Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A graph-theoretic implementation of the Rabo-de-Bacalhau transformation grammar

  • Tiemen Strobbe (a1), Sara Eloy (a2), Pieter Pauwels (a1), Ruben Verstraeten (a1), Ronald De Meyer (a1) and Jan Van Campenhout (a3)...
Abstract

Shape grammars are rule-based formalisms for the specification of shape languages. Most of the existing shape grammars are developed on paper and have not been implemented computationally thus far. Nevertheless, the computer implementation of shape grammar is an important research question, not only to automate design analysis and generation, but also to extend the impact of shape grammars toward design practice and computer-aided design tools. In this paper, we investigate the implementation of shape grammars on a computer system, using a graph-theoretic representation. In particular, we describe and evaluate the implementation of the existing Rabo-de-Bacalhau transformation grammar. A practical step-by-step approach is presented, together with a discussion of important findings noticed during the implementation and evaluation. The proposed approach is shown to be both feasible and valuable in several aspects: we show how the attempt to implement a grammar on a computer system leads to a deeper understanding of that grammar, and might result in the further development of the grammar; we show how the proposed approach is embedded within a commercial computer-aided design environment to make the shape grammar formalism more accessible to students and practitioners, thereby increasing the impact of grammars on design practice; and the proposed step-by-step implementation approach has shown to be feasible for the implementation of the Rabo-de-Bacalhau transformation grammar, but can also be generalized using different ontologies for the implementation.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Reprint requests to: Tiemen Strobbe, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, Ghent 9000, Belgium. E-mail: tiemen.strobbe@ugent.be
References
Hide All
Aksamija, A., Yue, K., Kim, H., Grobler, F., & Krishnamurti, R. (2010). Integration of knowledge-based and generative systems for building characterization and prediction. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 24(1), 316.
Chase, S. (2002). A model for user interaction in grammar-based design systems. Automation in Construction 11(2), 161172.
Chase, S. (2010). Shape grammar implementations: the last 35 years. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Design Computing and Cognition, Stuttgart, July 10–14.
Correia, R., Duarte, J.P., & Leitao, A. (2010). MALAG: a discursive grammar interpreter for the online generation of mass customized housing. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Design Computing and Cognition, Stuttgart, July 10–14.
Duarte, J. (2005). A discursive grammar for customizing mass housing: the case of Siza's houses at Malagueira. Automation in Construction 14(2), 265275.
Eastman, C., Teicholz, P., Sacks, R., & Liston, K. (2008). BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modelling for Owners, Managers, Architects, Engineers, Contractors, and Fabricators. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Ehrig, H., Ehrig, K., Prange, U., & Taentzer, G. (2006). Fundamentals of Algebraic Graph Transformation. New York: Springer.
Eloy, S. (2012). A transformation grammar-based methodology for housing rehabilitation: meeting contemporary functional and ICT requirements. PhD Thesis. TU Lisbon.
Eloy, S., & Duarte, J. (2014). Inferring a shape grammar: translating designer's knowledge. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design Analysis and Manufacturing 28(2), 153168.
Ertelt, C., & Shea, K. (2010). Shape grammar implementation for machine planning. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. Design Computing and Cognition, Stuttgart, July 10–14.
Fitzhorn, P. (1990). Formal graph languages of shape. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design Analysis and Manufacturing 4(3), 151163.
Flemming, U. (1987). More than the sum of parts: the grammar of Queen Anne houses. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 14(3), 323350.
Geiß, R., Batz, G.V., Grund, D., Hack, S., & Szalkowski, A. (2006). GrGen: a fast SPO-based graph rewriting tool. Proc. IGCT 2006, LNCS, Vol. 4178, pp. 383397. Berlin: Springer–Verlag.
Gips, J. (1999). Computer implementation of shape grammars. Proc. NSF/MIT Workshop on Shape Computation, Cambridge, MA, April.
Granadeiro, V., Duarte, J., Correia, J., & Leal, V. (2013). Building envelope shape design in early stages of the design process: integrating architectural design systems and energy simulation. Automation in Construction 32, 196209.
Grasl, T. (2012). Transformational palladians. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 39(1), 8395.
Grasl, T. (2013). On shapes and topologies: graph theoretic representations of shapes and shape computations. PhD Thesis. TU Vienna.
Grasl, T., & Economou, A. (2013). From topologies to shapes: parametric shape grammars implemented by graphs. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 40(5), 905922.
Heisserman, J. (1994). Generative geometric design. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 14(2), 3745.
Helms, B., & Shea, K. (2012). Computational synthesis of product architectures based on object-oriented graph grammars. Journal of Mechanical Design 134(2), 114.
Hoisl, F., & Shea, K. (2011). An interactive, visual approach to developing and applying parametric three-dimensional spatial grammars. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 25(4), 333356.
Jowers, J., & Earl, C. (2011). Implementation of curved shape grammars. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 38(4), 616635.
Jowers, I., Hogg, D.C., McKay, A., & de Pennington, A. (2010). Shape detection with vision: implementing shape grammars in conceptual design. Research in Engineering Design 21(4), 235247.
Knight, T. (1999). Shape grammars: six types. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 26(1), 1531.
Knight, T. (2003). Computing with emergence. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 30(1), 125155.
Koning, H., & Eizenberg, J. (1981). Frank Lloyd Wright's prairie houses. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 8(3), 295323.
Krishnamurti, R. (1981). The construction of shapes. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 8(1), 540.
Krishnamurti, R., & Stouffs, R. (1993). Spatial grammars: motivation, comparison, and new results. Proc. 5th Int. Conf. Computer-Aided Architectural Design Futures (CAADFutures), pp. 57–74. Amsterdam: North–Holland.
Li, E., I-Kang, A., Chau, H.H., & Chen, L. (2009). A prototype system for developing two- and three-dimensional shape grammars. Proc. 14th Int. Conf. Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, pp. 717–716, Taiwan, April 22–25.
McKay, A., Chase, S., Shea, K., & Chau, H.H. (2012). Spatial grammar implementation: from theory to useable software. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design Analysis and Manufacturing 26(2), 143159.
Shea, K., & Cagan, J. (1999). Languages and semantics of grammatical discrete structures. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design Analysis and Manufacturing 13(4), 241251.
Steadman, P. (1976). Graph-theoretic representation of architectural arrangement. In The Architecture of Form (March, L., Ed.), pp. 94115. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Stiny, G. (1977). Ice-ray: a note on Chinese lattice designs. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 4(1), 8998.
Stiny, G. (1980). Introduction to shape and shape grammars. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 7(3), 343351.
Stiny, G. (1991). The algebras of design. Research in Engineering Design 2(3), 171181.
Stiny, G. (2006). Shape: Talking About Seeing and Doing. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Stiny, G., & Gips, J. (1971). Shape grammars and the generative specification of painting and sculpture. Proc. IFIP Congr. (Freiman, C.V., Ed.), pp. 14601465. Amsterdam: North–Holland.
Stiny, G., & Mitchell, W.J. (1978). The Palladian grammar. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 5(1), 518.
Strobbe, T., Pauwels, P., Verstraeten, R., De Meyer, R., & Van Campenhout, J. (2015). Toward a visual approach in the exploration of shape grammars. Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design Analysis and Manufacturing 29(4), 503521.
Taentzer, G. (2004). AGG: A Graph Transformation Environment for Modeling and Validation of Software, LNCS, Vol. 3062, pp. 446453. Berlin: Springer.
Tapia, M. (1999). A visual implementation of a shape grammar system. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 26(1), 5973.
Trescak, T., Esteva, M., & Rodriguez, I. (2012). A shape grammar interpreter for rectilinear forms. Computer-Aided Design 44(7), 657670.
Woodbury, R., & Burrow, A. (2006). Whither design space? Artificial Intelligence for Engineering, Design, Analysis and Manufacturing 20(2), 6382.
Woodbury, R., Radford, A.D., Taplin, P.N., & Coppins, S.A. (1992). Tartan worlds: a generative symbol grammar system. Proc. ACADIA '92, pp. 211220. Charleston, SC: Clemson University Press.
Wortmann, T. (2013). Representing Shapes as Graphs: A Feasible Approach for the Computer Implementation of Parametric Visual Calculating. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Yue, K., & Krishnamurti, R. (2014). A paradigm for interpreting tractable shape grammars. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 41(1), 110137.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

AI EDAM
  • ISSN: 0890-0604
  • EISSN: 1469-1760
  • URL: /core/journals/ai-edam
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 39 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 293 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.