scott, DJ, Stohler, CS.Belief or Need? Accounting for individual variations in the neurochemistry of the placebo effect. Brain Behav Immun 2006;20:1526.
71.Pariente, J, White, P, Frackowiak, RS, Lewith, G.Expectancy and belief modulate the neuronal substrates of pain treated by acupuncture. Neuroimage 2005;25:11611167.
72.Kong, J, Gollub, RL, Rosman, ISet al. Brain activity associated with expectancy-enhanced placebo analgesia as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging. J Neurosci 2006;26:381388.
73.Bingel, U, Lorenz, J, Schoell, E, Weiller, C, Buchel, C.Mechanisms of placebo analgesia: rACC recruitment of a subcortical antinociceptive network. Pain 2006;120:815.
74.Nemoto, M, Mito, T, Brinigar, WS, Fronticelli, C, Koehler, RC.Salvage of focal cerebral ischemic damage by transfusion of high O2-affinity recombinant hemoglobin polymers in mouse. J Appl Physiol 2006;100:16881691.
75.Wager, TD, Scott, DJ, Zubieta, JK.Placebo effects on human mu-opioid activity during pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007;104:1105611061.
76.Lieberman, MD, Jarcho, JM, Berman, Set al. The neural correlates of placebo effects: a disruption account. Neuroimage 2004;22:447455.
77.Price, DD, Craggs, J, Verne, GN, Perlstein, WM, Robinson, ME.Placebo analgesia is accompanied by large reductions in pain-related brain activity in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Pain 2007;127:6372.
78.Craggs, JG, Price, DD, Perlstein, WM, Nicholas Verne, G, Robinson, ME.The dynamic mechanisms of placebo induced analgesia: evidence of sustained and transient regional involvement. Pain 2008;139:660669.
79.Mayberg, HS, Silva, JA, Brannan, SKet al. The functional neuroanatomy of the placebo effect. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:728737.
80.Furmark, T, Appel, L, Henningsson, Set al. A link between serotonin-related gene polymorphisms, amygdala activity, and placebo-induced relief from social anxiety. J Neurosci 2008;28:1306613074.
81.Newberg, AB, Iversen, J.The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation: neurotransmitter and neurochemical considerations. Med Hypotheses 2003;61:282291.
82.Van Veen, V, Carter, CS.The anterior cingulate as a conflict monitor: fMRI and ERP studies. Physiol Behav 2002;77:477482.
83.Bush, G, Luu, P, Posner, MI.Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends Cogn Sci 2000;4:215222.
84.Phan, KL, Wager, T, Taylor, SF, Liberzon, I.Functional neuroanatomy of emotion: a meta-analysis of emotion activation studies in PET and fMRI. Neuroimage 2002;16:331348.
85.Creswell, JD, Way, BM, Eisenberger, NI, Lieberman, MD.Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosom Med 2007;69:560565.
86.Baer, RA, Smith, GT, Hopkins, J, Krietemeyer, J, Toney, L.Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment 2006;13:2745.
87.Brown, KW, Ryan, RM.The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well.being. J Pers Soc Psychol 2003;84:822848.
88.Lau, MA, Bishop, SR, Segal, ZVet al. The Toronto mindfulness scale: development and validation. J Clin Psychol 2006;62:14451467.
89.Cohen-Katz, J, Wiley, S, Capuano, T, Baker, D, Shapiro, S.The effects of mindfulness based stress reduction on nurse stress and burnout: a qualitative and quantitative study. Holist Nurs Pract 2005;19:2635.
90.Shapiro, S, Brown, KW, Biegel, G.Teaching self-care to care-givers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Train Educ Prof Psychol 2007;1:105115.
91.Carmody, J, Reed, G, Kristeller, J, Merriam, P.Mindfulness, spirituality, and health-related symptoms. J Psychosom Res 2008;64:393403.
92.Damasio, AR.The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. Iowa city: Harcourt Trade, 1999.
93.Craig, AD.Human feelings: why are some more aware than others? Trends Cogn Sci 2004;8:239241.
94.Panksepp, J.Affective consciousness: core emotional feelings in animals and humans. Conscious Cogn 2005;14:3080.
95.Ruby, P, Decety, J.How would you feel versus how do you think she would feel? A neuroimaging study of perspective-taking with social emotions. J Cogn Neurosci 2004;16:988999.
96.Ochsner, KN, Bunge, SA, Gross, JJ, Gabrieli, JD.Rethinking feelings: an FMRI study of the cognitive regulation of emotion. J Cogn Neurosci 2002;14:12151229.
97.Kalisch, R, Wiech, K, Critchley, HDet al. Anxiety reduction through detachment: subjective, physiological, and neural effects. J Cogn Neurosci 2005;17:874883.
98.Mason, MF, Norton, MI, Van Horn, JD, Wegner, DM, Grafton, ST, Macrae, CN.Wandering minds: the default network and stimulus-independent thought. Science 2007; 315:393395.
99.Brosschot, JF, Gerin, W, Thayer, JF.The perseverative cognition hypothesis: a review of worry, prolonged stress-related physiological activation, and health. J Psychosom Res 2006;60:113124.
100.Clayton, IC, Richards, JC, Edwards, CJ.Selective attention in obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 1999;108:171175.
101.Hofmann, SG.Cognitivefactors that maintain social anxiety disorder: a comprehensive model and its treatment implications. Cogn Behav Ther 2007;36:193209.
102.Borders, A, Barnwell, SS, Earleywine, M.Alcohol-aggression expectancies and dispositional rumination moderate the effect of alcohol consumption on alcohol-related aggression and hostility. Aggress Behav 2007;33:327338.
103.Teasdale, JD, Segal, Z, Williams, JM.How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help? Behav Res Ther 1995;33:2539.
104.Siegle, GJ, Steinhauer, SR, Thase, ME, Stenger, VA, Carter, CS.Can't shake that feeling: event-related fMRI assessment of sustained amygdala activity in response to emotional information in depressed individuals. Biol Psychiatry 2002;51:693707.
105.Kuyken, W, Byford, S, Taylor, RSet al. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent relapse in recurrent depression. J Consult Clin Psychol 2008;76:966978.
106.Kabat-Zinn, J, Massion, AO, Kristeller, Jet al. Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry 1992;149:936943.
107.Miller, JJ, Fletcher, K, Kabat-Zinn, J.Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 1995;17:192200.
108.Koszycki, D, Benger, M, Shlik, J, Bradwejn, J.Randomized trial of a meditation-based stress reduction program and cognitive behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Behav Res Ther 2007;45:25182526.
109.Fairfax, H.The use of mindfulness in obsessive compulsive disorder: suggestions for its application and integration in existing treatment. Clin Psychol Psychother 2008;15:5359.
110.Analayo, . Satipatthana: the direct path to realization. Birmingham: Windhorse Publications, 2003.
111.Kapleau, P.The three pillars of Zen: teaching, practice and enlightenment. Boston: Bacon Press, 1965.
112.Abercrombie, HC, Schaefer, SM, Larson, CLet al. Metabolic rate in the right amygdala predicts negative affect in depressed patients. Neuroreport 1998;9: 33013307.
113.Drevets, WC.Prefrontal cortical-amygdalar metabolism in major depression. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1999;877: 614637.
114.Evans, KC, Wright, CI, Wedig, MM, Gold, AL, Pollack, MH, Rauch, SL.A functional MRI study of amygdala responses to angry schematic faces in social anxiety disorder. Depress Anxiety 2008;25:496505.
115.Eren, I, Tukel, R, Polat, A, Karaman, R, Unal, S.Evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in panic disorder with Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT. Psychiatry Res 2003;123:135143.
116.Davidson, RJ.Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity. Am Psychol 2000;55:11961214.
117.Mayberg, HS.Limbic-cortical dysregulation: a proposed model of depression. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 1997;9:471481.
118.Davidson, RJ.Affective neuroscience and psychophysiology: toward a synthesis. Psychophysiology 2003;40:655665.
119.Siegle, GJ, Thompson, W, Carter, CS, Steinhauer, SR, Thase, ME.Increased amygdala and decreased dorsolateral prefrontal BOLD responses in unipolar depression: related and independent features. Biol Psychiatry 2007;61:198209.
120.Bremner, JD.Neuroimaging studies in post-traumatic stress disorder. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2002;4:254263.
121.Mayberg, HS, Liotti, M, Brannan, SKet al. Reciprocal limbic-cortical function and negative mood: converging PET findings in depression and normal sadness. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:675682.
122.Ochsner, KN, Ray, RD, Cooper, JCet al. For better or for worse: neural systems supporting the cognitive down- and up-regulation of negative emotion. Neuroimage 2004;23:483499.
123.Ray, JP, Price, JL.The organization of projections from the mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol 1993;337:131.
124.Ghashghaei, HT, Barbas, H.Pathways for emotion: interactions of prefrontal and anterior temporal pathways in the amygdala of the rhesus monkey. Neuroscience 2002;115:12611279.
125.Lazar, SW, Kerr, CE, Wasserman, RHet al. Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport 2005;16:18931897.
126.Holzel, BK, Ott, U, Gard, Tet al. Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners woth voxel-based morphometry. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2008;3:5561.
127.Pagnoni, G, Cekic, M.Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation. Neurobiol Aging 2007;28:16231627.
128.Recanzone, GH, Merzenich, MM, Jenkins, WM, Grajski, KA, Dinse, HR.Topographic reorganization of the hand representation in cortical area 3b owl monkeys trained in a frequency-discrimination task. J Neurophysiol 1992;67:10311056.
129.Bao, S, Chang, EF, Woods, J, Merzenich, MM.Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci 2004;7:974981.
130.Bangert, M, Altenmuller, EO.Mapping perception to action in piano practice: a longitudinal DC-EEG study. BMC Neurosci 2003;4:2639.
131.Baer, RA.Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clin Psychol Sci Pract 2003;10:125143.
132.Linden, DE.How psychotherapy changes the brain—the contribution of functional neuroimaging. Mol Psychiatry 2006;11:528538.
133.Roffman, JL, Marci, CD, Glick, DM, Dougherty, DD, Rauch, SL.Neuroimaging and the functional neuroanatomy of psychotherapy. Psychol Med 2005;35:13851398.
134.Ivanovski, B, Malhi, GS.The psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness forms of meditation. Acta neuropsychiatrica 2007;19:7691.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Acta Neuropsychiatrica
  • ISSN: 0924-2708
  • EISSN: 1601-5215
  • URL: /core/journals/acta-neuropsychiatrica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed