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The psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness forms of meditation

  • Belinda Ivanovski (a1) (a2) and Gin S. Malhi (a3) (a4)
<span class='bold'>Objective:</span>

To provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the psychological and neurophysiological literature pertaining to mindfulness meditation.

<span class='bold'>Methods:</span>

A search for papers in English was undertaken using PsycINFO (from 1804 onward), MedLine (from 1966 onward) and the Cochrane Library with the following search terms: Vipassana, Mindfulness, Meditation, Zen, Insight, EEG, ERP, fMRI, neuroimaging and intervention. In addition, retrieved papers and reports known to the authors were also reviewed for additional relevant literature.

<span class='bold'>Results:</span>

Mindfulness-based therapeutic interventions appear to be effective in the treatment of depression, anxiety, psychosis, borderline personality disorder and suicidal/self-harm behaviour. Mindfulness meditation per se is effective in reducing substance use and recidivism rates in incarcerated populations but has not been specifically investigated in populations with psychiatric disorders. Electroencephalography research suggests increased alpha, theta and beta activity in frontal and posterior regions, some gamma band effects, with theta activity strongly related to level of experience of meditation; however, these findings have not been consistent. The few neuroimaging studies that have been conducted suggest volumetric and functional change in key brain regions.

<span class='bold'>Conclusions:</span>

Preliminary findings from treatment outcome studies provide support for the application of mindfulness-based interventions in the treatment of affective, anxiety and personality disorders. However, direct evidence for the effectiveness of mindfulness meditation per se in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is needed. Current neurophysiological and imaging research findings have identified neural changes in association with meditation and provide a potentially promising avenue for future research.

Corresponding author
Belinda Ivanovski, Black Dog Institute Building, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hospital Road, Randwick, NSW 2031 Australia. Tel: ++61 2 9382 2997; Fax: ++61 2 9382 8208; E-mail:
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