Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Low Reynolds number proprotor aerodynamic performance improvement using the continuous surface curvature design approach

  • E. J. Avital (a1), T. Korakianitis (a2) and F. Motallebi (a3)
Abstract

Low Reynolds number blade profiles of ReC=105–2×105 as based on the chord length and used for small unnamed air vehicles, and near space applications are investigated for single and counter-rotating (co-axial) proprotors, i.e. acting as rotors or propellers. Such profiles are prone for early stall, significantly reducing their maximum lift to drag ratio. Two profiles previously designed by our continuous surface curvature design approach named as CIRCLE are investigated in order to improve the performance of the proprotors. The profiles are redesigns of the common symmetric NACA0012 and asymmetric E387 profiles. Using general arguments based on composite efficiency and rotor’s lift to drag ratio, the performance envelope is noticeably increased when using the redesigned profiles for high angles of attack due to stall delay.

A new approach is derived to account for the distance between the rotors of a co-axial proprotor. It is coupled with a blade element method and is verified against experimental results. Single and co-axial CIRCLE-based proprotors are investigated against the corresponding non-CIRCLE-based proprotors at hover and axial translation. Noticeable improvements are observed in thrust increase and power reduction at high angles of attack of the blade’s profiles, particularly for the co-axial configuration. Plots of thrust, torque, power, composite efficiency and aerodynamic efficiency distributions are given and analysed.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Footnotes
Hide All

Fellow of the Royal Aeronautical Society.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1. Mueller, T.J. and DeLaurier, J.D. Aerodynamics of small vehicles, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 2003, 35, pp 89-111.
2. Shen, X., Avital, E., Rezaienia, M.A., Paul, G. and Korakianitis, T. Computational methods for investigation of surface curvature effects on airfoil boundary layer behavior, J Algorithms & Computational Technology, 2017, 11, (1): 68-82.
3. Shen, X., Avital, E., Paul, G., Rezaienia, M.A., Wen, P. and Korakianitis, T. Experimental study of surface curvature effects on aerodynamics of low Reynolds number airfoil for small wind turbines, J Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 2017, 8, (5), p 053303.
4. Korakianitis, T., Hamakham, I.A., Rezaienia, M.A., Wheeler, A.P.S., Avital, E.J. and Williams, J.J.R. Design of high-efficiency turbomachinery blades for energy conversion devices with three-dimensional prescribed surface curvature distribution blade design (CIRCLE) method, Applied Energy, 2012, 89, pp 215-227.
5. Shen, X., Avital, E., Zhao, Q., Gao, J., Li, X., Paul, G. and Korakianitis, T. Surface curvature effects on the tonal noise performance of a low Reynolds number aerofoil, Applied Acoustics, 2017, 125, pp 34-40.
6. Zhang, S., Yang, X., Song, B. and Song, W. Aerodynamic design of a novel low-Reynolds-number airfoil for near space propellers, Proceedings of the 2015 Asian-Pacific Conference Aero Tech Sci, Jeju Korea, pp 603–607.
7. Wald, Q. The aerodynamics of propellers, Progress in Aerosp Sciences, 2006, 42, pp 85-128.
8. Gur, O. and Rosen, A. Comparison between blade-element models of propellers, Aero J, 2008, 112, (1138): 689-704.
9. Bai, X., Avital, E.J., Munjiza, A. and Williams, J.J.R. Numerical simulation of a marine current turbine in free surface flow, Renewable Energy, 2014, 63, pp 715-723.
10. Playle, S.C., Korkan, K.D. and Lavante, A. Numerical method for the design and analysis of counter-rotating propellers, AIAA J Propulsion, 1986, 2, (1): 57-63.
11. Leishman, J.D. Aerodynamic performance considerations in the design of a coaxial proprotor, J the American Helicopter Society, 2009, 54, p 012005.
12. Beaumier, P. A low-order method for co-axial propeller and rotor performance prediction, ICAS 2014 St Petersbourg, hal-0107955.
13. Juhasz, O., Syal, M., Celi, R., Khromov, V., Rand, O., Ruzicka, G.C. and Strawn, R.C. Comparison of three coaxial aerodynamic prediction methods including validation with model test data, J American Helicopter Society, 2014, 59, p 032006.
14. McCormick, B.W. Aerodynamics of V/STOL Flight. Dover Publications, Mineola, New York; 1999, pp 79–92, 96-97.
15. Hough, G.R. and Ordway, D.E. The Generalized Actuator Disk, 1964, TAR-TR 6401.
16. Morgado, J., Silvestre, A.R. and Pascoa, A. Comparison of post-stall models extended for propeller performance prediction, Aircraft Engineering and Aerosp Technology. An Int J, 2016, 88, (4): 540-549.
17. Spalart, P.R. On the simple actuator disk, J Fluid Mechcanics, 2003, 494, pp 399-405.
18. Dumitrescu, H. and Cardos, V. A stall-delay model for rotating blades, Proceedings of the Applied Mathematical Methods, 2007, 7, p 4100003.
19. Stepniewski, W.Z. and Keys, C.N. Rotary-wing aerodynamics. Dover Pub, New York; 1984: 350-355.
20. Tangler & Kocurek, Wind turbine post-stall airfoil performance characteristics guidelines for BEM methods, 2004, NREL/CP-500-36900.
21. Harrington, R.D. Full-scale-tunnel investigation of the static-thrust performance of a coaxial helicopter rotor, 1951, NACA TN2318.
22. Sheldahl, R.E. and Kilmas, P.C. Aerodynamic characteristics of seven symmetrical airfoil sections through 180-degree angle for use in aerodynamic analysis of vertical axis wind turbines, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, US, 1981, pp SAND80-2114.
23. Ghoddoussi, A. A More Comprehensive Database for Propeller Performance Validations at Low Reynolds Numbers, PhD thesis, Wichita State University, 2016.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Aeronautical Journal
  • ISSN: 0001-9240
  • EISSN: 2059-6464
  • URL: /core/journals/aeronautical-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed