Anonymous (1999) Nicotine replacement to aid smoking cessation. Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin, 37, 52–54.
Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry (2000) ABPI Data Sheet Compendium 1999/2000. London: ABPI.
Asher, J. A., Coles, J. O. & Colin, J.-N. (1995) Bupropion: a review of its antidepressant activity. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 56, 395–401.
Benowitz, N. L. (1988) Pharmacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1318–1330.
Benowitz, N. L. (1998) Nicotine Safety and Toxicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Benowitz, N. L. & Gourlay, S.G.G. (1997) Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: implications for nicotine replacement therapy.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 29, 1422–1431.
Callum, C. (1998) The Smoking Epidemic. London: Health Education Authority.
Goldberg, S. R., Spealman, R. D. & Goldberg, D. M. (1981) Persistent behaviour at high rates maintained by intravenous self-administration of nicotine. Science, 214, 573–575.
Hajek, P., Belcher, M. & Stapleton, J. (1985) Enhancing the impact of groups. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 289–294.
Henningfield, J. E. (1984) Behavioural pharmacology of cigarette smoking. In Advances in Behavioural Pharmacology (eds Thompson, T., Dews, P. B. & Barrett, J. E.) pp. 131–210. New York: Academic Press.
Hughes, J. R. (1989) Dependence potential and abuse liability of nicotine replacement therapies. Biomedical Pharmacotherapy, 43, 11–17.
Hughes, J. R. (1992) Tobacco withdrawal in self-quitters. Journal of Consulting Clinical Psychology, 60, 689–697.
Hughes, J. R., Higgins, S. T. & Bickel, W. K. (1994) Nicotine withdrawal versus other drug withdrawal syndromes. Addiction, 89, 1461–1470.
Hughes, J. R., Goldstein, M. G., Hurt, R. D.
et al (1999) Recent advances in pharmacotherapy of smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 72–76.
Jorenby, D. E., Leischow, S. J. & Mides, M. A. (1999) A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 685–691.
Lando, H. A., Rolnick, S., Klevan, D.
et al (1997) Telephone support as an adjunct to transdermal nicotine in smoking cessation. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 1670–1674.
Oates, J. A. & Wood, A. J. J. (1988) Pharmacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. New England Journal of Medicine, 319, 1318–1330.
Office for National Statistics (2000) Results from the 1999 General Household Survey. London: HMSO.
Parrott, S., Godfrey, C., Raw, M.
et al (1998) Guidance for commissioners on the cost effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions. Thorax, 53 (suppl. 5), S2–S37.
Peto, R., Lopez, A. D. & Boreham, J. (1994) Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries, 1950–2000. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Raw, M., McNeill, A. & West, R. (1998) Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals – a guide to effective smoking cessation interventions for the health care system. Thorax, 53 (suppl. 5), S1–S18.
Rosentien, D. L., Nelson, C. & Jacobs, S. C. (1993) Seizures associated with anti-depressants. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54, 289–296.
Russell, M. A. H. (1986) Conceptual framework for nicotine substitution. In The Pharmacologic Treatment of Tobacco Dependence (ed. Ockene, J. K.) pp. 90–107. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stolerman, I. P. & Jarvis, M. J. (1995) The scientific case that nicotine is addictive. Psychopharmacology, 117, 2–10.
Swedberg, M. D. B., Henningfield, J. E. & Goldberg, S. R. (1990) Nicotine dependency: animal studies. In Nicotine Psychopharmacology: Molecular, Cellular and Behavioural Aspects (eds Wonnacott, S., Russell, M. A. H. & Stolerman, I. P.) pp. 38–76. Oxford: Oxford Science Publications.
West, R., McNeill, A. & Raw, M. (2000) Smoking cessation guidelines for health professionals. Thorax, 55, 987–999.
World Health Organization (1992) The ICD–10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disoders. Geneva: WHO.