Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Essential fatty acids: theoretical aspects and treatment implications for schizophrenia and depression

  • Malcolm Peet

Extract

Almost all current research into developing new pharmacological treatment for depression and schizophrenia is focused directly on modulating neurotransmitter receptors in the brain. This approach was stimulated by the chance discovery of the prototype psychotropic drugs such as chlorpromazine and imipramine and the subsequent development of hypotheses based on the presumed mode of action of these drugs. Even clozapine was first introduced as yet another dopamine receptor blocker, and it was only after it was recognised that clozapine shows improved efficacy that hypotheses were developed as to its possible mode of action. Subsequent research based on the receptor approach has led to improved side-effect profiles for modern psychotropic agents, but has not resulted in any improvement of efficacy over and above that of the drugs discovered by good fortune rather than by hypotheses.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Essential fatty acids: theoretical aspects and treatment implications for schizophrenia and depression
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Essential fatty acids: theoretical aspects and treatment implications for schizophrenia and depression
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Essential fatty acids: theoretical aspects and treatment implications for schizophrenia and depression
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Christensen, O. & Christensen, E. (1988) Fat consumption and schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 78, 587591.
Connor, W. E., De Francesco, C. A. & Connor, S. L. (1993) N3 fatty acids from fish oil. Effects on plasma lipoproteins and hypertriglyceridemic patients. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 683, 1634.
Edwards, R., Peet, M., Shay, J. et al (1998) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in the diet and in red blood cell membranes of depressed patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 48, 149155.
Emsley, R. A., Myburgh, C. C., Oosthuizen, P. P. et al (2002) Omega-3 fatty acid and schizophrenia: a randomised trial of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid (ethyl-EPA) versus placebo as add-on treatment. Schizophrenia Research, 53, 9.
* Fenton, W. S., Hibbeln, J. & Knable, M. (2000) Essential fatty acids, lipid membrane abnormalities, and the diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 821.
Fenton, W. S., Dickerson, F., Boronow, J. et al (2001) A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 20712074.
Henderson, D. C., Cagliero, E., Gray, C. et al (2000) Clozapine, diabetes mellitus, weight gain and lipid abnormalities: a five year naturalistic study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 975981.
* Hibbeln, J. R. (1998) Fish consumption and major depression. Lancet, 352, 7172.
Hibbeln, J. R. (2002) Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mother's milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders, in press.
Kay, S. R., Fiszbein, A & Opler, L. A. (1987) The positive and negavite syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 261276.
Keshavan, M. S., Stanley, J. A. & Pettegrew, J. W. (2000) Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in schizophrenia: methodological issues and findings – Part II. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 369380.
Marangell, L. B., Zboyan, H. A., Cress, K. K. et al (2000) A double-blind placebo-controlled study of decosahaexanoic acid in the treatment of depression. Inform, 11, S78.
Mellor, J. E., Laugharne, J. D. & Peet, M. (1995) Schizophrenic symptoms and dietary intake of n3 fatty acids. Schizophrenia Research, 18, 8586.
Nemets, B., Stahl, Z. & Belmaker, R. H. (2002) Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 477479.
Oken, R. J. & Schulzer, M. (1999) At issue: schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis: the negative association revisited. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 25, 625638.
Peet, M. & Horrobin, D. F. (2001) A dose-ranging study of ethyl-eicosapentonoate in treatment-unresponsive depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 15 (Suppl.), A12.
Peet, M. & Horrobin, D. F. (2002) A dose-ranging exploratory study of the effects of ethyl-eicosaepentonate in patients with persistent schizophrenic symptoms. Journal of Pyschiatric Research, 36, 718.
Peet, M., Laugharne, J. D., Horrobin, D. F. et al (1994) Arachidonic acid: a common link in the biology of schizophrenia? Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 665666.
Peet, M., Laugharne, J. D., Rangarajan, N. et al (1995) Depleted red cell membrane essential fatty acids in drug treated schizophrenic patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 29, 227232.
* Peet, M., Brind, J., Ramchand, C. N. et al (2001) Two double blind placebo-controlled pilot studies of eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 49, 243251.
Penninx, B. W., Beekman, A. T., Horig, A. et al (2001) Depression and cardiac mortality: results from a community based longitudinal study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 229230.
Puri, B. K., Richardson, A. J., Horrobin, D. F. et al (2000) Eicosapentaenoic acid treatment in schizophrenia associated with symptom remission, normalisation of blood fatty acids, reduced neural membrane phospholipid turnover and structural brain changes. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 54, 5763.
Ross, B. M., Turenne, S., Mosczynska, A. et al (1999) Differential alteration of phospholipase A2 activities in brains of patients with schizophrenia. Brain Research, 821, 407413.
Scully, D., Kremer, J., Meade, M. M. et al (1998) Physical exercise and psychological well-being: a critical review. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 32, 111120.
* Stoll, A. L., Severus, W. E., Freeman, M. P. et al (1999) Omega-3 fatty acids in bipolar disorder: a preliminary double blind, placebo controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 407412.
Su, K. P., Shen, W. W. & Huang, S. Y. (2001) Omega-3 fatty acids as a psychotherapeutic agent for a pregnant schizophrenic patient. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 11, 295299.
Tanskanen, A., Hibbeln, J. R., Tuomilehto, J. et al (2001) Fish consumption and depressive symptoms in the general population in Finland. Psychiatric Services, 52, 529531.
Taylor, D., McConnell, H., Duncan-McConnell, D. et al (2001) The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust 2001 Prescribing Guidelines. London: Martin Dunitz.
* Ward, P. E., Sutherland, J., Glenn, E. M. et al (1998) Niacin skin flush in schizophrenia: a preliminary report. Schizophrenia Research, 29, 269274.
Warner, R., Laugharne, J., Peet, M. et al (1999) Retinal function as a marker for cell membrane omega-3 fatty acid depletion in schizophrenia: a pilot study. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 11381142.

Essential fatty acids: theoretical aspects and treatment implications for schizophrenia and depression

  • Malcolm Peet

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Essential fatty acids: theoretical aspects and treatment implications for schizophrenia and depression

  • Malcolm Peet
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *