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African conversion from a world religion: religious diversification by the Waso Boorana in Kenya

  • Mario I. Aguilar

Les Booranas des environs de Waso au Nord-Est du Kenya se sont installés dans cet endroit dans les années 1930. Après l'établissement des frontières administratives coloniales en 1934, ils ont été isolés du reste des Booranas du Nord du Kenya et d'Ethiopie. Par la suite, les Booranas devinrent plus proche de leur voisins somaliens et, dû à ce processus de “somalisation”, ils ont remplacé leurs rituels oromo par des pratiques islamiques. Lorsque les années 1950 sont arrivées la plupart des Booranas de Waso s'étaient converti à l'islam et depuis ce temps là ont été considérés comme musulmans par le reste du Kenya. Néanmoins, des recherches récentes ont montré qu'il y a eu un renouveau des pratiques religieuses traditionnelles parmi eux.

Cet article divise l'histoire des Booranas de Waso en deux pèriodes: 1) depuis leur colonisation de Waso jusqu'aux évènements conduisant à l'indépendance du Kenya (1932–62), et 2) depuis l'indépendance du Kénya jusqu'aux années 1990 (1963–92). C'est dans cette deuxième pèriode de leur histoire que Les Booranas de Waso commencèrent un processus de diversification religieuse. Les pratiques religieuses furent renouvellées dans ces colonies et il en ressorti un manque de confiance en l'Islam. Cet article suggère qu'il y a eu une reconversion aux pratiques religieuses traditionnelles, basée sur un principe local, la division des troupeaux des Booranas de Waso.

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Abbreviations. GTHT Garba Tulla Historical Texts [Aguilar], ISO Isiolo, KNA Kenya National Archives, KORmanyatta Koropu-Garba Tulla, MDO Garba Tulla Catholic Mission Development Office, SOAS School of Oriental and African Studies, MATmanyatta Matagari-Garba Tulla, TOWmanyatta Town–Garba Tulla, WAJ Wajir, WMMSA Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society (London) Archives.
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