Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7ccbd9845f-s2vjv Total loading time: 0.402 Render date: 2023-01-29T09:04:36.477Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Article contents

EXTRACTION OFFSHORE, POLITICS INSHORE, AND THE ROLE OF THE STATE IN EQUATORIAL GUINEA

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  03 May 2013

Abstract

Recent economic and socio-political dynamics in the territories that form Equatorial Guinea are related, in different ways, to the extraction of hydrocarbons from its Exclusive Economic Zone since the mid-1990s. These transformations are strongly mediated by specific social groups, especially the family that has held power since 1968 and transnational oil companies, whose relationships are central to the exclusive political configuration in the country. The article analyses this particular form of extraversion of power as part of a broader history of the region, in which the role of the state's sovereignty as articulated during decolonization is shown to be instrumental in the allocation of rights and the political economy of oil today. The article also discusses the spaces that the new political economy of oil has opened for alternative transnational connections around the country.

Résumé

Les dynamiques économique et sociopolitique récentes dans les territoires qui forment la Guinée équatoriale sont liées, de manières diverses, à l'extraction des hydrocarbures dans sa zone économique exclusive depuis le milieu des années 1990. Ces transformations passent surtout par des groupes sociaux spécifiques, notamment la famille qui est au pouvoir depuis 1968 et les compagnies pétrolières transnationales, dont les rapports jouent un rôle central dans la configuration politique exclusive du pays. L'article analyse cette forme particulière d'extraversion du pouvoir dans un cadre historique plus large de la région, dans lequel le rôle de la souveraineté de l’État telle qu'elle s'est exprimée lors de la décolonisation apparaît instrumental dans l'affectation de droits et l’économie politique du pétrole aujourd'hui. Il traite également des espaces qu'a ouverts la nouvelle économie politique du pétrole en faveur d'autres connexions transnationales dans le pays.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © International African Institute 2013 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

REFERENCES

Abaga, F. (1997) La Ayuda Externa en el Desarrollo de Guinea Ecuatorial. Madrid: Los Libros de la Catarata.Google Scholar
Abaga, F. (1999) ‘Las consecuencias socio-políticas del petróleo en Guinea Ecuatorial: del boom a la quiebra’, Boletin de Noticias de ASODEGUE 14.Google Scholar
Appel, H. C. (2012) ‘Walls and white elephants: oil extraction, responsibility, and infrastructural violence in Equatorial Guinea’, Ethnography 13 (4): 439–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Auty, F. (1993) Sustaining Development in Mineral Economies: the resource curse thesis. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayart, J.-F. (2000) ‘Africa in the world: a history of extraversion’, African Affairs 99 (395): 217–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bayart, J.-F., Ellis, S. and Hibou, B. (1999) ‘From kleptocracy to the felonious state’ in Bayart, J.-F., Ellis, S. and Hibou, B. (eds), The Criminalization of the State. London: James Currey.Google Scholar
Bond, P. (2006) Looting Africa: the economics of exploitation. Pietermaritzburg, London and New York NY: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press and Zed Books.Google Scholar
Burke, E. (2008) ‘Las relaciones entre España y Guinea Ecuatorial: ¿un triunfo del realismo energético?’, Programa del Democratización, FRIDE, Madrid.Google Scholar
Campos, A. (2003) ‘The decolonization of Equatorial Guinea: the relevance of the international factor’, Journal of African History 44 (1): 95116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Campos, A. (2005) ‘Colonia, derecho y territorio en el Golfo de Guinea: tensiones del colonialismo español en el siglo XX’, Quaderni Fiorentini per la Storia del Pensiero Giuridico Moderno 33/34 (2): 865–98.Google Scholar
Campos, A. and Micó, P. (2006) Labour and Trade Union Freedom in Equatorial Guinea. Madrid: Fundación Paz y Solidaridad ‘Serafín Aliaga’, CCOO.Google Scholar
Castro, M. and Ndongo, D. (1998) España en Guinea Ecuatorial: construcción del desencuentro 1778–1968. Madrid: Sequitur.Google Scholar
Clavero, B. (2006) ‘Bioko, 1837–76: constitucionalismo de Europa en África, derecho internacional consuetudinario del trabajo mediante’, Quaderni Fiorentini per la Storia del Pensiero Giuridico Moderno 35: 429546.Google Scholar
Cooper, F. (2002) Africa Since 1940: the past of the present. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Díaz Matarranz, J. J. (2005) De la Trata de Negros al Cultivo del Cacao: evolución del modelo colonial español en Guinea Ecuatorial de 1778 a 1914. Barcelona: Ceiba Ediciones.Google Scholar
Diouf, M. (1999) ‘Privatisations des économies et des États africains: commentaires d'un historien’, Politique Africaine 73: 1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dzurek, D. J. (1999) ‘Gulf of Guinea boundary disputes’, IBRU Boundary and Security Bulletin, Spring: 98104.Google Scholar
Elá, F. (1983) Guinea: los últimos años. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: Centro de la Cultura Popular Canaria.Google Scholar
Escribano, G. (1999) ‘Guinea Ecuatorial: de la ayuda al petróleo’, Revista Meridiano CERI 26: 1216.Google Scholar
Esteban, M. (2009) ‘The Chinese amigo: implications for the development of Equatorial Guinea’, Chinese Quarterly 99: 667–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esteban, M. (2010) ‘A silent invasion? African views on the growing Chinese presence in Africa: the case of Equatorial Guinea’, African and Asian Studies 9: 232–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fegley, R. (1989) Equatorial Guinea: an African tragedy. New York NY: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
Ferguson, J. (2006) ‘Governing extraction: new spatializations of order and disorder in neoliberal Africa’ in Global Shadows: Africa in the neoliberal world order. Durham NC and London: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frynas, J. G. (2004) ‘The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea’, African Affairs 103 (413): 527–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
García Cantús, D. (2006) Fernando Poo: una aventura colonial Española. Barcelona: Ceiba Ediciones.Google Scholar
García Domínguez, R. (1977) Guinea: Macías, la ley del silencio. Barcelona: Plaza y Janes.Google Scholar
Ghazvinian, J. (2007) Untapped: the scramble for Africa's oil. New York NY and London: Harcourt, Inc.Google Scholar
Güell, O. (2009) ‘Asaltado el palacio de Obiang en Malabo’, El País (Madrid), 18 February.Google Scholar
Harel, X. (2006) Afrique pillage à huis clos: comment une pognée d'initiés siphonne le pétrole africain. Paris: Fayard.Google Scholar
Hibou, B. (ed.) (2000) La privatisation des états. Paris: Karthala.Google Scholar
Hibou, B. (ed.) (2006) La Force de l'obéissance: économie politique de la répression en Tunisie. Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
Karl, T. L. (1997) The Paradox of Plenty: oil booms and petro-states. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Klitgaard, R. (1991) Tropical Gangsters: one man's experience with development and decadence in deepest Africa. London: I. B. Tauris.Google Scholar
Kraus, J. (2011) ‘Disempowered voices: the status of civil society in Equatorial Guinea’, report for EG Justice, Washington DC.Google Scholar
Liniger-Goumaz, M. (1988) Brève histoire de la Guinée Équatoriale. Paris: Editions L'Harmattan.Google Scholar
Liniger-Goumaz, M. (1996) ‘Diecisiete años de la dictadura Nguemista, 1979–96’, Estudios de Asia y África 31 (3) (101): 645–92.Google Scholar
Maas, P. (2009) Crude World: the violent twilight of oil. New York NY: Knopf.Google Scholar
Mahdavi, H. (1970) ‘The patterns and problems of economic development in rentier states: the case of Iran’, in Cook, M. A. (ed.), Studies in the Economic History of the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Mamdani, M. (1996) Citizen and Subject: contemporary Africa and the legacy of late colonialism. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
McSherry, B. (2006) ‘The political economy of oil in Equatorial Guinea’, African Studies Quarterly 8 (3): 2345.Google Scholar
Molino, M. (1993) La Ciudad de Clarence. Madrid and Malabo: Centro Cultural Hispano Guineano.Google Scholar
Ndongo, D. (1977) Historia y Tragedia de Guinea Ecuatorial. Madrid: Cambio 16.Google Scholar
Nerín, G. (2010) La Última Selva de España: antropólogos, misioneros y guardias civiles. Madrid: Los Libros de la Catarata.Google Scholar
Nso, S. (2009) ‘El boom perolero ecuato-guineano y sus implicaciones para el proceso de regionalización centroafricano’, UNISCI Discussion Papers, 20.Google Scholar
Nzang Okenve, E. (2009) ‘ Wa kobo abe, wa kobo politik: three decades of social paralysis and political immobility in Equatorial Guinea’, Afro-Hispanic Review 28 (2): 143–62.Google Scholar
Obi, C. (2001) ‘Global, state and local intersections: power, authority and conflict in the Niger Delta’ in Callaghy, T., Kassimir, R. and Latham, R. (eds), Intervention and Transnationalism in Africa: global–local networks of power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Reno, W. (2001) ‘How sovereignty matters: international markets and the political economy of local politics in weak states’ in Callaghy, T., Kassimir, R. and Latham, R. (eds), Intervention and Transnationalism in Africa: global–local networks of power. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Reno, W. (2011) Warfare in Independent Africa. New York NY: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ridao, J. M. (2000) La Desilusión Permanente. Barcelona: Montesinos.Google Scholar
Roitman, J. and Roso, G. (2001) ‘Guinée-Équatoriale: être “off-shore” pour rester “national”’, Politique Africaine 81: 121–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ross, M. (2001) ‘Does oil hinder democracy?’, World Politics 53 (3): 325–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruiz Miguel, C. (2004) ‘El difícil acercamiento de España a Guinea Ecuatorial’, ARI 18/2004, Real Instituto Elcano, Madrid.Google Scholar
Sant Gisbert, J. (2008) ‘El petróleo y las urnas: evolución del estado en Guinea Ecuatorial’, Nova África 23: 6174.Google Scholar
Sant Gisbert, J. (2009) ‘El modelo económico colonial y sus contradicciones: Fernando Poo 1900–36’, Afro-Hispanic Review 28 (2): 5780.Google Scholar
Sanz Casas, G. (1983) ‘Política Colonial y Organización del Trabajo en La Isla de Fernando Poo, 1880–1930’. PhD thesis, University of Barcelona.Google Scholar
Shaxson, N. (2007) ‘Obiang Nguema: what caring neighbors do’ in Poisoned Wells: the dirty politics of African oil. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
Silverstein, K. (2012) ‘Bipolar policy on Equatorial Guinea’, Foreign Policy, 13 June 2012.Google Scholar
Soares de Oliveira, R. (2007) Oil and Politics in the Gulf of Guinea. London: Hurst and Company.Google Scholar
Southall, R. and Melber, H. (eds) (2009) A New Scramble for Africa? Imperialism, investment and development. Pietermaritzburg: University of KwaZulu-Natal Press.Google Scholar
Sundiata, I. K. (1990) Equatorial Guinea: colonialism, state terror and the search for stability. Boulder CO, San Francisco and Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
Sundiata, I. K. (1996) From Slaving to Neoslavery: the Bight of Biafra and Fernando Po in the era of abolition, 1827–1930. Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Tsing, A. L. (2004) Friction: an ethnography of global connection. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Urrea, G., Roux, G., Gudiño, F. and Toledano, J. M. (1999) ‘Evaluation of parallel programs of the European Commission and Spain in the cocoa sector of Equatorial Guinea’, report for European Union, EuropeAid ref. 951434.Google Scholar
Vansina, J. (1990) Paths in the Rainforests: toward a history of political tradition in Equatorial Africa. Madison WI: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
Wendorff, C. (2008) ‘Guinea Ecuatorial: necesidades de capacitación para una efectiva participación de la sociedad civil en la implementación de la iniciativa para la transparencia en las industrias extractivas’, World Bank report, Washington DC.Google Scholar
Williams, R. E. Jnr (2011) ‘From Malabo to Malibu: addressing corruption and human rights abuse in an African petrostate’, Human Rights Quarterly 33: 620–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wood, G. (2004) ‘Business and politics in a criminal state: the case of Equatorial Guinea’, African Affairs 103 (413): 547–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

INSTITUTIONAL DOCUMENTS

Amnesty International (2009a) ‘Equatorial Guinea: submission to the UN universal periodic review sixth session of the UPR Working Group of the Human Rights Council’, AFR 24/002/2009, London.Google Scholar
Amnesty International (2009b) ‘Equatorial Guinea: new wealth driving people out from their homes’, AFR 24/007/2009, London.Google Scholar
Amnesty International (2010) ‘Summary execution in Equatorial Guinea’, AFR 24/015/2010. London.Google Scholar
ASODEGUE (Asociación de Solidaridad Democrática con Guinea Ecuatorial) (1996) ‘Obiang y las compañías petroleras’, ASODEGUE, Madrid.Google Scholar
BEAC (Bank of Central African States) (2010) ‘Principaux indicateurs économiques de la Guinée Equatoriale, and données statistiques de base de Guinée Equatoriale’, <http://www.beac.int>, accessed 27 October 2011.,+accessed+27+October+2011.>Google Scholar
CESR (Centre for Economic and Social Rights) (2009) ‘Equatorial Guinea: visualizing rights’, CESR, Fact Sheet 9, Madrid.Google Scholar
CPDS (Convergencia Para la Democracia Social) (2003–11) ‘Informes sobre derechos humanos en Guinea Ecuatorial’, CPDS, Malabo.Google Scholar
CPDS (Convergencia Para la Democracia Social) (2011a) ‘Resolución por la que se expulsa a cinco miembros de la Comisión Ejecutiva Nacional de CPDS y se retira los mandatos que ostentaban tres de ellos en representación del Partido’, Malabo, 24 October.Google Scholar
CPDS (Convergencia Para la Democracia Social) (2011b) ‘Comunicado sobre los resultados provisionales del referéndum constitucional organizado el pasado día 13 en Guinea Ecuatorial’, Malabo, 16 November.Google Scholar
EG Justice (2011) ‘Constitutional Reform’, 28 October. Washington.Google Scholar
EG Justice (2012) ‘UNESCO: Decepción ante resultado de votación sobre Premio Obiang’, 9 March, Washington.Google Scholar
EIA (Energy Information Administration, US Department of Energy) (2012) Equatorial Guinea: Country Analysis Brief, 28 February. Washington: EIA.Google Scholar
EITI (Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative) (2010) ‘Letter to H. E. Teodoro Obiang, President of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea’, EITI, 29 April.Google Scholar
EU (European Union) (2008) ‘Cooperación entre la Unión Europea y la República de Guinea Ecuatorial’, Delegation of the European Union to Gabon, Sao Tome e Principe and Equatorial Guinea, Libreville, April.Google Scholar
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2011) GIEWS Country Briefs: Equatorial Guinea, 1 June <http://www.fao.org/giews/countrybrief/country.jsp?code=GNQ>, accessed 27 October 2011.,+accessed+27+October+2011.>Google Scholar
Witness, Global (2004) ‘Time for transparency: coming clean on oil, mining and gas revenues’, London.Google Scholar
Witness, Global (2009) ‘The secret life of a shopaholic: how an African dictator's playboy son went on a multi-million dollar shopping spree in the US’, London.Google Scholar
Government of Spain (2009) Plan de África, 2009–12. Madrid: Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y Cooperación.Google Scholar
Greenpeace (2000) ‘Poverty and deforestation in Tropical Africa’, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
HRW (Human Rights Watch) (2009) ‘Well oiled: oil and human rights in Equatorial Guinea’, New York.Google Scholar
HRW (Human Rights Watch) (2010) ‘UNESCO: Dictator Prize suspended indefinitely’, New York, 20 October.Google Scholar
HRW and EG Justice (2011) ‘Equatorial Guinea: vote discredited by irregularities’, Washington, 15 November.Google Scholar
IMF (International Monetary Fund) (2010a) ‘Republic of Equatorial Guinea: 2010 Article IV Consultation’, Country Report 10/103, Washington.Google Scholar
IMF (International Monetary Fund) (2010b) ‘Republic of Equatorial Guinea: statistical appendix’, Washington, 30 April.Google Scholar
ODG (Observatoire Géopolitique des Drogues) (1994) ‘Guinée Equatoriale: un narco-régime en Afrique’, Rapport 11/1994, Paris.Google Scholar
OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights) (2007) ‘Report of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention: Mission to Equatorial Guinea’, 8–13 July, A/HRC/7/4/Add.3.Google Scholar
OHCHR (Office of the High Commissioner on Human Rights) (2008) ‘UN Special Rapporteur on Torture concludes mission to Equatorial Guinea’.Google Scholar
OilWatch (2003) ‘Petroleum in Equatorial Guinea’. Port Harcourt.Google Scholar
Republic of Equatorial Guinea. (2004–11) State Budgets.Google Scholar
Republic of Equatorial Guinea (2006) Proyecto de Presupuesto de Inversiones 2007. Malabo: Ministerio de Planificación, Desarrollo Económico e Inversiones Públicas.Google Scholar
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2011) Report on Human Development: Equatorial Guinea.Google Scholar
UP (Unión Popular) (2011a) ‘Manifiesto político de Unión Popular de Guinea Ecuatorial’, Malabo, 25 October.Google Scholar
UP (Unión Popular) (2011b) ‘Felicitación de Unión Popular al pueblo de Guinea Ecuatorial’, 15 November.Google Scholar
US Department State (2003–11) ‘Human rights reports: Equatorial Guinea’. Washington: Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.Google Scholar
US Department State (2011) ‘Trafficking in persons report: Equatorial Guinea’. Washington: Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons.Google Scholar
US Senate, Minority Staff of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (2004) ‘Money laundering and foreign corruption: enforcement and effectiveness of the Patriot Act, case study involving Riggs Bank’, Washington, 15 July.Google Scholar
US Senate, Minority Staff of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations (2010) ‘Keeping foreign corruption out of the United States: four case histories’, Washington, 4 February.Google Scholar
World Rainforest Movement (WRM) (2001) ‘Equatorial Guinea: transnational loggers in the forest’, WRM Bulletin 49, Montevideo.Google Scholar
6
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

EXTRACTION OFFSHORE, POLITICS INSHORE, AND THE ROLE OF THE STATE IN EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

EXTRACTION OFFSHORE, POLITICS INSHORE, AND THE ROLE OF THE STATE IN EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

EXTRACTION OFFSHORE, POLITICS INSHORE, AND THE ROLE OF THE STATE IN EQUATORIAL GUINEA
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *