Alexander, R, Cooray, S (2003) Diagnosis of personality disorders in learning disability. British Journal of Psychiatry; 182 (suppl 44): s28–31.
American Psychiatric Association (1980) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn) (DSM–III). APA.
American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn) (DSM–IV). APA.
Bennett, L (2006) Community mental health teams and the assessment of personality functioning. In Personality Disorder and Community Mental Health Teams: A Practitioner's Guide (eds Sampson, MJ, McCubbin, RA, Tyrer, P) John Wiley & Sons.
Blair, RJR (2003) Neurobiological basis of psychopathy. British Journal of Psychiatry; 182: 5–7.
Butcher, JN, Dahlstrom, WG, Graham, JR et al (1989) Manual for the Restandardized Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: MMPI–2. University of Minnesota Press.
Clark, LA (1990) Toward a consensual set of symptom clusters for assessment of personality disorder. In Advances in Personality Assessment, Vol. 8 (eds Butcher, J, Spielberger, C) 243–66. Erlbaum.
Clark, L, Harrison, J (2001) Assessment instruments. In Handbook of Personality Disorders Theory Research and Treatment (ed Livesley, WJ) 277–306. Guilford Press.
Cleckley, H (1976) The Mask of Sanity (5th edn). Mosby.
Coid, J, Yang, M, Tyrer, P et al (2006a) Prevalence and correlates of personality disorder in Great Britain. British Journal of Psychiatry; 188: 423–31.
Coid, J, Yang, M, Roberts, A et al (2006b) Violence and psychiatric morbidity in the national household population of Britain: public health implications. British Journal of Psychiatry; 189: 12–9.
Department of Health, Home Office, HM Prison Service (2004) Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) High Security Services: Planning and Delivery Guide. Home Office.
Dolan, B, Evans, C, Norton, K (1995) Multiple axis-II diagnoses of personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry; 166: 107–12.
Dowsett, J, Craissati, J (2007) Managing Personality Disordered Offenders in the Community: A Psychological Approach. Routledge.
Doyle, M, Dolan, B (2006) Predicting community violence from patients discharged from mental health services. British Journal of Psychiatry; 189: 520–6.
Eysenck, HJ, Eysenck, SBG (1975) Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Hodder & Stoughton.
Feeney, A (2003) Dangerous severe personality disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment; 9: 349–58.
First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW et al (1997) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Axis I Disorders (SCID–I). American Psychiatric Association.
Hare, RD (2003) The Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (2nd edn). Multi-Health Systems.
Harris, EC, Barraclough, B (1998) Excess mortality of mental disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry; 173: 11–53.
Harris, GT, Rice, MT, Cormier, CA (1991) Psychopathy and violent recidivism. Law and Human Behaviour; 15: 625–37.
Hart, SD (1998) Psychopathy and risk for violence. In Psychopathy: Theory, Research and Implications for Society (eds Cooke, D, Forth, AE, Hare, RD) Kluwer.
Hunt, C, Andrews, G (1992) Measuring personality disorder: the use of self-report questionnaires. Journal of Personality Disorders; 6: 125–33.
Howells, K, Day, A (2007) Readiness for treatment in high risk offenders with personality disorders. Psychology, Crime and Law; 13: 47–56.
Hyler, SE (1994) Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire–4 (PDQ–4). New York Psychiatric Institute.
Livesley, J (ed) (2001) Handbook of Personality Disorders: Theory, Research and Treatment. Guilford Publications.
Loranger, AW, Sartorius, N, Andreoli, A et al (1994) The International Personality Disorder Examination. The World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration international pilot study of personality disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry; 51: 215–24.
Maden, A (2007) Treating Violence – A Guide to Risk Management in Mental Health. Oxford University Press.
Mann, AH, Jenkins, R, Cutting, JC et al (1981) The development and use of standardized assessment of abnormal personality. Psychological Medicine; 11: 839–47.
Mason, J (2007) Personality assessment in offenders with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Forensic Practice; 9: 31–9.
McCrae, RM, John, OP (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality; 60: 175–215.
McMurran, M, Theodosi, E (2007) Is offender treatment non-completion associated with increased reconviction over no treatment?
Psychology, Crime and Law; 13: 333–43.
Millon, T, Davis, RD (1997) The MCMI–III: present and future directions. Journal of Personality Assessment; 68: 69–85.
Milton, J (2000) A postal survey of the assessment procedure for personality disorder in forensic settings. Psychiatric Bulletin; 24: 254–7.
Moran, P (2002) The Epidemiology of Personality Disorders. Department of Health.
Moran, P, Walsh, E, Tyrer, P et al (2003) Impact of comorbid personality disorder on violence in psychosis. Report form the UK700 trial. British Journal of Psychiatry; 182: 129–34.
Morey, LC (1991) Personality Assessment Inventory – Professional Manual. Psychological Assessment Resources.
Morgan, CD, Murray, HA (1935) A method for investigating fantasies: the Thematic Apperception Test. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry; 34: 298–306.
Morris, A, Gibbon, S, Duggan, C (2007) Sentenced to hospital – a cause for concern?
Personality and Mental Health; 1: 74–9.
National Institute for Mental Health in England (2003) Personality Disorder: No Longer a Diagnosis of Exclusion. Department of Health.
Newton-Howes, G, Tyrer, P, Johnston, T (2006) Personality disorder and the outcome of depression: meta-analysis of published studies. British Journal of Psychiatry; 188: 13–20.
Pfohl, B, Blum, N, Zimmerman, M (1997) Structured Interview for DSM–IV Personality (SIDP–IV). American Psychiatric Press.
Reed, J (1994) Report of the Department of Health and Home Office Working Group on Psychopathic Disorder. Home Office.
Rorschach, H (1964) Psychodiagnostics. Grune & Stratton.
Singleton, N, Meltzer, H, Gatward, R (1998) Psychiatric Morbidity among Prisoners in England and Wales: A Survey Carried out in 1997 by the Social Survey Division of ONS on Behalf of the Department of Health. TSO (The Stationery Office).
Skodol, AE, Gunderson, JG, Shea, TM et al (2005) The collaborative longitudinal personality disorders study (CLPS): overview and implications. Journal of Personality Disorders; 19: 487–504.
Stone, MH (1993) Long-term outcome in personality disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry; 162: 299–313.
Tyrer, P, Alexander, MS, Cicchetti, D et al (1979) Reliability of a schedule for rating personality disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry; 135: 168–74.
Tyrer, P, Strauss, J, Ciccheti, D (1983) Temporal reliability of personality in psychiatric patients. Psychological Medicine; 13: 393–8.
Tyrer, P, Cicchetti, D, Casey, P et al (1984) Cross-national reliability of a schedule for assessing personality disorders. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases; 172: 718–21.
Tyrer, P, Johnson, T (1996) Establishing the severity of personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry; 153: 1593–7.
Tyrer, P, Seivewright, H (2000) Outcome of personality disorder. In Personality Disorders: Diagnosis, Management, and Course (2nd edn) (ed Tyrer, P) 105–25: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Tyrer, P, Simmonds, S (2003) Treatment models for those with severe mental illness and comorbid personality disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry; 182 (suppl 44): s15–8.
Webster, CD, Douglas, KS, Eaves, D et al (1997) HCR–20. Assessing Risk for Violence, Version 2. Mental Health, Law and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.
Widiger, TA, Mangine, S, Corbitt, EM et al (1995) Personality Disorder Interview–IV: A Semistructured interview for the Assessment of Personality Disorders. Psychological Assessment Resources.
World Health Organization (1992) International Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems – Tenth Revision (ICD–10). WHO.
World Health Organization (1995) International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE Manual). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Zanarini, MC, Frankenburg, FR, Sickel, AE et al (1996) The Diagnostic Interview for DSM–IV Personality Disorders (DIPD–IV). McLean Hospital.