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Development, demarcation and ecological outcomes in Maasailand

  • Katherine Homewood

Résumé

Cet article commence par exposer la position des Maasai, leur territoire et l'organisation sociale à l'avènement de la période coloniale. Il documente l'érosion progressive du territoire et l'imposition de nouvelles frontières sur les Maasai depuis les années 1880 jusquʼau présent. Il utilise les études de l'auteur sur l'usage des terres Maasai à présent et sur le système de production sur les terres tanzaniennes des Maasai, ensemble avec des données comparatives sur les terres Maasai au Kenya, afin de montrer comment les communautés Maasai ont fait face à ces contraintes.

Des données sur la performance de l'élevage, la richesse des exploitations, la structure des fermes, et la situation diététique et alimentaire sont utilisées en tant quʼindicateurs écologiques des effets de la création des frontières. Cet article examine l'effet des réponses des communautés Maasai, soit celle qui à consisté à circonvenir les limites imposées, exploitant et dans certains cas attaquant les ressources que les frontières étaient désignées à protéger, ou celle qui a consisté à développer des stratégies afin d'incorporer et d'utiliser à bon effet les débouchés que les frontières peuvent présenter.

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