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Reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale

  • Miyuki Tajima (a1) (a2), Tsuyoshi Akiyama (a2), Hatsue Numa (a2) (a3), Yoshiya Kawamura (a4), Yoshie Okada (a2) (a5), Yoshie Sakai (a2) (a6), Yuko Miyake (a7), Yutaka Ono (a8) and M. J. Power (a9)...

The 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS-24) is a short version of the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which is a self-report inventory for depressogenic schemata.


The object of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the DAS-24 (DAS-24-J).


Subjects consisted of non-clinical sample 1 (248 university students), non-clinical sample 2 (872 Japanese company employees) and a clinical sample (59 depressed out-patients).


Internal consistency was satisfactory in all three samples, Cronbach’s α coefficient being higher than 0.85. Test–retest reliability was satisfactory in non-clinical sample 1. The interclass correlation coefficient was 0.79 and there was no significant difference in the average score of DAS-24-J between the two points. The DAS-24-J showed satisfactory concurrent validity with the Japanese Irrational Belief Test-20 (r= 0.76); Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire – Revised total (r= 0.46), negative (r= 0.53) and positive (r=−0.41); and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r= 0.44 for non-clinical sample, r= 0.63 for clinical sample). The clinical sample showed a significantly higher DAS-24-J score than non-clinical sample 2. According to a factor analysis combining all three samples, three factors were extracted: factor 1 (11 items) corresponded with ‘achievement’ in the original version, factor 2 (6 items) with ‘self-control’ and factor 3 (5 items) with ‘dependency’.


The DAS-24-J is a reliable and valid instrument to measure depressogenic schemata in Japanese.

Corresponding author
Miyuki Tajima, Stress Management Office, Keio University, Shinanomachi 35, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan. Tel: 81-3-5363-3214; Fax: 81-3-5363-3215; E-mail:
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Acta Neuropsychiatrica
  • ISSN: 0924-2708
  • EISSN: 1601-5215
  • URL: /core/journals/acta-neuropsychiatrica
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