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The Puritan-Nonconformist Tradition in England, 1560–1700: Historiographical Reflections

  • Richard L. Greaves

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1 Solt, Leo F., “Puritanism, Capitalism, Democracy, and the New Science,” American Historical Review 73 (1967): 1829. Solt's own study of the chaplains of the New Model Army stresses the extent of authoritarianism in their thought: Saints in Arms: Puritanism and Democracy in Cromwell's Army (Stanford, 1959). See also Lawrence, E. Anne, “Parliamentary Army Chaplains, 1642-51” (D. Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1982).

2 Limitations of space make it impossible to cite more than a representative selection of modern work. In general, the focus has been on the research of the last fifteen years, with attention to earlier works as appropriate. The following abbreviations are used in the notes: BIHR (Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research); BQ (Baptist Quarterly); CH (Church History); HJ (Historical Journal); JBS (Journal of British Studies); JEH (Journal of Ecclesiastical History); JFHS (Journal of the Friends Historical Society); JRH (Journal of Religious History); PP (Past and Present); QH (Quaker History); SCH (Studies in Church History); SCJ (Sixteenth Century Journal). I am indebted to Paul Seaver, Dewey Wallace, and Robert Zaller for their constructive criticisms of this article.

3 Feltham, Owen, Resolves (London, 1661), p. 6; cf. pp. 68.

4 Parker, Henry, A Discovrse Concerning Puritans (London, 1641), p. 55.

5 Fuller, Thomas, The Church-History of Britain (London, 1655), bk. 9, p. 76.

6 Hill, Christopher, Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England, 2nd ed. (New York, 1967), chap. 1.

7 C. H., and George, Katherine, The Protestant Mind of the English Reformation, 1570-1640 (Princeton, 1961), pp. 117–73.

8 George, C. H., “Puritanism as History and Historiography,” PP 41 (1968): 9899.

9 Little, David, Religion, Order, and Law: A Study in Pre-Revolutionary England (New York, 1969).

10 Knappen, M. M., Tudor Puritanism: A Chapter in the History of Idealism (Chicago, 1939).

11 Woodhouse, A. S. P., ed., Puritanism and Liberty, 2nd ed. (Chicago, 1951), “Introduction”; Haller, William, The Rise of Purtianism (New York, 1938).

12 Finlayson, Michael G., “Puritanism and Puritans: Labels or Libels?Canadian Journal of History 8 (1973): 203–23.

13 C. H., and George, K., The Protestant Mind, p. 398.

14 George, , “Puritanism as History,” p. 78.

15 Christianson, Paul, “Reformers and the Church of England Under Elizabeth I and the Early Stuarts,” JEH 31 (1980): 463–82. For other discussions of the problem see Hall, Basil, “Puritanism: The Problem of Definition,” SCH 2, ed. Cuming, G. J. (1965): 283–96; Porter, H. C., Puritanism in Tudor England (London, 1970); Breward, Ian, “The Abolition of Puritanism,” JRH 7 (1972): 2034; Seaver, Paul, “Le puritanisme: communaute et continuite dans l'Angleterre pre-revolutionnaire, Revue du Nord 59 (1977): 299316.

16 Collinson, Patrick, “A Comment: Concerning the Name Puritan,” JEH 31 (1980): 485. Cf. Collinson, , The Religion of Protestants: The Church in English Society 1559-1625 (Oxford, 1982), p. 134. See also Collinson, , English Puritanism (London, 1983). Collinson's concept of a “Puritan movement” is specifically rejected by C. H. George. Collinson, , The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1967); George, , “Puritanism as History,” p. 78. Cf. the cautionary words of Richardson, R. C., Puritanism in North-west England: A Regional Study of the Diocese of Chester to 1642 (Manchester, 1972), p. 180.

17 Lake, Peter, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church (Cambridge, 1982), p. 10; Lake, , “Puritan Identities,” JEH 35 (1984): 119. For Perkins see Breward, Ian, “The Life and Theology of William Perkins, 1558-1602” (Ph.D. thesis, Manchester Univ., 1963); Merrill, T. F., William Perkins (Nieuwkoop, 1966); Priebe, Victor Lewis, “The Covenant Theology of William Perkins” (Ph.D. diss., Drew Univ., 1967); The Works of William Perkins, ed. Breward, (Appleford, Abingdon, Berks., 1970); Munson, Robert Charles, “William Perkins: Theologian of Transition” (Ph.D. diss., Case Western Reserve Univ., 1971); Stuart, Robert Orkney, “The Breaking of the Elizabethan Settlement of Religion” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ. 1976); Muller, Richard A., “Perkins' A Golden Chaine: Predestinarian System or Schematized Ordo Salutis?SCJ 9 (1978): 6981; Herbert, James C., “William Perkins's A Reformed Catholic: A Psycho-Cultural Analysis,” CH 51 (1982): 723. Brewer and Muller are particularly sensitive to the problems of typing Perkins.

18 Collinson, , The Religion of Protestants, p. 108.

19 Davis, J. C., “Radicalism in a Traditional Society: The Evaluation of Radical Thought in the English Commonwealth 1649-1660,” History of Political Thought 3 (1982): 203.

20 Grindal's relations with the Puritans is recounted by Collinson, in Archbishop Grindal 1519-1583: The Struggle for a Reformed Church (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1979); and The Downfall of Archbishop Grindal and Its Place in Elizabethan Political and Ecclesiastical History,” in The English Commonwealth 1547-1640, ed. Clark, Peter, Smith, Alan G. R., and Tyacke, Nicholas (Leicester, 1979), pp. 3957. See also Lehmberg, Stanford E., “Archbishop Grindal and the Prophesyings,” HMPEC 34 (1965): 87145.

21 Finlayson, , “Puritanism and Puritans,” pp. 207–9; Greaves, Richard L., Society and Religion in Elizabethan England (Minneapolis, 1981), p. 10. See also Finlayson, , “Independency in Old and New England, 1630-1660: An Historiographical and Historical Study” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1968).

22 Paul Seaver to Richard Greaves, 24 April 1985.

23 Collinson, , Elizabethan Puritan Movement, p. 13.

24 Cf., e.g., Trinterud, Leonard, ed., Elizabethan Puritanism (New York, 1971).

25 Knappen, Tudor Puritanism, chap. 17; Haller, , The Rise of Puritanism, passim (quoted on p. 9). Cf. Morgan, Irvonwy, The Godly Preachers of the Elizabethan Church (London, 1965).

26 Haller, p. 8; Knappen, p. 367.

27 C. H. and K. George, The Protestant Mind.

28 New, John F. H., Anglican and Puritan: The Basis of Their Opposition, 1558-1640 (Stanford, 1964).

29 Ibid., p. 110. New defended his thesis in The Whitgift-Cartwright Controversy,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 59 (1968): 203–11.

30 Miller, Perry, Orthodoxy in Massachusetts 1630-1650 (Boston, 1959); Tyacke, Nicholas, “Puritanism, Arminianism and Counter-Revolution,” in The Origins of the Civil War, ed. Russell, Conrad (London, 1973), pp. 119–43. See also Tyacke, , “Arminianism in England, in Religion and Politics, 1604-1640” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1968).

31 Collinson, The Religion of Protestants.

32 Changing interpretations of the Conference can be followed in Curtis, Mark H., “The Hampton Court Conference and Its Aftermath,” History 46 (1961): 116; Shriver, Frederick, “Hampton Court Re-Visited: James I and the Puritans,” JEH 33 (1982): 4871, which argues that the king was not sympathetic to the Puritans, and that the Conference was not a Puritan success; Collinson, , “The Jacobean Religious Settlement: The Hampton Court Conference,” in Before the English Civil War: Essays in Early Stuart Politics and Government, ed. Tomlinson, Howard (London, 1983), pp. 2751. For the repression of the Puritans in the early Stuart period see Marchant, Ronald A., The Church Under the Law: Justice, Administration and Discipline in the Diocese of York 1560-1640 (Cambridge, 1969); Kalu, Ogbu Uke, “The Jacobean Church and Essex Puritans” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1972); Curtis, Mark H., “Trials of a Puritan in Jacobean Lancashire,” in The Dissenting Tradition: Essays for Leland H. Carlson, ed. Cole, C. Robert and Moody, Michael E. (Athens, Ohio, 1975), pp. 7899; Kalu, , “Bishops and Puritans in Early Jacobean England: A Perspective on Methodology,” CH 45 (1976) 469–81; Nuttall, Geoffrey F., “Peterborough Ordinations 1612-1630 and Early Nonconformity,” JEH 30 (1979): 231–42; Quintrell, B. W., “The Royal Hunt and the Puritans, 1604-1605,” JEH 31 (1980): 4158. For the Puritan response to persecution see Rose, Elliot, Cases of Conscience: Alternatives Open to Recusants and Puritans Under Elizabeth I and James I (Cambridge, 1975). See also Condick, F. M., “The Self-Revelation of a Puritan: Dr. Alexander Leighton in the Sixteen-twenties,” BIHR 55 (1982); 196203.

33 Kendall, R. T., Calvin and English Calvinism to 1649 (Oxford, 1979). See also Jensen, P. F., “The Life of Faith in the Teaching of Elizabethan Protestantism” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1979).

34 Wallace, Dewey D. Jr., Puritans and Predestination: Grace in English Protestant Theology, 1525-1695 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1982), quoted on pp. 54, 71. See also Hargrave, O. T., “The Doctrine of Predestination in the English Reformation” (Ph.D diss., Vanderbilt Univ., 1966); Toon, Peter, Puritans and Calvinism (Swengel, Pa., 1973).

35 Molen, Ronald J. Vander, “Anglican Against Puritan: Ideological Origins During the Marian Exile,” CH 42 (1973): 4557. For other interpretations of Puritan origins see Trinterud, Leonard, “The Origins of Puritanism,” CH 20 (1951): 3757; Porter, H. C., Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge (Cambridge, 1958); Bauckham, Richard, “Marian Exiles and Cambridge Puritanism: James Pilkington's ‘Haifa Score’,” JEH 26 (1975): 137–48.

36 Wallace, , “Puritan and Anglican: The Interpretation of Christ's Descent into Hell in Elizabethan Theology,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 69 (1978): 248–87. For the sacraments see Mayor, Stephen, The Lord's Supper in Early English Dissent (London, 1972); Holifield, E. Brooks, The Covenant Sealed: The Development of Puritan Sacramental Theology in Old and New England, 1570-1720 (New Haven, Conn., 1974). Comprehensive studies of the doctrines of the church and the sacraments in English Protestant thought are needed.

37 McGiffert, Michael, “Grace and Works: The Rise and Division of Covenant Divinity in Elizabethan Puritanism,” Harvard Theological Review 75 (1982): 463502 (pp. 465 and 500 quoted); McGiffert, , “Covenant, Crown, and Commons in Elizabethan PuritanismJBS 20 (1981): 3252. See also Trinterud, , “The Origins of Puritanism,” CH 20 (1951) 3757; Møller, Jens G., “The Beginnings of Puritan Covenant Theology,” JEH 14 (1963): 4667: Greaves, , “John Bunyan and Covenant Thought in the Seventeenth Century,” CH 36 (1967): 151–69; Greaves, , “The Origins and Early Development of English Covenant Thought,” The Historian 31 (1968): 2135; Stoever, William, “The Covenant of Works in Puritan Theology” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1972); Veninga, James F., “Covenant Theology and Ethics in the Thought of John Calvin and John Preston” (Ph.D diss., Rice Univ., 1973): Selement, George, “The Covenant Theology of English Separatism and the Separation of Church and State,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 41 (1973): 6674; McGiffert, , “The Problem of the Covenant in Puritan Thought: Peter Bulkeley's Gospel-Covenant,” The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 130 (1976): 107–29; Stoever, William K. B., “A Faire and Easie Way to Heaven”: Covenant Theology and Antinomianism in Early Massachusetts (Middletown, CT, 1978): McGiffert, , “William Tyndale's Conception of Covenant,” JEH 32 (1981): 167–84; Hajzyk, H., “Household divinity and Covenant Theology in Lincolnshire, c. 1595-c. 1640,” Lincolnshire History and Archaeology 17 (1982): 4549; McGiffert, , “God's Controversy with Jacobean England,” American Historical Review 88 (1983): 1151–74 (and his revision in ibid. 89: 1217-18); Zaret, David, The Heavenly Contract (1985).

38 Coolidge, John S., The Pauline Renaissance in England: Puritanism and the Bible (Oxford, 1970), quoted on pp. 2, 11, 27, 68. For the origins of the dispute concerning adiaphora see Verkamp, Bernard J., The Indifferent Mean: Adiaphorism in the English Reformation to 1554 (Athens, Ohio, and Detroit, 1977). See also Primus, J. H., The Vestments Controversy (Kampen, 1960). For Puritan hermeneutics see Polizzotto, Carolyn M., “Types and Typology: A Study in Puritan Hermeneutics” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of London, 1975); Fienberg, S. P., “Thomas Goodwin's Scriptural Hermeneutics and the Dissolution of Puritan Unity,” JRH 10 (1978): 3249; Knott, John R. Jr., The Sword of the Spirit: Puritan Responses to the Bible (Chicago, 1980); Paul, Robert S., “Social Justice and the Puritan ‘Dual Ethic’,” in Intergerini Parietis Septum (Pittsburgh, 1981), ed. Hadidian, D. Y., pp. 251–84. For biblical marginalia see Mullett, Charles F., “That All May Understand: The Early English Bibles as Archives of History,” HMPEC 44 (1975): 353–64; Greaves, , “Traditionalism and the Seeds of Revolution in the Social Principles of the Geneva Bible,” SCJ 7 (1976): 94109; Greaves, , “The Nature and Intellectual Milieu of the Political Principles in the Geneva Bible Marginalia,” Journal of Church and State 22 (1980): 233–49; Greaves, Society and Religion; Danner, Dan G., “The Contributions of the Geneva Bible of 1560 to the English Protestant Tradition,” SCJ 12 (1981): 518; Betteridge, Maurice, “The Bitter Notes: The Geneva Bible and Its Annotations,” SCJ 14 (1983): 4162.

39 The ties between the Church of England and the Reformed tradition are explored in the essays edited by Baker, Derek in Reform and Reformation: England and the Continent c1500-c1750, SCH 2 Subsidia (1979). An essay by Basil Hall in this volume deals with Lutheranism in England to 1600. The extent of Luther's influence in the seventeenth century has not been fully determined, but a promising start has been made in Wallace, , “The Anglican Appeal to Lutheran Sources: Philip Melanchthon's Reputation in Seventeenth-Century England,” HMPEC 52 (1983): 355–67; and Baker, J. Wayne, “Sola Fide Sola Gratia: The Battle for Luther in Seventeenth-Century England,” SCJ 16 (1985): 115–33. See also Keep, D. J., “Henry Bullinger and the Elizabethan Church” (Ph.D. thesis, Sheffield Univ., 1970); Schaaf, Mark E. Vander, “Archbishop Parker's Efforts Toward a Bucerian Discipline in the Church of England,” SCJ 8 (1977): 85103.

40 Christianson, Paul, Reformers and Babylon: English Apocalyptic Visions from the Reformation to the Eve of the Civil War (Toronto, 1978), p. 100. See also Wilson, John F., “Studies in Puritan Millenarianism Under the Early Stuarts” (Th.D. diss., Union Theological Seminary, N.Y., 1962); Clouse, Robert G., “The Influence of John Henry Alsted on English Millenarian Thought in the Seventeenth Century” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1963); Toon, Peter, ed., Puritans, the Millennium and the Future of Israel: Puritan Eschatology 1600 to 1660 (Cambridge and London, 1970); Capp, Bernard S., “Godly Rule and English Millenarianism,” PP 52 (1971): 106–17; Capp, , “The Millennium and Eschatology in England,” PP 57 (1972): 156–62; Christianson, , “From Expectation to Militance: Reformers and Babylon in the First Two Years of the Long Parliament,” JEH 24 (1973): 225–44; Clouse, , “John Napier and Apocalyptic Thought,” SCJ 5 (1974): 101–14; Ball, Brian W., A Great Expectation: Eschatological Thought in English Protestantism to 1660 (Leiden, 1975); Laydon, J. P., “The Kingdom of Christ and the Powers of the Earth: The Political Uses of Apocalyptic and Millenarian Ideas in England, 1648-53” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1977); Bauckham, R. J., Tudor Apocalypse (Abingdon, Berks., 1978); Firth, Katharine R., The Apocalyptic Tradition in Reformation Britain 1530-1645 (Oxford, 1979).

41 Lamont, William M., Godly Rule: Politics and Religion, 1603-60 (London and New York, 1969).

42 On the related matter of Puritan and sectarian views toward the Jews see Toon, , “The Question of Jewish Immigration,” in Puritans, the Millennium and the Future of Israel, pp. 115–25; Healey, Robert M., “The Jew in Seventeenth-Century Protestant Thought,” CH 46 (1977): 6379; Higgins, Lesley Hall, “Radical Puritans and Jews in England, 1648-1672” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1979); Popkin, Richard H., “Jewish Messianism and Christian Millenarianism,” in Culture and Politics from Puritanism to the Enlightenment, ed. Zagorin, Perez (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1980), pp. 6790; Katz, David S., Philo-semitism and the Readmission of the Jews to England, 1603-1655 (Oxford, 1982).

43 Wallace, , Puritans and Predestination, p. xi. Cf. Petit, Norman, The Heart Prepared: Grace and Conversion in Puritan Spiritual Life (New Haven, Conn., 1966); Morgan, Irvonwy, Puritan Spirituality Illustrated from the Life and Times of the Rev. Dr. John Preston (London, 1973). For the effects of this experience on preaching see Poe, Harry Lee, “Evangelistic Fervency Among the Puritans in Stuart England, 1603-1688” (Ph.D. diss., Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1982), which concentrates on Richard Sibbes, Thomas Goodwin, and John Bunyan. Margarita Patricia Hutchison has demonstrated that Edward Dering developed a new form of catechism in the early 1570s, and that this household type became dominant among Puritans beginning in the 1580s. Social and Religious Change: The Case of the English Catechism, 1560-1640” (Ph.D. diss., Stanford Univ., 1984).

44 Greaves, , Society and Religion, p. 7; Greaves, , “The Nature of the Puritan Tradition,” in Reformation, Conformity and Dissent: Essays in Honour of Geoffrey Nuttall, ed. Knox, R. Buick (London, 1977), pp. 257–59.

45 Nuttall, Geoffrey F., The Holy Spirit in Puritan Faith and Experience (Oxford, 1976). Cf. Nuttall, , The Puritan Spirit: Essays and Addresses (London, 1967), chap. 10; Weisiger, Cary Nelson, “The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit in the Preaching of Richard Sibbes” (Ph.D diss., Fuller Theological Seminary, 1984).

46 Knappen, M. M., ed., Two Elizabethan Puritan Diaries (Chicago, 1933). See also Brink, A. W., ed., The Life of the Reverend Mr. George Trosse (Montreal, 1974); Wallace, , “The Image of Saintliness in Puritan Hagiography, 1650-1700,” in The Divine Drama in History and Liturgy: Essays Presented to Horton Davies on His Retirement from Princeton University, ed. Booty, John E. (Allison Park, 1984), pp. 2343.

47 Watkins, Owen C., The Puritan Experience: Studies in Spiritual Autobiography (New York, 1972), pp. 32–33, 99, and chap. 13.

48 Webber, Joan, The Eloquent “I”: Style and Self in Seventeenth-Century Prose (Madison, 1968), pp. 248, 252.

49 McGee, J. Sears, The Godly Man in Stuart England: Anglicans, Puritans, and the Two Tables, 1620-1670 (New Haven and London, 1976), pp. 25; Sibbes, Richard, The Saints Cordialls (London, 1637), p. 142, quoted in ibid., p. 5; Lake, , Moderate Puritans, pp. 282–83. Cf. McGee, , “Conversion and the Imitation of Christ in Anglican and Puritan Writing,” JBS 15 (1976): 2139.

50 Collinson, , “A Comment,” p. 484.

51 Lake, , Moderate Puritans, pp. 279–85; Lake, , “Laurence Chaderton and the Cambridge Moderate Puritan Tradition” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1978); Lake, , “Matthew Hutton—A Puritan Bishop?History 64 (1979): 182204. Lake argues that Hutton held a Puritan world-view. See also Lake, , “The Dilemma of Francis Johnson and Cuthbert Bainbrigg,” JEH 29 (1978): 2335. It has also been argued that Puritans can be distinguished by their views on providence and history. See Molen, Ronald J. Vander, “Providence as Mystery, Providence as Revelation: Puritan and Anglican Modifications of John Calvin's Doctrine of Providence,” CH 47 (1978): 2747; Donagan, Barbara, “Providence, Chance and Explanation: Some Paradoxical Aspects of Puritan Views of Causation,” JRH 11 (1981): 385403; Parry, Glyndwr John Robert, “William Harrison (1535-1593) and ‘The Great English Chronology’: Puritanism and History in the Reign of Elizabeth” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1982).

52 Little, , Religion, Order, and Law, pp. 127–28.

53 Recent studies of the Elizabethan Presbyterians include Knox, S. J., Walter Travers: Paragon of Elizabethan Puritanism (London, 1962); Bauckham, Richard J., “The Career and Theology of Dr. William Fulke, 1537-89” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1973); Luoma, J. K., “Restitution or Reformation? Cartwright and Hooker on the Elizabethan Church,” HMPEC 46 (1977): 85106; Bauckham, , “Hooker, Travers and the Church of Rome in the 1580s,” JEH 29 (1978): 3750.

54 Breen, Timothy H., “The Non-Existent Controversy: Puritan and Anglican Attitudes on Work and Wealth, 1600-1640,” CH 25 (1966): 273–87; O'Connell, Laura Stevenson, “Anti-Entrepreneurial Attitudes in Elizabethan Sermons and Popular Literature,” JBS 15 (1976): 120; Marshall, Paul Arthur, “The Calling: Obedience, Duty, Labour and God in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England” (Ph.D. diss., York Univ., Can., 1979); Seaver, , “The Puritan Work Ethic Revisited,” JBS 19 (1980): 3553; Sommerville, C. John, “The Anti-Puritan Work Ethic,” JBS 20 (1981): 7081; Greaves, , Society and Religion, pp. 391–94.

55 Nuttall, , The Holy Spirit, p. 9.

56 White, B. R., The English Separatist Tradition: From the Marian Martyrs to the Pilgrim Fathers (Oxford, 1971). For the Marian Protestants see Martin, J. W., “The Protestant Underground Congregations of Mary's Reign,” JEH 35 (1984): 519–38. For Foxe see Olsen, V. Norskov, John Foxe and the Elizabethan Church (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1973); McNeill, John T., “John Foxe: Historiographer, Disciplinarian, Tolerationist,” CH 43 (1974): 216–29; Wooden, Warren W., John Foxe (Boston, 1983). A critical edition of Foxe's Acts and Monuments is needed.

57 Brachlow, Stephen, “Puritan Theology and Radical Churchmen in Pre-Revolutionary England, with Special Reference to Henry Jacob and John Robinson” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1978); Brachlow, , “John Robinson and the Lure of Separatism in pre-Revolutionary England,” CH 50 (1981): 288301; Brachlow, , “More Light on John Robinson and the Separatist Tradition,” Fides et Historia 13 (1980): 622. See also Carter, Alice C., “John Robinson and the Dutch Reformed Church,” SCH, ed. Cuming, G. J., 3 (1966): 232–41; Forman, Charles C., “John Robinson: Exponent of the Middle Way,” Proceedings of the Unitarian Historical Society 17 (19731975): 2229; Huxtable, John, “The Spirituality of John Robinson,” The Month, no. 236 (1975): 152–54. For Jacob see von Rohr, John, “The Congregationalism of Henry Jacob,” Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society 19 (1962): 107–17; Yarbrough, Slayden A., “Henry Jacob, a Moderate Separatist, and His Influence on Early English Congregationalism” (Ph.D. diss., Baylor Univ., 1972); Goehring, Walter R., “Henry Jacob (1563-1624) and the Separatists” (Ph.D diss., New York Univ., 1975).

58 George, Timothy, John Robinson and the English Separatist Tradition (Macon, Ga., 1982), p. 242. Cf. George, , “Predestination in a Separatist Context: The Case of John Robinson,” SCJ 15 (1984): 7385. The case for discontinuity would seem to be strengthened by the discovery of Separatists as early as 1550; see Martin, J. W., “English Protestant Separatism at Its Beginnings: Henry Hart and the Free-Will Men,” SCJ 7 (1976): 5574. The crucial question, however, is whether the Elizabethan Separatists owed anything to Hart's group. For the question of relations between Separatists and Familists, see Martin, , “Elizabethan Familists and Other Separatists in the Guildford Area,” BIHR 51 (1978): 9093; Martin, , “Elizabethan Familists and English Separatism,” JBS 20 (1980): 5373; Martin, , “The Elizabethan Familists: A Separatist Group as Perceived by Their Contemporaries,” BQ 29 (1982): 267–81. Cf. Martin, , “Christopher Vitel: An Elizabethan Mechanick Preacher,” SCJ 10 (1979): 1522.

59 Collinson, , Elizabethan Puritan Movement, p. 12. For the Separatists see also Carlson, Leland H., “A Corpus of Elizabethan Nonconformist Writings,” SCH, ed. Cuming, G. J., 2 (1965): 297309; Atkinson, David W., “A Brief Discoverie of the False Church: Henry Barrow's Last Spiritual Statement,” HMPEC 48 (1979): 265–78. Cf. Bloomfield, Edward H., The Opposition to the English Separatists, 1570-1625: A Survey of the Polemical Literature Written by the Opponents to Separatism (Washington, D. C., 1981). See also Clement, C. J., “The English Radicals and Their Theology, 1535-1565” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1980).

60 This, of course, involves the broader question of religious “enthusiasm.” See Moore, Nathan, “Religious Enthusiasm in England During the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries” (Ph.D diss., Univ. of British Columbia, 1972); Cherry, Charles L., “Enthusiasm and Madness: Anti-Quakerism in the Seventeenth Century,” QH 74 (1984): 124.

61 Cragg, Gerald R., Freedom and Authority: A Study of English Thought in the Early Seventeenth Century (Philadelphia, 1975). p. 220.

62 Cf. Milward, Peter, Religious Controversies of the Elizabethan Age: A Survey of Printed Sources (London, 1977); Milward, , Religious Controversies of the Jacobean Age: A Survey of Printed Sources (Lincoln, Neb., 1978).

63 Collinson, , “Towards a Broader Understanding of the Early Dissenting Tradition,” in The Dissenting Tradition, ed. Cole, and Moody, , pp. 338.

64 Watts, M. R., The Dissenters: From the Reformation to the French Revolution (Oxford, 1978).

65 White, , The English Separatist Tradition, p. 165; Tolmie, Murray, The Triumph of the Saints: The Separate Churches of London 1616-1649 (Cambridge, 1977), p. 3. See also Paul, Robert S., “Henry Jacob and Seventeenth-Century Puritanism,” Hartford Quarterly 7 (1967): 92113; von Rohr, John, “Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus: An Early Congregational Version,” CH 36 (1967): 107–21; Zuck, Lowell, “Reviewing Congregational Origins Among Puritans and Separatists in England,” Bulletin of the Congregational Library 29 (1978): 413.

66 Bakker, Johannes, John Smyth, de stichter van het Baptisme (Wageningen, Neth., 1964); Ban, Joseph D., “Were the Earliest English Baptists Anabaptists?”, in In the Great Tradition: Essays on Pluralism, Voluntarism, and Revivalism, ed. Ban, and Dekar, Paul R. (Valley Forge, Pa., 1982), pp. 91106; Coggins, James R., “The Theological Positions of the First English Baptist: John Smyth, c. 1565-1612,” BQ 30 (1984): 247–64; Stephen Brachlow, “John Smyth and the Ghost of Anabaptism: A Rejoinder,” ibid. 30 (1984); 296-300; White, “The English Separatists and John Smyth Revisited,” ibid. 30 (1984): 344-47.

67 Hill, , Puritanism and Revolution (New York, 1958), p. vii; Hill, , The World Turned Upside Down: Radical Ideas During the English Revolution (New York, 1972), p. 12.

68 Greaves, , Saints and Rebels: Seven Nonconformists in Stuart England (Macon, Ga., 1985).

69 Cf. Carter, R. B., “The Presbyterian-Independent Controversy with Special Reference to Dr. Thomas Goodwin and the Years 1640 to 1660” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1961); Greaves, , “The Ordination Controversy and the Spirit of Reform in Puritan England,” JEH 21 (1970): 225–41; King, Peter, “The Reasons for the Abolition of the Book of Common Prayer in 1645,” JEH 21 (1970): 327–39; Cross, Claire, “The Church in England 1646-1660,” in The Interregnum: The Quest for Settlement 1646-1660, ed. Aylmer, G. E. (London, 1972), pp. 99120; Liu, Tai, Discord in Zion: The Puritan Divines and the Puritan Revolution 1640-1660 (The Hague, 1973); Bradley, Rosemary D., “‘Jacob and Esau Struggling in the Wombe’: A Study of Presbyterian and Independent Religious Conflicts, 1640-1648” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Kent, 1975); Mahony, Michael, “Presbyterianism in the City of London, 1645-1647,” HJ 22 (1979): 93114; Anderson, P. J., “Presbyterianism and the Gathered Churches in Old and New England, 1640-1642: The Struggle for Church Government in Theory and Practice” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1979); Bridger, F. W., “Theology and Politics in the English Revolution, 1640-1660” (Ph.D. thesis, Bristol Univ., 1980); Yule, George, Puritans in Politics: The Religious Legislation of the Long Parliament 1640-1647 (Abingdon, Berks., 1981); Bradley, , “The Failure of Accommodation: Religious Conflict Between Presbyterians and Independents in the Westminster Assembly 1643-1646,” JRH 12 (1982): 2347; Morrill, J. S., “The Church in England 1643-9,” in Reactions to the English Civil War 1642-1649, ed. Morrill, (London, 1982), pp. 89114; Woolrych, Austin, Commonwealth to Protectorate (Oxford, 1982): Abbott, W. M., “The Issue of Episcopacy in the Long Parliament, 1640-1648: The Reasons for Abolition” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1982); Swaby, J. E., “Ecclesiastical and Religious History of the County of Lincoln, 1640-60” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Leicester, 1983).

70 Jones, R. Tudur, Congregationalism in England 1662-1962 (London, 1962); White, B. R., The English Baptists of the Seventeenth Century (London, 1983); Bolam, C. G., Goring, Jeremy, Short, H. L., and Thomas, Roger, The English Presbyterians: From Elizabethan Puritanism to Modern Unitarianism (London, 1968); Braithwaite, W. C., The Beginnings of Quakerism, 2nd ed., rev. by Cadbury, H. J. (New York, 1955); Braithwaite, , The Second Period of Quakerism, 2nd ed., rev. by Cadbury, (New York, 1961). Cf. White, , “The Organization of the Particular Baptists,” JEH 17 (1966): 209–26; Land, R. D., “Doctrinal Controversies of English Particular Baptists (1644-1691) as Illustrated by the Career and Writings of Thomas Collier” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1979). See also Hill, , “History and Denominational History,” BQ 22 (1967): 6571.

71 Nuttall, , Visible Saints: The Congregational Way 1640-1660 (Oxford, 1957). For the views of the Independents in the Westminster Assembly on ecclesiastical polity see Walker, David, “Thomas Goodwin and the Debate on Church Government,” JEH 34 (1983): 85104.

72 Nuttall, , The Welsh Saints 1640-1660 (Cardiff, 1957); The Puritan Spirit, chap. 12. See also three articles in John, Mansel, ed., Welsh Baptist Studies (South Wales Baptist College, 1976): White, B. R., “John Miles and the Structures of Calvinistic Baptist Mission to South Wales, 1649-1660,” pp. 3576; Jones, R. Tudur, “The Sufferings of Vavasor” pp. 7791; Owens, Ben G., “Rhydwilym Church 1668-89: A Study of West Wales Baptists,” pp. 92107. For histories of the Independents and Baptists in Wales, see, respectively, Jones, , Hanes Annibynwyr Cymru (Abertawe, 1966); Bassett, T. M., The Welsh Baptists (Swansea, 1977). See also Jones, , “The Healing Herb and the Rose of Love: The Piety of Two Welsh Puritans,” in Reformation, Conformity and Dissent, ed. Knox, , pp. 154–79.

73 Jenkins, Gerraint H., Literature, Religion and Society in Wales, 1660-1730 (Cardiff, 1978). For the political and religious fate of the radicals in Wales at the Restoration, see Jenkins, Philip, “‘The Old Leaven’: The Welsh Roundheads After 1660,” HJ 24 (1981): 807–23. For the ejections of Welsh Nonconformists see Jones, R. Tudur and Owens, B. G., “Anghydffurfwyr Cymru 1660-1662,” Trafodion Cymdeithas Hanes y Bedyddwyr (Transactions of the Welsh Baptist Historical Society) (1962): 393. See also Jones, , “Relations Between Anglicans and Dissenters: The Promotion of Piety 1670-1730” in A History of the Church in Wales, ed. Walker, D. (Penarth, 1976), pp. 79102.

74 Barbour, Hugh, The Quakers in Puritan England (New Haven and London, 1964). See also Reay, Barry G., “Early Quaker Activity and Reaction to It, 1652-1664” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1979).

75 Bohn, Ralph P., “The Controversy Between Puritans and Quakers to 1660” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Edinburgh, 1955); Underwood, T. L., “The Controversy Between the Baptists and the Quakers in England, 1650-1689: A Theological Elucidation” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of London, 1965). Cf. Horle, Craig W., “Quakers and Baptists, 1647-1660,” BQ 26 (1976): 344–62. In contrast to Nuttall (The Holy Spirit in Puritan Faith and Experience), Melvin Endy argues for continuity between Quakers and rationalist Dissenters: William Penn and Early Quakerism (Princeton, 1973).

76 Donald F. Durnbaugh steers a middle course, arguing that the development of the Baptists and the Quakers must be seen against the background of “radical Puritanism.” Baptists and Quakers—Left Wing Puritans?QH 62 (1973): 6782. For Quaker relationships with the Ranters see MacGregor, James F., “Ranterism and the Development of Early Quakerism,” JRH 9 (1977): 349–63; and with the Muggletonians see Greene, Douglas G., “Muggletonians and Quakers: A Study in the Interaction of Seventeenth Century Dissent,” Albion 15 (1983): 102–22. The most important recent articles on the Quakers include Frost, J. William, “The Dry Bones of Quaker Theology,” CH 39 (1970): 503–23; Bitterman, M. G. F., “The Early Quaker Literature of Defense,” CH 42 (1973): 203–28; Anderson, A. B., “A Study in the Sociology of Religious Persecution: The First Quakers,” JRH 9 (1977): 247–62; Carroll, Kenneth L., “Quaker Attitudes Towards Signs and Wonders,” JFHS 54 (1977): 7084; Reay, Barry, “The Quakers and 1659: Two Newly Discovered Broadsides by Edward Burrough,” JFHS 54 (1977): 101–11; Reay, , “The Quakers, 1659, and the Restoration of Monarchy,” History 63 (1978): 193213; Carroll, , “Quakerism and the Cromwellian Army in Ireland,” JFHS 54 (1978): 135–54; Williams, C. M., “An Unpublished Defence of the Quakers (by Henry Marten), 1655,” JFHS 54 (1978): 126–34; Barbour, , “William Penn, Model of Protestant Liberalism,” CH 48 (1979): 156–73; Howell, Roger, “The Newcastle Clergy and the Quakers,” Archaeologia Aeliana, 5th ser., 7 (1979): 191206; Reay, , “Popular Hostility Toward Quakers in Mid-Seventeenth-Century England,” Social History 5 (1980): 387407; Reay, , “Quaker Opposition to Tithes 1652-1660,” PP 86 (1980): 98120; Kent, S. A., “The ‘Papist’ Charges Against the Interregnum Quakers,” JRH 12 (1982): 180–90.

77 Vann, Richard T., The Social Development of English Quakerism, 1655-1755 (Cambridge, Mass., 1969); Vann, , “Quakerism and the Social Structure in the Interregnum,” PP 43 (1969): 7191; Hurwich, Judith Jones, “The Social Origins of the Early Quakers,” PP 48 (1970): 156–61 (and Vann's response, ibid., pp. 162-64); Anderson, Alan, “The Social Origins of the Early Quakers,” QH 68 (1979): 3340; Reay, , “The Social Origins of Early Quakerism,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 11 (1980): 5572.

78 Bauman, Richard, Let Your Words Be Few: Symbolism of Speaking and Silence Among Seventeenth-Century Quakers (Cambridge, 1983).

79 Hexter, J. H., “The Burden of Proof,” Times Literary Supplement (24 Oct. 1975); Hill, , “Reply to Hexter,” TLS (7 Nov. 1975); Hexter, , “Reply to Hill,” TLS (28 Nov. 1975); Palmer, William G.. “The Burden of Proof: J. H. Hexter and Christopher Hill,” JBS 19 (1979): 122–29.

80 Hill, , The World Turned Upside Down; Keith Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic (New York, 1971). See also Trout, Paul Arno, “Magic and the Millennium: A Study of the Millenary Motifs in the Occult Milieu of Puritan England, 1640-1660” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of British Columbia, 1975); Cross, Claire, “Popular Piety and the Records of the Unestablished Churches, 1640-1660,” SCH, ed. Baker, Derek (1975): 269–92; Wallace, , “George Gifford, Puritan Propaganda and Popular Religion In Elizabethan England,” SCJ 9 (1978): 2749; Tyacke, , “Popular Puritan Mentality in Late Elizabethan England,” in The English Commonwealth, ed. Clark, , Smith, , and Tyacke, , pp. 7792; Reay, Barry and McGregor, J. F., eds., Radical Religion in the English Revolution (New York, 1984).

81 Sommerville, C. John, Popular Religion in Restoration England (Gainesville, Fl., 1977). See also Sommerville, , “Popular Religious Literature in England, 1660-1711: A Content Analysis” (Ph. D diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1970); Sommerville, , “On the Distribution of Religious and Occult Literature in Seventeenth Century England,” The library 29 (1974): 221–25; Sommerville, , “Religious Typologies and Popular Religion in Restoration England,” CH 45 (1976): 3241.

82 Capp, B. S., The Fifth Monarchy Men: A Study in Seventeenth-Century English Millenarianism (London, 1972). See also Rogers, P. G., The Fifth Monarchy Men (London, 1966); Hoy, Suellen M., “John Rogers: A Disillusioned Fifth Monarchy Man,” Albion 4 (1972): 125–46; Greaves, , “John Bunyan and the Fifth Monarchists,” Albion 13 (1981): 8395.

83 Morton, A. L., The World of the Ranters: Religious Radicalism in the English Revolution (London, 1970). The Winstanley literature is extensive, but the following studies will provide a beginning: Vann, R. T., “From Radicalism to Quakerism: Gerrard Winstanley and Friends,” JFHS 49 (19591961): 4146; Vann, , “The Later Life of Gerrard Winstanley,” Journal of the History of Ideas 26 (1965): 133–36; Greaves, , “Gerrard Winstanley and Educational Reform in Puritan England,” British Journal of Educational Studies 17 (1969): 166–76; Juretic, George, “The Mind of Gerrard Winstanley” (Ph.D. diss., Northern Illinois University, 1973); Juretic, , “Digger no Millenarian: The Revolutionizing of Gerrard Winstanley,” Journal of the History of Ideas 36 (1975): 263–80; George, C. H., “Gerrard Winstanley: A Critical Retrospect,” in The Dissenting Tradition, ed. Cole, and Moody, , pp. 191225; Lutaud, Olivier, Winstanley: Socialisme et Christianisme sous Cromwell (Paris, 1976); Amoroso, K. S., “Gerrard Winstanley” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Toronto, 1976); Davis, J. C., “Gerrard Winstanley and the Restoration of True Magistracy,” PP 70 (1976): 7693; Mulligan, Lotte, Graham, John K., and Richards, Judith, “Winstanley: A Case for the Man as He Said He Was,” JEH 28 (1977): 5775; Hill, C., “The Religion of Gerrard Winstanley,” PP, Supplement 5 (1978): 157; Alsop, J., “Gerrard Winstanley's Later Life,” PP 82 (1979): 7381; Hayes, T. Wilson, Winstanley the Digger: A Literary Analysis of Radical Ideas in the English Revolution (Cambridge, Mass., 1979); Davis, , Utopia and the Ideal Society: A Study of English Utopian Writing, 1516-1700 (Cambridge, 1980); Solt, Leo F., “Winstanley, Lilburne, and the Case of John Fielder,” Huntington Library Quarterly 45 (1982): 119–36.

84 Hill, , Milton and the English Revolution (New York, 1978).

85 Tindall, William York, John Bunyan: Mechanick Preacher (New York, 1934). Hill is writing a “social biography” of Bunyan which will be published by Clarendon Press. For Bunyan's thought see Greaves, , John Bunyan (Appleford, Abingdon, and Grand Rapids, 1969).

86 Parker, William Riley, Milton: A Biography, 2 vols. (Oxford, 1968).

87 Nuttall, , Richard Baxter (London, 1965); Lamont, , Richard Baxter and the Millennium: Protestant Imperialism and the English Revolution (Totowa, N.J., 1979); Keeble, N. H., Richard Baxter: Puritan Man of Letters (Oxford, 1982). See also Schlatter, Richard, ed., Richard Baxter & Puritan Politics (New Brunswick, N.J., 1957); Whitehorn, R. D., “Richard Baxter—‘Meer Nonconformist’,” in The Beginnings of Nonconformity: The Hibbert Lectures (London, 1964), pp. 6177; Lamont, , “Richard Baxter, the Apocalypse and the Mad Major,” PP 55 (1972): 6890; Nuttall, , “Richard Baxter and The Grotian Religion,” SCH 2 Subsidia, ed. Baker, Derek (1979), pp. 245–50; Mansell, Gael, “‘Simple Catholick Christianity’: The Style of Religious Debate in Richard Baxter's Nonconformist Pamphets, 1679-81” (M.A. thesis, Univ. of Warwick, 1981); Keeble, , “Richard Baxter's Preaching Ministry: Its History and Texts,” JEH 35 (1984): 539–59.

88 There are also a few Baxter manuscripts in the Bodleian and the British Library. For Baxter's bibliography see Keeble, , Richard Baxter, pp. 156–74.

89 The Miscellaneous Works of John Bunyan, general editor, Sharrock, Roger, 13 vols. (Oxford, 1976—). At least two volumes of essays, one edited by N. H. Keeble (Oxford University Press) and one by Robert Collmer, will be published for the tercentenary. For a full bibliography of Bunyan studies see Forrest, James F. and Greaves, Richard L., John Bunyan: A Reference Guide (Boston, 1982).

90 Stearns, Raymond P., The Strenuous Puritan: Hugh Peter, 1598-1660 (Urbana, Ill., 1954); Sprunger, Keith L., The Learned Doctor William Ames: Dutch Backgrounds of English and American Puritanism (Urbana, Ill., 1972); Shuffleton, Frank, Thomas Hooker 1587-1647 (Princeton, 1977); Toon, Peter, God's Statesman: The Life and Work of John Owen, Pastor, Educator, Theologian (Exeter, 1971); Walker, Eric C., William Dell: Master Puritan (Cambridge, 1970); White, B. R., Hanserd Knollys and Radical Dissent in the 17th Century (London, 1977); Thomas, M. Wynn, Morgan Llywd (Cardiff, 1984). See also Sprunger, , “Ames, Ramus, and the Method of Puritan Theology,” Harvard Theological Review 59 (1966): 133–51; Sprunger, , “Technometria: A Prologue to Puritan Theology,” Journal of the History of Ideas 29 (1968): 115–22; Van der Woude, C., “Amesius' afscheid van Franeker,” Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis 52 (1972): 153–77; Vose, G. N., “Profile of a Puritan: John Owen and His Theology” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1963); Wallace, Dewey D. Jr., “The Life and Thought of John Owen to 1660: A Study of the Significance of Calvinist Theology in English Puritanism” (Ph.D. diss., Princeton Univ., 1965); Ferguson, S. B., “The Doctrine of the Christian Life in the Teaching of Dr. John Owen (1616-83)” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Aberdeen, 1979).

91 Hazelip, Herbert H., “Stephen Marshall: Preacher to the Long Parliament” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1967); Strickland, William J., “John Goodwin as Seen Through His Controversies of 1640-1660” (Ph.D. diss., Vanderbilt Univ., 1967); Hughes, Richard T., “Henry Burton: A Study in Religion and Politics in Seventeenth Century England” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Iowa, 1972); More, Ellen S., “The New Arminians: John Goodwin and His Coleman Street Congregation” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Rochester, 1980); More, , “John Goodwin and the Origins of the New Arminianism,” JBS 22 (1982): 5070. Cf. Kirby, David, “The Parish of St. Stephen's Coleman Street, London” (B.Litt. thesis, Oxford Univ., 1969).

92 Danner, Dan G., “Anthony Gilby: Puritan in Exile—A Biographical Approach,” CH 40 (1971): 412–22; Greaves, , “William Sprigg and the Cromwellian Revolution,” Huntington Library Quarterly 34 (1971): 99113; Greaves, , “Francis Bampfield: Eccentric Hebraist and Humanitarian,” BIHR 44 (1971): 224–28; White, B. R., “Henry Jessey in the Great Rebellion,” in Reformation, Conformity and Dissent, ed. Knox, , pp. 132–53; Backus, Irena, “Laurence Tomson (1539–1608) and Elizabethan Puritanism,” JEH 28 (1977): 1727; Tolmie, Murray, “Thomas Lambe, Soapboiler, and Thomas Lambe, Merchant, General Baptists,” Baptist Quarterly 27 (1977): 413; Clark, Peter, “Josias Nicholls and Religious Radicalism, 1553–1639,” JEH 28 (1977): 133–50; Clark, , “Thomas Scott and the Growth of Urban Opposition to the Early Stuart Regime,” HJ 21 (1978): 126; Kohler, C., A Quartet of Quakers: Isaac and Mary Penington, John Bellers, John Woolman (London, 1978); Williams, C. M., “The Anatomy of a Radical Gentleman: Henry Marten,” in Puritans and Revolutionaries: Essays in Seventeenth-Century History Presented to Christopher Hill, ed. Pennington, Donald and Thomas, Keith (Oxford, 1978), pp. 118–38; Moody, Michael E., “‘A Man of a Thousand’: The Reputation and Character of Henry Ainsworth, 1569/70–1622,” Huntington Library Quarterly 45 (1982): 200–14; Greaves, Saints and Rebels. There are many short accounts of Puritans, sectaries, and Nonconformists in Greaves and Zaller, Robert, eds., Biographical Dictionary of British Radicals in the Seventeenth Century, 3 vols. (Brighton, 19821984).

93 See, e.g., Carroll, Kenneth, “John Perrot,” JFHS, Supplement 33 (1970); Carroll, , “From Bond Slave to Governor: The Strange Career of Charles Bayly (1632?–1680),” JFHS 52 (1973): 1938; Carroll, “Martha Simmonds, a Quaker Enigma,” ibid. 53 (1974); 31–52; Carroll, “Henry Fell, Early Publisher of Truth,” ibid. 53 (1974): 113–23. See also Bittle, William G., “James Nayler: A Study in 17th Century Quakerism” (Ph.D. diss., Kent State Univ., 1975); Horle, Craig, “John Camm: Profile of a Quaker Minister During the Interregnum,” QH 70 (1981): 6983; 71 (1982): 3-15.

94 Cross, Claire, The Puritan Earl: The Life of Henry Hastings, Third Earl of Huntingdon 1536–1595 (London and New York, 1966); Lamont, , Marginal Prynne (London, 1963); Spalding, Ruth, The Improbable Puritan: A Life of Bulstrode Whitelocke (London, 1975); Crawford, Patricia, Denzil Holies (London, 1979). See also Condick, Frances M., “The Life and Works of Dr. John Bastwick, 1595–1654” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of London, 1983), Seaver, , Wallington's World (1985).

95 Schwarz, M. L., “The Religious Thought of the Protestant Laity in England 1590–1640” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of California at Los Angeles, 1965); Shipps, Kenneth W., “Lay Patronage of East Anglian Puritan Clerics in Pre-Revolutionary England” (Ph.D. diss., Yale Univ., 1971); Cross, Claire, Church and People 1450–1660: The Triumph of the Laity in the English Church (Atlantic Highlands, N.J., 1976); Donagan, Barbara, “The Clerical Patronage of Robert Rich, Second Earl of Warwick, 1619–1642,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 120 (1976); Shipps, , “The ‘Political Puritan’,CH 45 (1976): 196205; Seaver, , “Community Control and Puritan Politics in Elizabethan Suffolk,” Albion 9 (1977): 297315; Hurwich, Judith J., “‘A Fanatick Town’: The Political Influence of Dissenters in Coventry, 1660–1720,” Midland History 4 (1978): 1547; MacCulloch, Diarmaid, “Catholic and Puritan in Elizabethan Suffolk: A County Community Polarises,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 72 (1981): 232–89; Moody, Michael E., “Trials and Travels of a Nonconformist Layman: The Spiritual Odyssey of Stephen Offwood, 1564-ca. 1635,” CH 51 (1982): 157–71; Fulbrook, Mary, Piety and Politics (Cambridge, 1983); Howell, Roger Jr., Puritans and Radicals in North England: Essays on the English Revolution (Lanham, Md., 1984). See also a very important article by Schwarz which argues that in early Stuart England there was “a body of lay Anglican literature which reveals signs of a growing alienation from contemporary church policy”: Lay Anglicanism and the Crisis of the English Church in the Early Seventeenth Century,” Albion 14 (1982): 119.

96 Cliffe, J. T., The Puritan Gentry: The Great Puritan Families of Early Stuart England (London, 1984). See also Cliffe, , The Yorkshire Gentry from the Reformation to the Civil War (London, 1969).

97 Clark, Peter, English Provincial Society from the Reformation to the Revolution: Religion, Politics and Society in Kent 1500–1640 (Hassocks, Sussex, 1977).

98 Fletcher, Anthony, A County Community in Peace and War: Sussex 1600–1660 (London and New York, 1975). Cf. Fletcher, , “Puritanism in Seventeenth Century Sussex,” in Studies in Sussex Church History, ed. Kitch, M. J. (London, 1981), pp. 141–55.

99 Sheils, W. J., The Puritans in the Diocese of Peterborough 1558–1610 (Northampton, 1979). p. 118. See also Sheils, , “Some Problems of Government in a New Diocese: The Bishop and the Puritans in the Diocese of Peterborough,” in Continuity and Change: Personnel and Administration of the Church of England 1500–1642, ed. O'Day, Rosemary and Heal, Felicity (Leicester, 1976), pp. 167–87; Sheils, , “Religion in Provincial Towns,” in Church and Society in England, Henry VIII to James I, ed. Heal, and O'Day, (London, 1977), pp. 156–76.

100 Richardson, Puritanism in North-West England.

101 Hunt, William, The Puritan Moment: The Coming of Revolution in an English County (Cambridge, Mass., 1983). Three other excellent studies are Howell, Roger, Newcastle upon Tyne and the Puritan Revolution (Oxford, 1967); Underdown, David, Somerset in the Civil War and Interregnum (Newton Abbot, 1973); Wrightson, Keith and Levine, David, Poverty and Piety in an English Village (New York, 1979).

102 Seaver, , The Puritan Lectureships: The Politics of Religious Dissent 1560–1662 (Stanford, 1970), p. 292. Collinson modifies Seaver's thesis by denying any fundamental alienation between the lecturers and the established church. Lectures by Combination: Structures and Characteristics of Church Life in nth-Century England,” BIHR 48 (1975): 182213. See also Sprunger, , “Archbishop Laud's Campaign Against Puritanism at The Hague,” CH 44 (1975): 308–20.

103 Wilson, John F., Pulpit in Parliament: Puritanism During the English Civil Wars 1640–1648 (Princeton, 1969), pp. 230–31.

104 Little, P. M., “The Origins of the Political Ideologies of John Knox and the Marian Exiles” (Ph.D. thesis, Edinburgh Univ., 1972); Danner, Dan G., “Christopher Goodman and the English Protestant Tradition of Civil Disobedience,” SCJ 8 (1977): 6173; Greaves, , Theology and Revolution in the Scottish Reformation: Studies in the Thought of John Knox (Washington, D. C. and Grand Rapids, 1980), chap. 7; Bowler, G. D., “English Protestants and Resistance Writings, 1553–1603” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of London, 1981); Wollman, David H., “The Biblical Justification for Resistance to Authority in Ponet and Goodman's Polemics,” SCJ 13 (1982): 2941. Resistance theory was dropped in the Elizabethan period; see Greaves, , “Concepts of Political Obedience in Late Tudor England: Conflicting Perspectives,” JBS 22 (1982): 2334. There is no comprehensive study of political thought in the Puritan-Nonconformist tradition. See, however, Smart, I. M., “Liberty and Authority: The Political Ideas of Presbyterians in England and Scotland During the Seventeenth Century” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Strathclyde, 1978); Gimelfarb-Brack, Marie, “Puritains et révolution puritaine anglaise au XVIIe siècle: de la politique au moralisme,” Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Geschichie 30 (1980): 7283; George, Timothy, “War and Peace in the Puritan Tradition,” CH 53 (1984): 492503.

105 Walzer, Michael, The Revolution of the Saints: A Study in the Origins of Radical Politics (Cambridge, Mass., 1965). Cf. Wrightson, Keith E., “The Puritan Reformation of Manners, with Special Reference to the Counties of Lancashire and Essex, 1640–60” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1974).

106 For a convenient introduction see Richardson, R. C., The Debate on the English Revolution (London, 1977). Cf. Morrill, John, “The Religious Context of the English Civil War,” Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th ser, 34 (1984): 155–78.

107 Stone, Lawrence, The Causes of the English Revolution 1529–1642 (New York, 1972), pp. 99103.

108 Russell, Conrad, The Crisis of Parliaments: English History 1509–1660 (London and New York, 1971), chaps. 4 and 6; Russell, , “Introduction,” The Origins of the English Civil War (London, 1973), pp. 131; Russell, , Parliament and English Politics 1621–1629 (Oxford, 1979), pp. 2632. Cf. Russell, , “Arguments for Religious Unity in England, 1530–1650,” JEH 18 (1967): 201–26.

109 White, Peter, “The Rise of Arminianism Reconsidered,” PP 101 (1983): 3454. But see Fletcher, , “Factionalism in Town and Countryside: The Significance of Puritanism and Arminianism,” SCH 16, ed. Baker, Derek (1979): 291300.

110 Wiener, Carol Z., “The Beleaguered Isle. A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean AntiCatholicism,” PP 51 (1971): 2762; Clifton, Robin, “The Popular Fear of Catholics During the English Revolution,” PP 52 (1971) 2355; Jenkins, P., “Anti-Popery on the Welsh Marches in the Seventeenth Century,” HJ 23 (1980): 275–93; Fletcher, Anthony, The Outbreak of the English Civil War (London, 1981); Hibbard, Caroline, Charles I and the Popish Plot (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1983). Finlayson argues that the pervasiveness of anti-Catholicism in the seventeenth century underscores the essential unity of the period. This is a rather extreme manifestation of that historiographical school which sharply downplays the revolutionary upheavals of the 1640s and 1650s. Finlayson, , Historians, Puritanism, and the English Revolution: The Religious Factor in English Politics Before and After the Interregnum (Toronto, 1983). Pym's importance must be reassessed in light of the findings of Sheila Lambert, , “The Opening of the Long Parliament,” HJ 27 (1984): 265–87.

111 Lake, , “The Significance of the Elizabethan Identification of the Pope as Antichrist,” JEH 31 (1980): 161–78; Lake, Moderate Puritans and the Elizabethan Church. Cf. Hill, , Antichrist in Seventeenth-Century England (Oxford, 1971).

112 Stone, , The Crisis of the Aristocracy, 1558–1641 (Oxford, 1965); The Family, Sex and Marriage in England 1500–1800 (New York, 1977). For a critique of Stone's treatment of women see Schwoerer, Lois, “Seventeenth-Century English Women Engraved in Stone?Albion 16 (1984): 389403.

113 Cf. Reese, Max Meredith, The Puritan Impulse (London, 1975). For the Separatists see Greaves, , “Radical Social Demands in Elizabethan England: The Case of the Separatists,” Red River Valley Historical Journal of World History 4 (1979): 106–21; Foreman, H., “Robert Browne and Education,” BQ 30 (1983): 414.

114 Davies, Kathleen M., “The Sacred Condition of Equality—How Original Were Puritan Doctrines of Marriage?Social History 2 (1977): 563–80; Todd, Margo, “Humanists, Puritans and the Spiritualized Household,” CH 49 (1980): 1834; Leites, Edmund, “The Duty to Desire: Love, Friendship, and Sexuality in Some Puritan Theories of Marriage,” Journal of Social History 15 (1982): 383408. There is a crucial need for more studies which investigate social practices; see Quaife, G. R., “The Consenting Spinster in a Peasant Society: Aspects of Premarital Sex in ‘Puritan’ Somerset 1645–1660,” Journal of Social History 11 (1977); 228–44.

115 Parker, Kenneth L., “The English Sabbath, 1558–1604” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1984); Parker, , “Thomas Rogers and the English Sabbath: The Case for a Reappraisal,” CH 53 (1984): 332–47. See also Collinson, , “The Beginnings of English Sabbatarianism,” SCH 1 (1964): 207–21; Hill, Society and Puritanism, chap. 5; Solberg, Winton U., Redeem the Time: The Puritan Sabbath in Early America (Cambridge, Mass., 1977); Greaves, , “The Origin of English Sabbatarian Thought,” SCJ 12 (1981): 1934; Sprunger, , “English and Dutch Sabbatarianism and the Development of Puritan Social Theology (1600–1660),” CH 51 (1982): 2438; Dennison, James T. Jr., The Market Day of the Soul: The Puritan Doctrine of the Sabbath in England, 1532–1700 (Lanham, Md., 1983).

116 Schnucker, Robert V., “La position puritaine à l'égard de l'adultère,” Annales 27 (1972): 1379–88; Schnucker, , “The English Puritans and Pregnancy, Delivery and Breast Feeding,” History of Childhood Quarterly 1 (1974): 637–58; Schnucker, , “Elizabethan Birth Control and Puritan Attitudes,” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 5 (1975): 655–68.

117 Short, K. R. M., “The Educational Foundations of Elizabethan Puritanism: With Special Reference to Richard Greenham (15357–1594)” (Ed.D. diss., Univ. of Rochester, 1970); Short, , “A Theory of Common Education in Elizabethan Puritanism,” JEH 23 (1972): 3148; Morgan, J. P., “Godly Learning: Puritan Theories of the Religious Utility of Education, 1560–1640” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1977). See also Simon, Joan, Education and Society in Tudor England (Cambridge, 1966); Kearney, Hugh, Scholars and Gentlemen (Ithaca, N.Y., 1970); Stone, Lawrence, ed., Schooling and Society (Baltimore, 1976); Stephens, W. B., “The Baptists and Education 1580-1710” (Ph.D. thesis, Leeds Univ., 1976). Three related studies are Rolph, Rebecca Seward, “Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and the Puritan Movements of Old and New England” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Southern California, 1979); Dent, C. M., “Protestants in Elizabethan Oxford” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1980); Dippel, Stewart Arthur, “A Study of Religious Thought at Oxford and Cambridge from 1560 to 1640” (Ph.D. diss., Ohio State Univ., 1983).

118 Hitchcock, James, “Early Separatist Burial Practice,” Transactions of the Congregational Historical Society 20 (1966): 105–6; Rifkin, Myra Lee, “Burial, Funeral and Mourning Customs in England, 1558–1662” (Ph.D. diss., Bryn Mawr Coll., 1977); Stannard, David E., The Puritan Way of Death: A Study in Religion, Culture, and Social Change (Oxford, 1977), which focuses on New England; Greaves, Society and Religion, chap. 16; Attreed, Lorraine C., “Preparation for Death in Sixteenth-Century Northern England,” SCJ 13 (1982): 3766, which finds no evidence for strong Puritan sentiments in the north. Cf. Beaty, Nancy Lee, The Craft of Dying: A Study in the Literary Tradition of the Ars Moriendi in England (New Haven, Conn., 1970); Gittings, Clare, Death, Burial and the Individual in Early Modern England (London, 1984).

119 Thomas, Keith, “The Puritans and Adultery: The Act of 1650 Reconsidered,” in Puritans and Revolutionaries, ed. Pennington, and Thomas, , pp. 257–82.

120 Pearl, Valerie, “Puritans and Poor Relief: The London Workhouse, 1649–1660,” in Puritans and Revolutionaries, ed. Pennington, and Thomas, , pp. 206–32.

121 Prall, Stuart E., The Agitation for Low Reform During the Puritan Revolution 1640–1660 (The Hague, 1966): Veall, Donald, The Popular Movement for Law Reform, 1640–1660 (Oxford, 1970); Greaves, , The Puritan Revolution and Educational Thought: Background for Reform (New Brunswick, N.J., 1969); Greaves, , “The Early Quakers as Advocates of Educational Reform,” QH 58 (1970): 2230; Hill, , “The Radical Critics of Oxford and Cambridge in the 1650s,” in Universities in Politics, ed. Baldwin, J. W. and Goldthwaite, R. (Baltimore, 1972); Webster, Charles, The Great Instauration (London, 1975). A revised version of Hill's 1972 article as well as chapters on The Inns of Court” and “The Medical Profession and Its Radical Critics” are contained in his Change and Continuity in Seventeenth-Century England (Cambridge, Mass., 1975).

122 Schlatter, Richard B., The Social Ideas of Religious Leaders 1660–1688 (New York, 1940). Cf. Foreman, H., “Some Seventeenth Century Baptist Educational Textbooks,” BQ 30 (1983): 112–24.

123 Harvey, Richard, “English Poverty and God's Providence, 1675–1725,” The Historian 41 (1979): 499512. Cf. Harvey, , “The Problem of Social-Political Obligation for the Church of England in the Seventeenth Century,” CH 40 (1971): 156–69.

124 See, e.g., Dowley, T. E., “The History of the English Baptists During the Great Persecution, 1660–1688” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Manchester, 1976); Forde, H., “Derbyshire Quakers, 1650-1761” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Leicester, 1977); Marshall, D. N., “Protestant Dissent in England in the Reign of James II” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Hull, 1978); Clark, R., “Anglicanism, Recusancy and Dissent in Derbyshire, 1603–1730” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1979); Anderson, A., “From Puritanism to Nonconformity, 1660–89: A Study in the Development of Protestant Dissent, with Special Reference to Yorkshire” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Hull, 1981); MacDonald, Murdina D., “London Calvinistic Baptists, 1688–1727: Tensions within a Dissenting Community Under Toleration” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1983). Cf. Nuttall, , “Church Life in Bunyan's Bedfordshire,” BQ 26 (1976): 305–13.

125 Cragg, Gerald R., Puritanism in the Period of the Great Persecution 1660–1688 (Cambridge, 1957); Fletcher, Anthony, “The Enforcement of the Conventicle Acts 1664–1679,” in Persecution and Toleration, ed. Sheils, W. J., SCH 21 (1984): 235–46. See also Greaves, , “The Organizational Response of Nonconformity to Repression and Indulgence: The Case of Bedfordshire,” CH 44 (1975): 472–84; Spurrier, William Wayne, “The Persecution of Quakers in England: 1650–1714” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of North Carolina, 1976); Hurwich, Judith J., “Dissent and Catholicism in English Society: A Study of Warwickshire, 1660–1720,” JBS 16 (1976): 2458; Horle, Craig, “Judicial Encounters with Quakers, 1660–1688,” JFHS 54 (1977): 85100; Dowley, T. E., “A London Congregation During the Great Persecution: Petty France Particular Baptist Church, 1641–1688,” BQ 27 (1978): 233–39; Morgan, N. J., “Lancashire Quakers and the Oath, 1660–1722.” JFHS 54 (1980): 235–54; Reay, Barry, “The Authorities and Early Restoration Quakerism,” JEH 34 (1983): 6984; Davies, C. E., “The Enforcement of Religious Uniformity in England, 1668–1700, with Special Reference to the Dioceses of Chichester and Worcester” (D.Phil, thesis, Oxford Univ., 1983). Cf. Mensing, Raymond C. Jr., Toleration and Parliament, 1660–1719 (Lanham, Md., 1979).

126 Hill, , The Experience of Defeat: Milton and Some Contemporaries (New York, 1984). See also Hill, , Some Intellectual Consequences of the English Revolution (Madison, Wis., 1980).

127 Lacey, Douglas R., Dissent and Parliamentary Politics in England, 1661–1689 (New Brunswick, N.J., 1969). For an analysis of radical political and religious activity after the Restoration see Greaves, , Deliver Us from Evil: The Radical Underground in Britain, 1660–1663 (Oxford, forthcoming).

128 See Abernathy, George R. Jr., “The English Presbyterians and the Stuart Restoration, 1648-1663,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, new ser., 55, pt. 2 (1965). Cf. Green, I. M., The Re-Establishment of the Church of England 1660-1663 (Oxford, 1978). For a broad treatment of the question of comprehension see Baughman, James Glenn, “The Ideal of Comprehension in the Church of England, 1593-1689” (Ph.D. diss, Univ. of Kentucky, 1976). Cf. Thomas, Roger, “Comprehension and Indulgence,” in From Uniformity to Unity 1662-1962, ed. Nuttall, and Chadwick, Owen (London, 1962), pp. 189253.

129 Sprunger, Keith, Dutch Puritanism: A History of English and Scottish Churches of the Netherlands in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Leiden, 1982). See also Carter, Alice C., The English Reformed Church in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century (Amsterdam, 1964); Kannegieter, J. Z., Geschiedenis van de vroegere Quakergemeenschap te Amsterdam 1656 tot begin negentiende eeuw (Amsterdam, 1971); Sprunger, , “English Puritans and Anabaptists in Early Seventeenth-Century Amsterdam,” Mennonite Quarterly Review 46 (1972): 113–28; Sprunger, , “Other Pilgrims In Leiden: Hugh Goodyear and the English Reformed Church,” CH 41 (1972): 4660; Sprunger, , “The Dutch Career of Thomas Hooker,” The New England Quarterly 46 (1973): 1744; de Jonge, C., “Franciscus Junius (1545-1602) en de Engelse Separatisten te Amsterdam,” Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis 59 (1978): 132–59; Nuttall, , “English Dissenters in the Netherlands 1640-1689,” Nederlands Archief voor Kerkgeschiedenis 59 (1978): 3754.

130 Ludlow, Edmund, A Voyce from the Watch Tower. Part Five: 1660-1662, ed. Worden, A. B., Camden Society, 4th ser., 21 (London, 1978).

131 See also McGrath, Patrick, Papists and Puritans Under Elizabeth I (New York, 1967).

132 Cohen, Alfred, “The Fifth Monarchy Mind: Mary Cary and the Origins of Totalitarianism,” Social Research 31 (1964): 195213; Higgins, Patricia, “Women in the Civil War Sects” (M.A. thesis, Univ. of Manchester, 1965); Cross, Claire, “‘He-Goats Before the Flocks’: A Note on the Part Played by Women in the Founding of Some Civil War Churches,” SCH 8 (1972): 195202; Bainton, Roland H., “Feminine Piety in Tudor England,” in Christian Spirituality, ed. Brooks, Peter (London, 1975), pp. 183201; Ludlow, Dorothy, “‘Arise and Be Doing’: English ‘Preaching Women’ 1640–1660” (Ph.D. diss., Indiana Univ., 1978); Smith, Catherine, “Jane Lead: The Feminist Mind and Art of a Seventeenth Century Protestant Mystic,” in Women of Spirit: Female Leadership in the Jewish and Christian Traditions, ed. Ruether, Rosemary and McLaughlin, Eleanor (New York, 1979), pp. 184203; Elaine C. Huber, “A Woman Must Not Speak: Quaker Women in the English Left Wing,” in ibid., pp. 154–81; Smith, Hilda, Reason's Disciples: Seventeenth Century Feminists (Urbana, Ill., 1982); Ford, Linda, “William Penn's Views on Women: Subjects of Friendship,” QH 72 (1983): 75102; Cohen, , “Prophecy and Madness: Women Visionaries During the Puritan Revolution,” Journal of Psychohistory 11 (1984): 411–30; Scheffler, Judith, “Prison Writings of Early Quaker Women,” QH 74 (1984): 2537; Greaves, , “Foundation Builders: The Role of Women in Early English Nonconformity,” in Triumph over Silence: Women in Protestant History, ed. Greaves, (Westport, Ct., 1985), chap. 3: Ludlow, “Shaking Patriarchy's Foundations: Sectarian Women in England, 1641–1700,” in ibid., chap. 4.

133 Rostenberg, Leona, The Minority Press & the English Crown: A Study in Repression, 1558–1625 (Nieuwkoop, 1971); Youngs, Frederick J., “The Tudor Government and Dissident Religious Books,” in The Dissenting Tradition, ed. Cole, and Moody, , pp. 167–90; Calderwood, William, “The Elizabethan Protestant Press: A Study of the Printing and Publishing of Protestant Religious Literature in English, Excluding Bibles and Liturgies, 1558–1603” (Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of London, 1977); Crist, T. J., “Francis Smith and the Opposition Press in England, 1660–1688” (Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge Univ., 1977); Foster, Stephen, Notes from the Caroline Underground (Hamden, Conn., 1978); Craven, S. L. M., “Control of the Press in England, 1586–1603” (M.A. thesis, Univ. of Kent, 1978); Capp, , Astrology and the Popular Press: English Almanacs 1500–1800 (London, 1979); O'Malley, Thomas, “‘Defying the Powers and Tempering the Spirit.’ A Review of Quaker Control over Their Publications,” JEH 33 (1982): 7288; Stussy, Susan Agnes, “Michael Sparke, Puritan and Writer” (Ph.D. diss., Univ. of Tennessee, 1983). One mystery involving the radical press has been settled with the proof that Martin Marprelate was Job Throkmorton: Carlson, Leland H., Martin Marprelate, Gentleman: Master Job Throkmorton Laid Open in His Colors (San Marino, Ca., 1981).

134 Marshall, Stephen, Meroz Cursed, or, a Sermon (London, 1641), p. 46.

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