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Energy efficiency, robustness, and makespan optimality in job-shop scheduling problems

  • Miguel A. Salido (a1), Joan Escamilla (a1), Federico Barber (a1), Adriana Giret (a1), Dunbing Tang (a2) and Min Dai (a2)...


Many real-world problems are known as planning and scheduling problems, where resources must be allocated so as to optimize overall performance objectives. The traditional scheduling models consider performance indicators such as processing time, cost, and quality as optimization objectives. However, most of them do not take into account energy consumption and robustness. We focus our attention in a job-shop scheduling problem where machines can work at different speeds. It represents an extension of the classical job-shop scheduling problem, where each operation has to be executed by one machine and this machine can work at different speeds. The main goal of the paper is focused on the analysis of three important objectives (energy efficiency, robustness, and makespan) and the relationship among them. We present some analytical formulas to estimate the ratio/relationship between these parameters. It can be observed that there exists a clear relationship between robustness and energy efficiency and a clear trade-off between robustness/energy efficiency and makespan. It represents an advance in the state of the art of production scheduling, so obtaining energy-efficient solutions also supposes obtaining robust solutions, and vice versa.


Corresponding author

Reprint requests to: Miguel A. Salido, Instituto de Automática e Informática Industrial, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia 46071, Spain. E-mail:


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