Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

How to Use Replication Assignments for Teaching Integrity in Empirical Archaeology

  • Ben Marwick (a1), Li-Ying Wang (a1), Ryan Robinson (a1) and Hope Loiselle (a1)

Abstract

The value of new archaeological knowledge is strongly determined by how credible it is, and a key measure of scientific credibility is how replicable new results are. However, few archaeologists learn the skills necessary to conduct replication as part of their training. This means there is a gap between the ideals of archaeological science and the skills we teach future researchers. Here we argue for replications as a core type of class assignment in archaeology courses to close this gap and establish a culture of replication and reproducibility. We review replication assignments in other fields and describe how to implement a replication assignment suitable for many types of archaeology programs. We describe our experience with replication in an upper-level undergraduate class on stone artifact analysis. Replication assignments can help archaeology programs give students the skills that enable transparent and reproducible research.

El valor de los nuevos conocimientos arqueológicos está fuertemente determinado por su credibilidad, y una medida clave de la credibilidad científica es cuán replicables son los nuevos resultados. Sin embargo, pocos arqueólogos aprenden las habilidades necesarias para llevar a cabo la replicación como parte de su entrenamiento. Esto significa que existe una brecha entre los ideales de la ciencia arqueológica y las habilidades que enseñamos a los futuros investigadores. Aquí defendemos las repeticiones como un tipo central de asignación de clase en los cursos de arqueología para cerrar esta brecha y establecer una cultura de replicación y reproducibilidad. Revisamos las asignaciones de replicación en otros campos y describimos cómo implementar una asignación de replicación adecuada para muchos tipos de programas de arqueología. Describimos nuestra experiencia con la replicación en una clase de pregrado de nivel superior en análisis de artefactos de piedra. Las asignaciones de replicación pueden ayudar a los programas de arqueología a proporcionar a los estudiantes habilidades que permiten una investigación transparente y reproducible.

Copyright

Corresponding author

(bmarwick@uw.edu, corresponding author)

References

Hide All
Ball, Richard, and Medeiros, Norm 2012 Teaching Integrity in Empirical Research: A Protocol for Documenting Data Management and Analysis. Journal of Economic Education 43: 182–89. DOI:10.1080/00220485.2012.659647.
Barba, Lorena A. 2018 Terminologies for Reproducible Research. arXiv Preprint. arXiv:1802.03311. Retrieved from , accessed September 25, 2019.
Baumer, Ben, Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine, Bray, Andrew, Loi, Linda, and Horton, Nicholas J. 2014 R Markdown: Integrating a Reproducible Analysis Tool into Introductory Statistics. Technology Innovations in Statistics Education 8(1). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/90b2f5xh, accessed October 16, 2019.
Bicho, Nuno, and Cascalheira, João 2020 The Use of Lithic Assemblages for the Definition of Short-Term Occupations in Hunter-Gatherer Prehistory. In Short-Term Occupations in Paleolithic Archaeology: Definition and Interpretation, edited by Picin, Andrea and Cascalheira, João, in press. Springer, Basel, Switzerland. DOI:10.31235/osf.io/3wgsa.
Breslawski, Ryan P., Etter, Bonnie L., Jorgeson, Ian, and Boulanger, Matthew T. 2018 The Atlatl to Bow Transition: What Can We Learn from Modern Recreational Competitions? Lithic Technology 43:2637. DOI:10.1080/01977261.2017.1416918.
Çetinkaya-Rundel, Mine, and Rundel, Colin 2018 Infrastructure and Tools for Teaching Computing Throughout the Statistical Curriculum. American Statistician 72:5865.
Collins, Harry 1992 Changing Order: Replication and Induction in Scientific Practice. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Dvorak, Tomas, Halliday, Simon D., O'Hara, Michael, and Swoboda, Aaron 2019 Efficient Empiricism: Streamlining Teaching, Research, and Learning in Empirical Courses. Journal of Economic Education 50:242257.
Frank, Michael C., and Saxe, Rebecca 2012 Teaching Replication. Perspectives on Psychological Science 7:600604.
Hawkins, Robert X. D., Smith, Eric N., Au, Carolyn, Arias, Juan Miguel, Catapano, Rhia, Hermann, Eric, Keil, Martin, Lampinen, Andrew, Raposo, Sarah, Reynolds, Jesse, Salehi, Shima, Salloum, Justin, Tan, Jed, and Frank, Michael C. 2018 Improving the Replicability of Psychological Science through Pedagogy. Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science 1:718.
Höffler, Jan H. 2013 Teaching Replication in Quantitative Empirical Economics. Paper presented at The Economics Curriculum: Towards a Radical Reformation, a conference from the World Economics Association, May 3–June 14.
Höffler, Jan H. 2017 ReplicationWiki: Improving Transparency in Social Sciences Research. D-Lib Magazine 23(3/4). DOI:10.1045/march2017-hoeffler.
Janz, Nicole 2016 Bringing the Gold Standard into the Classroom: Replication in University Teaching. International Studies Perspectives 17:392407.
Jern, Alan 2018 A Preliminary Study of the Educational Benefits of Conducting Replications in the Classroom. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology 4(1):6468.
Marwick, Ben 2013 Multiple Optima in Hoabinhian Flaked Stone Artefact Palaeoeconomics and Palaeoecology at Two Archaeological Sites in Northwest Thailand. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 32:553564. DOI:10.1016/j.jaa.2013.08.004.
Marwick, Ben 2017 Computational Reproducibility in Archaeological Research: Basic Principles and a Case Study of Their Implementation. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 24:424450. DOI:10.1007/s10816-015-9272-9.
Marwick, Ben, Boettiger, Carl, and Mullen, Lincoln 2018 Packaging Data Analytical Work Reproducibly Using R (and Friends). American Statistician 72:8088.
Marwick, Ben, Clarkson, Chris, O'Connor, Sue, and Collins, Sophie 2016 Early Modern Human Lithic Technology from Jerimalai, East Timor. Journal of Human Evolution 101:4564.
Marwick, Ben, d'Alpoim Guedes, Jade, Michael Barton, C., Bates, Lynsey A, Baxter, Michael, Bevan, Andrew, Bollwerk, Elizabeth A, Bocinsky, Kyle, Brughams, Tom, Carter, Alison, Conrad, Cyler, Contreras, Daniel, Costa, Stephan, Crema, Enrico, Daggett, Andrea, Davies, Ben, Drake, Lee, Dye, Thomas, France, Phoebe, Fullager, Richard, Giusti, Domenico, Graham, Shaun, Harris, Matt, Hawks, John, Heath, Sebastian, Huffer, Damien, Kansa, Eric, Kansa, Sarah, Madsen, Mark, Melcher, Jennifer, Negre, Joan, Neiman, Fraser, Opitz, Rachel, Orton, David, Przystupa, Paulina, Raviele, Maria, Riel-Salvatore, Julien, Riris, Phil, Romanowska, Iza, Smith, Joelene, Strupler, Néhémie, Ullah, Isaac, Vlack, Hannah, VanValkenberg, Parker, Watrall, Ethan, Webster, Chris, Wells, Joshua, Winters, Judith, and Wren, Colin 2017 Open Science in Archaeology. SAA Archaeological Record 17(4):814.
Millman, K. Jarrod, Brett, Matthew, Barnowski, Ross, and Poline, Jean-Baptiste 2018 Teaching Computational Reproducibility for Neuroimaging. Frontiers in Neuroscience 12. DOI:10.3389/fnins.2018.00727.
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine 2019 Reproducibility and Replicability in Science. National Academies Press, Washington, DC. DOI:10.17226/25303.
Nosek, Brian A., Alter, George, Banks, George C., Borsboom, Denny, Bowman, Sara D., Breckler, Steven J., Buck, Stuart et al. 2015 Promoting an Open Research Culture. Science 348(6242):14221425.
Perkel, Jeffrey M. 2017 How Scientists Use Slack. Nature News 541(7635):123.
R Core Team 2019 R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/, accessed October 16, 2019.
Roettger, Timo B., and Baer-Henney, Dinah 2018 Towards a Replication Culture in Phonetic Research: Speech Production Research in the Classroom. PsyArXiv Preprint. DOI:10.31234/osf.io/q9t7c.
Schmidt, Sophie C., and Marwick, Ben 2019 Tool-Driven Revolutions in Archaeological Science. SocArXiv Preprint. DOI:10.31235/osf.io/4nkxv.
Spearman, Charles 1904 The Proof and Measurement of Association between Two Things. American Journal of Psychology 15:72101.
Standing, Lionel G., Grenier, Manuel, Lane, Erica A., Roberts, Meigan S., and Sykes, Sarah J. 2014 Using Replication Projects in Teaching Research Methods. Psychology Teaching Review 20(1):96104.
Toelch, Ulf, and Ostwald, Dirk 2018 Digital Open Science—Teaching Digital Tools for Reproducible and Transparent Research. PLoS Biology 16(7):e2006022. DOI:10.1371/journal.pbio.2006022.
Wessa, Patrick 2009 How Reproducible Research Leads to Non-Rote Learning within Socially Constructivist Statistics Education. Electronic Journal of e-Learning 7:173182.
Xie, Yihui, Allaire, Joseph J., and Grolemund, Garrett 2018 R Markdown: The Definitive Guide. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Yan, Lisa, and McKeown, Nick 2017 Learning Networking by Reproducing Research Results. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review 47(2):1926.

Keywords

How to Use Replication Assignments for Teaching Integrity in Empirical Archaeology

  • Ben Marwick (a1), Li-Ying Wang (a1), Ryan Robinson (a1) and Hope Loiselle (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed