Abaka, E. (2009) ‘Traders, slaves and soldiers: the Hausa diaspora in Ghana (Gold Coast and Asante) in the nineteenth and early twentieth century’ in Falola, T. and Usman, A. (eds), Movements, Borders and Identities in Africa. Rochester NY: University of Rochester Press.
Agier, M. (1980) Les Gens du Zongo: présentation des commerciants étranger musulmans de Lomé et de leur quartier. Paris: Orstom.
Amankwaah, C. (2013) Election-related Violence: the case of Ghana. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Arhin, K. (1971) ‘Strangers and hosts: a study in the political organization and history of Atebubu’, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana 12: 63–82.
Cohen, A. (1969) Customs and Politics in Urban Africa: a study of Hausa migrants in Yoruba towns. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
de Haas, H. (2009) Mobility and Human Development. New York NY: United Nations Development Programme.
Eades, J. S. (1993) Strangers and Traders: Yoruba migrants, markets and the state in northern Ghana. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Eyerman, R. (2004) ‘Cultural trauma: slavery in the formation of African-American identity’ in Alexander, J. C., Eyerman, R. et al. (eds), Cultural Trauma and Collective Identity. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.
Freund, B. (2007) The African City: a history. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Glick Schiller, N., Basch, L. and Szanton Blanc, C. (1995) ‘From immigrants to transmigrants: theorizing transnational migration’, Anthropological Quarterly 68 (1): 48–63.
Goody, J. (1967) ‘The over-kingdom of Gonja’ in Forde, D. and Kaberry, P. M. (eds), West African Kingdoms in the Nineteenth Century. London: Oxford University Press for the IAI.
Hansen, K. T. and Vaa, M. (2004) Reconsidering Informality: perspectives from urban Africa. Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Howard, A. and Shain, R. (2005) The Spatial Factor in African History. Leiden: Brill.
Kobo, O. (2010) ‘We are citizens too: the politics of citizenship in independent Ghana’, Journal of Modern African Studies 48 (1): 67–94.
Konadu-Agyemang, K. (2001) The Political Economy of Housing and Urban Development in Accra: Ghana's experience from colonial times to 1998. Westport CT: Praeger.
Lentz, C. and Kuba, R. (2006) Land and the Politics of Belonging in West Africa. Leiden: Brill.
Levitt, P. (1998) ‘Social remittances: migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion’, International Migration Review 32 (4): 926–48.
Levtzion, N. (1968) Muslim and Chiefs in West Africa: a study of Islam in the Middle Volta basin in the pre-colonial period. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Lovejoy, P. E. (1971) ‘Long-distance trade and Islam: the case of the nineteenth-century Hausa kola trade’, Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria 5 (4): 537–47.
Lovejoy, P. E. (2005) Ecology and Ethnography of Muslim Trade in West Africa. New Brunswick NJ: Africa World Press.
Mabogunjie, A. L. (1972) Regional Mobility and Development in West Africa. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.
MacGaffey, W. (2007) ‘A history of Tamale, 1907–57 and beyond’, Transactions of the Historical Society of Ghana (New Series) 10: 109–24.
Monson, J. (2000) ‘Memory, migration and the authority of history in southern Tanzania, 1860–1960’, Journal of African History 41 (3): 347–72.
NDPC (2013) The Implementation of the Ghana Shared Growth and Development Agenda (GSGDA), 2010–2013. 2012 annual progress report. Accra: Ghana National Development Planning Commission (NDPC).
Ntewusu, S. A. (2012) Settling In and Holding On: a socio-economic history of northern traders and transporters in Accra's Tudu, 1908–2008. Leiden: African Studies Centre.
Nyamnjoh, F. B. (2006) Insiders and Outsiders: citizenship and xenophobia in contemporary Southern Africa. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Peil, M. (1971) ‘The expulsion of West African aliens’, Journal of Modern African Studies 9: 205–29.
Pellow, D. (1991) ‘The power of space in the evolution of an Accra Zongo’, Ethnohistory 38 (4): 414–50.
Pellow, D. (2002) Landlords and Lodgers: socio-spatial organization in an Accra community. Chicago IL: University of Chicago Press.
Portelli, A. (2009) ‘What makes oral history different’ in Del Giudice, L. (ed.), Oral History, Oral Culture and Italian Americans. New York NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Portelli, A. (2012 ) L'ordine è già stato eseguito. Roma, le Fosse Ardeatine, la memoria. Milan: Feltrinelli.
Riccio, B. (2001) ‘From “ethnic group” to “transnational community”? Senegalese migrants’ ambivalent experiences and multiple trajectories’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 27 (4): 583–99.
Rodet, M. and Reinprecht, C. (2013) ‘Memoire et migration en Afrique de l'Ouest et en France’, Revue Europeénne des Migrations Internationales 29 (1): 7–22.
Schildkrout, E. (1978) People of the Zongo: the transformation of ethnic identities in Ghana. New York NY and London: Cambridge University Press.
Shack, W. A. and Skinner, E. P. (1979) Strangers in West African Societies. Berkeley CA: University of California Press.
Skinner, E. P. (1960) ‘Labour migration and its relationship to socio-cultural change in Mossi society’, Africa 30 (4): 375–401.
Skinner, E. P. (1970) ‘Process of political incorporation in Mossi society’ in Cohen, R. and Middleton, J. (eds), From Tribe to Nation in Africa: studies in incorporation processes. Scranton PA: Chandler Publishing.
Sobrero, A. (2011) ‘I'll teach you differences: etnografia dell'abitare’ in Romano, A. and Scarpelli, F. (eds), Voci della Città. Rome: Carocci.
Soeters, S. R. (2012) ‘Tamale 1907–1957: between colonial trade and colonial chieftainship’. PhD thesis, Leiden University.
Sudarkasa, N. (1985) ‘The role of Yoruba commercial migration in West African development’ in Lindsay, B. (ed.), African Migrations and National Development. University Park PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
Thomson, A. (2011) ‘Memory and remembering in oral history’ in Ritchie, D. A. (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Oral History. London: Oxford University Press.
Wilks, I. (1966) ‘The position of Muslims in metropolitan Ashanti in the early nineteenth century’ in Lewis, I. M. (ed.), Islam in Tropical Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Wilks, I., Levtzion, N. and Haight, B. M. (1986) Chronicles from Gonja: a tradition of West African Muslim historiography. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Yusuf, A. B. (1974) ‘A reconsideration of urban conceptions: Hausa urbanization and the Hausa rural–urban continuum’, Urban Anthropology 3 (2): 200–21.