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Compliance With Final Judgments of the International Court of Justice Since 1987

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  27 February 2017

Colter Paulson*
Affiliation:
Columbia University School of Law; clp2008@columbia.edu

Extract

Commentators on the International Court of Justice (ICJ) note that cases of noncompliance with final judgments are very rare. The ICJ registrar Philippe Couvreur, however, recognized that compliance is often hard to determine because judgments are varied, declarations may not reflect actual conduct, effects may only become apparent long after the judgment is given, and the legal or political situation may substantially change after the judgment. In this vein, Judge Jennings asked:

The judgments of the Court are binding in law, but do they, in fact, resolve the matter? More work needs to be done here. It is ironic that the Court's business up to the delivery of judgment is published in lavish detail, but it is not at all easy to find out what happened afterwards.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © American Society of International Law 2004

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References

1 Jennings, Robert, Presentation, in Increasing the Effectiveness of the International Court of Justice: Proceedings of the ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium to Celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the Court 78 (Peck, Connie & Lee, Roy S. eds., 1997)Google Scholar [hereinafter ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium]; Couvreur, Philippe, The Effectiveness of the International Court of Justice in the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes, in The International Court of Justice: Its Future Role After Fifty Years 83, 112 (Muller, A. S. et al. eds., 1997)Google Scholar [hereinafter ICJ Future Role]; Compliance with Judgments of International Courts (M. Buderman & M. Kuijer eds., 1996).

2 Couvreur, supra note 1, at 112 n.75.

3 Jennings, supra note 1, at 81.

4 This article will not deal with compliance with provisional measures or other interlocutory orders, or with advisory opinions.

5 Military and Paramilitary Activities in and Against Nicaragua (Nicar. v. U.S.), Merits, 1986 ICJ Rep. 14 (June 27).

6 Charney, Jonathan I., Disputes Implicating the Institutional Credibility of the Court: Problems of Non-Appearance, Non-Participation, and Non-Performance, in The International Court of Justice At a Crossroads 288 (Lori, Fisler Damrosched., 1987)Google Scholar.

7 Charney reports only four cases of noncompliance with final judgments. Id. at 296, 300. The oldest of these four cases, Corfu Channel (UK v. Alb.), 1949 ICJ Rep. 4 (Apr. 9), was later resolved. Jennings, supra note 1, at 81. Three other cases were too recent to determine compliance in 1987, although it now appears that all three decisions have been successfully implemented. Libya and Tunisia reached an agreement implementing the Judgment in Application for Revision and Interpretation of the Judgment of 24 February 1982 in Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libya) (Tunis. v. Libya), 1985 ICJ Rep. 192 (Dec. 10). Ciarli, Stefano & McLachlan, Keith, A Bibliographic Review: Studies of Libya’s International Borders, 27 Libyan Stud. 89 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar (noting that the parties reached an agreement implementing the 1982 ICJ Judgment in 1988 and concurrently established a joint economic exploration zone). It also looks as if the Judgment in Continental Shelf (Malta/Libya.)’, 1985 ICJ Rep. 13 (June 3), has been respected. See Malta-Libya Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation (Ratification), Dec. 7, 1984, amended in 1990, referencing Agreement Implementing Article III of the Special Agreement and the Judgement of the ICJ Signed in Valletta on the 10th November 1986, available at <http://wwwjustice.gov.mt/documents/english/leg/vol_7/chapt311.pdf>; Finanz-Adressen, Oil Exploration in Malta, at <http://www.finanz-adressen.de/europa/M-oil.html> (visited Apr. 26, 2004)+(visited+Apr.+26,+2004)>Google Scholar. Finally, die decision in Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso/Mali), 1986 ICJ Rep. 554 (Dec. 22), has also been complied with. See ICJ Press Communique 87/1 (Jan. 16, 1987); Englebert, Pierre, Burkina Faso: Unsteady Statehood in West Africa 15356 (1996)Google Scholar; Frédéric, Lejal, Le Burkina Faso 12829 (2002)Google Scholar; Merrills, J. G., The International Court of Justice and the Adjudication of Territorial and Boundary Disputes, 13 Leiden J. Int’l L. 873 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

8 Charney, supra note 6, at 297.

9 Id. at 310–19 (ten of twenty-eight cases that reached significant stages of litigation in the period 1947–1987 involved some form of nonappearance or nonparticipation).

10 Id. at 297.

11 “Generally speaking, since there is not much information relating to the post-adjudicative phase, one can only offer some impressionistic views.” Gross, Leo, Compulsory Jurisdiction Under the Optional Clause: History and Practice, in The International Court of Justice at a Crossroads, supra note 6, at 19, 45 Google Scholar.

12 Id. at 45–46.

13 Id,

14 Most point to a few well-known problem cases, but assert an overall clean record of compliance. See, e.g., Bala, Chandan, International Court of Justice: Its Functioning and Settlement of International Disputes 14559, 210 (1998)Google Scholar; Couvreur, supra note 1; Guillaume, Gilbert, De l’Exécution des décisions de la Cour intemationale de Justice, 7 Swiss Rev. Int’l & Eur. L. 431 (1997)Google Scholar.

15 Merrills, supra note 7.

16 Forsydie, D. P., The International Court of Justice at Fifty, in ICJ Future Role, supra note 1, at 385 Google Scholar.

17 See Simmons, Beth A., Compliance with International Agreements, 1998 Ann. Rev. Pol. Sci. 75, 79 Google Scholar (compliance may be measured by expectations, intentions, and standards); see also Chayes, Abram & Antonia, Handler Chayes, The New Sovereignty: Compliance with International Regulatory Agreements 1722 (1995)Google Scholar (conduct may be measured in terms of its relative importance and cost, and the expectations of the parties).

18 The dispositif is binding as it is explained by the rest of the opinion. This definition merges the standard definitions of compliance (behavior) and implementation (actions that facilitate or result in compliance). See Raustiala, Kal & Anne-Marie, Slaughter, International Law, International Relations and Compliance, in Handbook of International Relations 538, 539 (Carlsnaes, Walter et al. eds., 2002)Google Scholar.

19 See Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hung./Slovk.), 1997 ICJ Rep. 1, paras. 141–47 (Sept. 25), reprinted in 37 ILM 162 (1998) (stating duty of parties to apply a treaty “in a reasonable way and in such a manner that its purpose can be realized,” and duty “to give effect to the Judgment of the Court”).

20 See Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mex. v. U.S.) (Mar. 31, 2004), 43 ILM 581, paras. 134–35, 140–43, 151 (2004) [hereinafter Avena]; infra notes 112, 179, 274, and corresponding text. The Court expects the parties to use the judgment to help end the dispute, and they understand this. Belgium, as regards the Arrest Warrant Judgment, and the United States, as regards the LaGrand Judgment, have acted consistently with this principle; and Slovakia and Hungary have expected it in their negotiations following the Gabčíkovo Judgment, as discussed below. In some cases, the duty to give effect to a judgment requires interpreting “case” under Article 59 of the Statute of the Court to include matters not explicitly mentioned in the judgment. The Statute itself uses both “case” and the broader term “dispute” to describe the scope of a matter before the Court. ICJ Statute Arts. 36, 39, 40.

21 Haya de la Torre (Colom. v. Peru), 1951 ICJ Rep. 71, 79 (June 13); Ajibola, B. A., Compliance with Judgments of the International Court of Justice, in Compliance with Judgments of International Courts, supra note 1, at 9, 12 Google Scholar; see also Shahabuddeen, Mohamed, The World Court at the Turn of the Century, in ICJ Future Role, supra note 1, at 3, 19 Google Scholar.

22 Effectiveness might be measured by the resolution of the dispute at hand, the quality of the opinion, the development of international law, the effect on the docket, the effects on third parties, or the effects on similar disputes and on international relations in general.

23 Mohammed Bedjaoui, Presentation, in ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium, supra note 1, at 22 (observing that on a number of occasions, incidental proceedings have “made a decisive contribution not only to the settlement of disputes of very different kinds, but also, directly, to the maintenance or restoration of peace between the parties”); see also Ajibola, supra note 21, at 34–37.

24 Chayes, Abram & Antonia, Handler Chayes, On Compliance, in International Institutions: An International Organization Reader 247, 249 (Martin, Lisa L. & Simmons, Beth A. eds., 2001)Google Scholar; Gross, supra note 11.

25 The cases are Elettronica Sicula S.p.A. (ELSI) (U.S. v. Italy), 1989 ICJ Rep. 15 (July 20); Arbitral Award of 31 July 1989 (Guinea-Bissau v. Sen.), 1991 ICJ Rep. 53 (Nov. 12); Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Sal./Hond.: Nicar. Intervening), 1992 ICJ Rep. 351 (Sept. 11); Maritime Delimitation in the Area Between Greenland and Jan Mayen (Den. v. Nor.), 1993 ICJ Rep. 38 (June 14)Google Scholar [hereinafter Jan Mayen]; Territorial Dispute (Libya/Chad), 1994 ICJ Rep. 6 (Feb. 13);Google Scholar Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, supranote 19; Kasikili/Sedudu Island (Bots./Namib.), 1999 ICJ Rep. 1045 (Dec. 13)Google Scholar; Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions Between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahr.), Merits (Mar. 16, 2001), 40 ILM 847 (2001)Google Scholar [hereinafter Qatar v. Bahrain]; LaGrand (Ger. v. U.S.) (June 27, 2001), 40 ILM 1069 (2001); Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000 (Dem. Rep. Congo v. Belg.), 2002 ICJ Rep. 3 (Feb. 14)Google Scholar; Land and Maritime Boundary Between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nig.) (Int’l Ct. Justice Oct. 10, 2002)Google Scholar; Sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan (Indon./Malay.) (Int’l Ct.Justice Dec. 17, 2002)Google Scholar; Oil Platforms (Iran v. U.S.), Merits (Int’l Ct. Justice Nov. 6, 2003)Google Scholar; and Avena, supranote 20. All ICJ decisions, opinions, and materials cited in this article, except Arbitral Award of 31 July 1989and communiqués before 1992, are available online at <http://www.icj-cij.org>.

26 Within the basic divisions of compliance and partial noncompliance, the cases are ordered chronologically by date of final judgment.

27 This article relies almost exclusively on public sources to determine compliance. In all cases where a source was less reliable, such as in news media, the information was confirmed through numerous separate sources. Where scant data are available, and no public complaints have been made, compliance has been assumed. All Internet and electronic database sources are on file with the author.

28 El Salvador: Calderon Sol Says Border DisputeExaggeratedby Press, El Diario, de Hoy, Foreign Broadcast Information Service [FBIS], Doc. FBIS–LAT–96–168 (Aug. 26, 1996)Google Scholar. All FBIS documents were translated by the FBIS and are available online at <http://www.wnc.fedworld.gov>. President of El Salvador on ICJ Ruling on Border Dispute, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Sept. 14, 1992 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

29 Resource Center of the Americas, Finding Renews Border Dispute (Nov. 10, 2002), at <http://www.americas.org>.

30 Honduras: A Country Study 39, 43–44, 69, 204 (Merrill, Tim L. ed., 3d ed. 1995)Google Scholar.

31 A 1980 treaty following OAS-assisted mediation provided that any disputes not settled in five years would be jointly submitted to the ICJ. Merrills, supra note 7, at 876.

32 Geography of Honduras, Library of Congress Studies, Area Handbook, available at <http://www.worldfacts.us> (visited Apr. 29, 2004); BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, supra note 28.

33 BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, supra note 28.

34 Id.; Commander in Chief Rules out Possible Conflict with El Salvador, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Sept. 18, 1992, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

35 President of El Salvador on ICJ Ruling on Border Dispute, supra note 28.

36 Honduran-Salvadoran Relations “Strained” After Border Incident, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Sept. 11, 1995 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

37 Id.

38 Merrills, supra note 7, at 899 (Burkina Faso and Mali required the use of a geostationary satellite and financial help from Switzerland to resolve their demarcation issues, and Nicaragua and Honduras required three years and OAS assistance for their demarcation and the transfer of four thousand people from the affected areas).

39 El Diario de Hoy, supra note 28.

40 Tension on El Salvador-Honduras Border Reported Due to Spat over Timber, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Feb. 27, 1997 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

41 Week in Review, Honduras This Week Online 49 (Dec. 4, 2000), at <http://www.marrder.com/htw/>>Google Scholar.

42 Id.; El Salvador: Binational Follow-up Commissions Discuss Border Problems, El Diario de Hoy, Doc. FBIS–LAT–97–159 (June 8, 1997)Google Scholar.

43 El Diario de Hoy, supra note 42.

44 Dominguez, Jorge I. et al., Boundary Disputes in Latin America 30 (U.S. Institute of Peace, Peaceworks No. 50, 2003), available at <http://www.isp.org>.Google Scholar

45 Resource Center of the Americas, supra note 29. Honduras claimed in January 2002 that not one of the nine pockets delimited in 1992 had been officially demarcated. Letter Dated 22 January 2002 from the Charge d’Affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Honduras to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2002/108, annex (Jan. 23, 2002).

46 Honduran, Salvadoran Presidents’Declaration, El Diario de Hoy, Doc. FBIS–LAT–95–107 (June 3, 1995)Google Scholar; El Salvador, Honduras: ‘Joint Declaration’ to Prevent Spread of Border Problems, El Diario de Hoy, Doc. FBIS–LAT–97–041 (Feb. 26, 1997)Google Scholar; Honduras and El Salvador Sign Agreement on Border Demarcation, BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Jan. 23, 1998 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File; Salvador, Honduras Relaunch Border Demarcation, Xinhua General News Service, Oct. 31, 2002 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

47 Letter Dated 28 November 2000 from the Permanent Representative of Honduras to the United Nations Addressed to the Secretary-General, UN Doc. S/2000/1142, annex (Dec. 1, 2000).

48 UN Doc. S/2002/108, supra note 45, appendix.

49 Id.; Letter Dated 11 March 2002 from the Chargé d’Affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of Honduras to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2002/251, annex (Mar. 11, 2002) (accusing El Salvador, by means of a reservation made in February 2002 to a multinational treaty concerning the Pacific, of challenging and disregarding “both the letter and the spirit” of the ICJ Judgment).

50 Oxman, Bernard H., The Rule of Law and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 7 Eur. J. Int’l L. 353, 368 n.25 (1996)Google Scholar; see United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, opened for signature Dec. 10, 1982 Google Scholar, Art. 298(1) (a) (i), 1833 UNTS 397.

51 Letter Dated 24 September 2002 from the Chargé d’Affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of El Salvador to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2002/1102, appendix (Oct 2, 2002).

52 ICJ Press Release 2002/21 (Sept. 10, 2002).

53 Letter Dated 23 October 2002 from the Chargé d’Affaires a.i. of the Permanent Mission of El Salvador to the United Nations Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2002/1194, annex (Oct. 2, 2002); Letter Dated 17 September 2002 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Honduras Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/2002/1088, annex (Sept. 27, 2002).

54 Xinhua General News Service, supra note 46.

55 Central America: Political Press Review, BBC Worldwide Monitoring, Jan. 6, 2004 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File (observing that without international help, full demarcation is unlikely).

56 Honduran Navy Commander: Nicaragua ‘Provoked’ Incident, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–LAT–2000–0220 (Feb. 20, 2000)Google Scholar (Honduran and Nicaraguan gunboats exchanged shots along the border, though diey have worked together to try to demarcate it).

57 A Threat to CA Peace, Honduras This Week Online (June 9, 1997), at <http://www.marrder.com/htw/>>Google Scholar; Week in Review, Honduras This Week Online 35 (Sept. 16, 2002)Google Scholar, at id.

58 Despite More Obstacles, Solution Imminent in Gulf Border Conflict, Honduras This Week Online 59 (June 24, 1997), at id. Honduras also accused Nicaragua of blocking its access to the Pacific. Minister: Nicaragua Blocking Honduran Vessels, Nomitex, Doc. FBIS–LAT–1999–1224 (Dec. 24, 1999).

59 Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute, supra note 25, 1992 ICJ Rep. at 609–10. But see Rosenne, Shabtai, Intervention in the International Court of Justice 14855 (1993)Google Scholar (criticizing the Judgment on this point, and noting that Nicaragua had stated that it intended to be bound by the Judgment).

60 1992 ICJ Rep. at 606–09; see also Charney, Jonathan I., Progress in International Maritime Boundary Delimitation Law, 88 AJIL 227 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

61 Application for Revision of the Judgment of 11 September 1992 in the Case Concerning the Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador/Honduras: Nicaragua Intervening) (El Sal. v. Hond.) (Int’l Ct Justice Dec. 18, 2003).

62 Honduras Pleased International Court to Handle Border Dispute, Agence France-Presse, Dec. 9, 1999 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

63 Arnold, Guy, The Maverick State: Gaddafi and the New World Order 75, 77 (1996)Google Scholar. The Aouzou Strip is a 114, 000-square-kilometer border area between the two states.

64 Id Libya lost much of its financial ability to continue the war because of rising national debt and falling oil prices. Millard Burr, J. & Collins, Robert O., Africa’s Thirty Years War: Libya, Chad, and the Sudan, 1963–1993, at 23637 (1999)Google Scholar.

65 Arnold, supra note 63, at 77.

66 Id.

67 Id; see also Mary-Jane, Deeb, Libya’s Foreign Policyin North Africa 132 (1991)Google Scholar (Libya wants the Aouzou uranium reserves “for economic as well as political reasons”). Whether there actually is uranium in the Aouzou region is contested: “Tuons immédiatement quelques mythes! . . . La bande d’Aozou [sic]ne contient pas d’uranium . . . .” Conesa, Pierre, Le Tchad des crises à répétition, Le Monde-Diplomatique, May 2001, at 23, available at <http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2001/05/CONESA/15145>>Google Scholar.

68 Deeb, supra note 67, at 182.

69 See Memorial of the Great Socialist Libyan People’s Jamahiriya (Libya/Chad), pts. III, IV (Aug. 26, 1991).

70 Greenwood, Christopher, The International Court of Justice and the Use of Force, in Fifty Years of the International Court of Justice: Essays in Honour of Sir Robert Jennings 373, 384 (Lowe, Vaughan & Fitzmaurice, Malgosia eds., 1996)Google Scholar (likening this case to Frontier Dispute (Burk. Faso/Mali), where bom parties felt that the ICJ’s provisional measures would strengthen a cease-fire agreement); see also Nolutshungu, Sam C., Limits of Anarchy: Intervention and State Formation in Chad 22728 (1996)Google Scholar (both countries had other pressing interests, and wanted to be seen making progress with diplomacy).

71 Akande, Dapo, The Role of the International Court of Justice in the Maintenance of International Peace, 8 Afr. J. Int’l & Comp. L. 592, 609 (1996)Google Scholar.

72 Ajibola, supra note 21, at 17. Chad received financial assistance for the litigation from the UN secretary-general’s ICJ trust fund. Peter H. F., Bekker, International Legal Aid in Practice: The ICJ Trust Fund, 87 AJIL 659, 666 n.45 (1993)Google Scholar.

73 Burr & Collins, supra note 64, at 262. Libyan support for Déby was actually a breach of the special agreement submitting the dispute to the ICJ. See infra note 78.

74 Arnold, supra note 63, at 77–78.

75 Burr & Collins, supra note 64, at 268.

76 Burr & Collins speculate that Déby was showing his new constituency he was a Chadian nationalist, and not under Qaddafi’s thumb. Id.

77 Territorial Dispute (Libya/Chad), 1990 ICJ Rep. 149 (Oct. 26).

78 From the date of its signing, Libya was in continuous violation of the 1989 special agreement for supporting attempts at a coup d’état against Habré’s government. See Fundamental Agreement on the Peaceful Settlement of the Territorial Dispute, Aug. 31, 1989, Chad/Libya, 29 ILM 15, 16–17 (1990) (agreement to “refrain from interfering directly or indirectly... in the internal or foreign affairs” of the other and “withhold all political, material, financial, or military aid from forces hostile” to the other country).

79 Continental Shelf (Tunis.\Libya), 1982 ICJ Rep. 18 (Feb. 24); Continental Shelf (Libya/Malta), 1985 ICJ Rep. 13 (June 3); see Ciarli & McLachlan, supra note 7 (noting that the results of both cases were comparatively favorable to Libya).

80 Territorial Dispute, supra note 25, 1994 ICJ Rep. at 40.

81 Libya Reinforcing Aouzou Strip, Radio France Internationale, Feb. 13, 1994, at <http://www-ibru.dur.ac.uk>>Google Scholar; Libya Rules out Withdrawal, Moroccan Radio, Feb. 19, 1994 Google Scholar, at id.

82 Arnold, supra note 63, at 78.

83 Letter Dated 13 April 1994 from the Secretary-General Addressed to the President of the Security Council, UN Doc. S/1994/432, 33 ILM 791 (1994), available at <http://www.un.org/Depts/dpko/dpko/co_mission/n9424007.pdf>.

84 Libya Prepared to Withdraw from Aouzou Strip, Jana News Agency (Tripoli), Mar. 10, 1994, at <http://wwwibru.dur.ac.uk>>Google Scholar.

85 Roy Lee, Intervention, in ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium, supra note 1, at 361.

86 SC Res. 915 (May 4, 1994), 33 ILM 791 (1994); UN Doc. S/1994/432, supra note 83.

87 SC Res. 915, supra note 86.

88 Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Aouzou Strip Observer Group, UN Doc. S/1994/672, available at <http://www.un.org/depts/dpko/missions/unasog.htm>.

89 Arnold, supra note 63, at 78; see also Burr & Collins, supra note 64, at 278.

90 Delali, Ali, Libya-Chad: Kadhafi’s Appeal to His Compatriots, Africa News Service, May 11, 1998, at <http://www.allafrica.com>Google Scholar.

91 See, e.g., Meyer, Howard N., The World Court in Action: Judging Among the Nations 21718 (2002)Google Scholar.

92 Riaz, Runa, Aouzou Border Dispute Between Libya and Chad (Karachi Univ. Int’l Rel. Dep’t Student Research, n.d.), at<http://www.ribt.org/kuird/html/runa_riaz.html>>Google Scholar (visited Apr. 27, 2004).

93 Mark, Clyde R., CRS Issue Brief 93 109 Google Scholar: Libya, available at <http://www.fas.org/man/crs/93–109.htm> (last modified Dec. 19, 1996).

94 Riaz, supra note 92.

95 Le Progrès stated that Weddeye “serait sur le point de reprendre le sender de la guerre” and that he “recevrait I’aide de certains officiers supérieurs libyens.” MarchÉs Tropicaux et MÉditerranÉens (Feb. 28, 1997), available at <http://www.moreux.fr>.

96 The Middle East and North Africa 770 (49th ed. 2003); Chad: Ministry Protests Libyan Claims to Aouzou Strip in Map, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–97–021 (Jan. 30, 1997); MarchÉs Tropicaux et MÉditerranÉens, supra note 95. In a book published in Banghazi, Libya, celebrating thirty years of the revolution (1969–1999), all seven maps placed the Aouzou Strip inside Libyan borders. Libiyaal-Thawrah fi 30 ‘aman, 1969–1999: al-tahawwulat al-siyasiyah wa-al-iqtis adiyah wa-al-ijtima ‘iyah 71, 270, 282, 298, 303, 477, 690 (3d ed. 2000).

97 MarchÉs Tropicaux et MÉditerranÉens (May 8, 1998), available at <http://www.moreux.fr>.

98 Lawless, Richard I., Libya: History, in The Middle- East and North Africa 775, 79192 (50th ed. 2003)Google Scholar.

99 Nkrumah, Gamal, African Unity Lives? Al-Ahram Wkly.On-line, No. 521 (Feb. 15–21, 2001), at <http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2001/521/re8.htm>Google Scholar.

100 Jones, Lucy, Qaddafi’s “Afro-Enthusiasm” Causes Concern in West, Wash. Rep. Middle E. Aff., Oct. 2001, available at <http://www.wrmea.com>>Google Scholar.

101 See text at note 69 supra.

102 According to Conesa, supra note 67, at 23:

Aucune puissance n’a tiré de durables avantages d’une intervention dans la crise. La Libye a ainsi soutenu alternativement, et avec les mȇmes déconvenues, MM. Habré, Oueddei [Weddeye] et Déby. Aucun des responsables tchadiens n’a accepté de reconnaître la légitimité de la revendication de Tripoli sur la bande d’Aouzou. La «réconciliation définitive” de 1998 n’en a que le nom. Lorsque l’un des Etats frontaliers obtient un avantage significatif, il fait l’union sacrée contre lui.

103 Riaz, supra note 92.

104 See Libya Extends Reach in Africa: Gadhafi Deploys Troops South of Neighboring Chad, Stratfor Global Intelligence Update (June 6, 2001), available at <http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/articIe.asp?ARTICLE_ID=23131>.

105 Chad: Foreign Relations,Countrywatch, at <http://www.countrywatch.com> (visitedMay4, 2004); Libya:Foreign Relations, Countrywatch, at id. (visited May 4, 2004).

106 Mark, Clyde R., Libya, CRS Issue Brief for Congress 9 (Order Code IB93109, Apr. 10, 2002), available at <http://www.fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/9577.pdf>>Google Scholar.

107 Libyan Leader Calls on Chadian Rebels to Lay Down Weapons, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–2002–1008 (Oct. 7, 2002)Google Scholar.

108 Libya is intimately involved in the negotiations and was “a major factor in the beneficial terms offered to the MDJT” in January 2002. Libya has also pledged aid for the Aouzou. Lanne, Bernard, Chad: Recent History, in Africa South of the Sahara 203, 211 (32d ed. 2003)Google Scholar.

109 ThreeSeniorRebel MDJT Members Resign Due toInfighting, ‘Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–2003–0402 (Apr. 2, 2003). Chadian officials suspect that General Massoud, a governor in southern Libya, was supporting the rebels and urging them to reject the proposed peace agreement. Chad Officials Not Surprised About Rebel Leaders Emergency Evacuation to Libya, Radio France Internationale, Doc. FBIS–AFR–2002–0830 (Sept. 30, 2002).

110 E-mail to author from Daoud Abdullah ofTchad.com (Feb. 12, 2003) (on file with author).

111 Azevedo, Mario J., Roots of Violence: A History of War in Chad 152 (1998)Google Scholar; Gondje, Laoro, Libyan-Brokered Chad Peace Deal Raises Concerns, Turkish Daily News, No. 469 (Jan. 13, 2002), at <http://www.turkishdailynews.com>Google Scholar (Libya may be using the MDJT to gain political control in Chad).

112 Land and Maritime Boundary Between Cameroon and Nigeria, supra note 25, para. 318.

113 See, e.g., Azevedo, supra note 111, at 151.

114 Id.

115 For more on publicity and the ICJ, see Bedjaoui, supra note 23, at 17–18, and the discussion in ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium, supra note 1, at 207, 215–18, 224–25.

116 See Franck, Thomas M., Summary, in ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium, supra note 1, at 49899 Google Scholar. As an illustration of the depth of coverage of the dispute in America, see Cohen, Roger, Chad Wins World Court Decision in Territorial Dispute with Libya, N.Y. Times, Feb. 4, 1994, at A6 Google Scholar.

117 LaGrand, supra note 25, paras. 12–31.

118 Id., paras. 29–31.

119 Id., para. 128.

120 Officials must inform arrested or detained foreign nationals of their rights to consular notification and access to consular officials. Vienna Convention on Consular Relations and Optional Protocol Concerning the Compulsory Settlement of Disputes, Apr. 24, 1963, 21 UST 77, 325, 596 UNTS 261, 487.

121 LaGrand, supra note 25, para. 128.

122 Although there are many ways to understand the U.S. obligations under LaGrand, compliance depends on the binding duties in the dispositif as explained by the text of the opinion. Other interpretations, however, are certainly possible. See, e.g., Cassel, Douglass, International Remedies in National Criminal Cases: ICJ Judgment in Germany v. United States, 15 Leiden J. Int’l L. 69 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

123 LaGrand, supra note 25, para. 128(6).

124 Id., paras. 1, 120–22; see also Notification of Consular Officers upon the Arrest of Foreign Nationals, 28 C.F.R. §50.5 (2001); Counter-Memorial of the United States (Ger. v. U.S.), 2000 ICJ Pleadings (LaGrand) 20 (Mar. 27). The program to improve U.S. compliance with Vienna Convention obligations began well before the LaGrand decision. Brown, Catherine, Consular Rights and the Death Penalty After LaGrand, 96 ASIL Proc. 309, 313 (2002)Google Scholar.

125 See Guccione, Jean, On the Law—New Weapon in Defense: Foreign Consulates, L.A. Times, Nov. 16, 2001, at B2 Google Scholar, available in 2001 WL 28929308.

126 U.S.Dep’t of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs.Consular Notification and Access: Instructions for Federal, State, and Other Local Law Enforcement and Other Officials Regarding Foreign Nationals in the United States and the Rights of Consular Officials to Assist Them, pt. 3, Questions About Failure to Notify, available at <http://www.travel.state.gov/consul_notify.html> (last modified Feb. 10, 2004).

127 U.S. Dep’t of State, Bureau of Public Affairs, History of the Department of State During the Clinton Presidency §18, at <http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/pubs/8534.htm>.

128 Wesley Clark, M., Providing Consular Rights Warnings to Foreign Nationals, FBI L. Enforcement Bull., Mar. 2002, at 29, available at <http://www.fbi.gov/publications/leb/2002/mar021eb.pdf>Google Scholar.

129 Cal. Penal Code §834c (West 2003). Some enforcement officials, however, still ignore their obligations under the Vienna Convention. See United States v. Ortiz, 315 F.3d 873, 997 (8th Cir. 2002) (the Kansas City Police Department “apparently determined] as a matter of policy that no notification of rights under the Convention will ever be made”).

130 The Court rejected Mexico’s petition for assurances of nonrepetition that went beyond those provided in LaGrand (Avena, supra note 25, paras. 144–50, 153(10)), although it did see room for improvement in United States practice (Avena, supra, paras. 64, 149).

131 LaGrand, supra note 25, para. 125.

132 Aceves, William, Case Report: LaGrand (Germany v. United States), in 96 AJIL 210, 217 (2002)Google Scholar.

133 LaGrand, supra note 25, para. 128.

134 Id., paras. 90–91, 125–27.

135 Id., para. 125.

136 Id., paras. 90–91.

137 See id.

138 ICJ Statute Art. 59; LaGrand, supra note 25, Declaration of President Guillaume, 40 ILM at 1103.

139 The United States argued in Avena that it applied LaGrand to all foreign nationals because it understood that the Court “would not apply a different construction of the Convention to nationals of other States.” ICJ Doc. CR 2003/2, at 16, para. 2.14 (Jan. 21, 2003) [transcripts of oral arguments in Avena will be cited hereinafter by CR number, page, and paragraph].

140 See supra notes 124–28 and corresponding text.

141 As of January 1, 2004. Mark Warren, Foreign Nationals and the Death Penalty in the United States (Death Penalty Information Center, Jan. 1, 2004), at <http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org>. For details on their cases, see Amnesty International, Worlds Apart: Violations of the Rights of Foreign Nationals on Death Row - Cases of Europeans (AI Index No. AMR 51/101/00), available at <http://www.amnesty.org>.

142 Avena, supra note 25, para. 151. However, it is unclear whether the duty arises under Article 94 of the United Nations Charter or international law in general, especially as the Court mentioned this obligation somewhat indirectly. See id.

143 The case mentioning LaOrand is United States v. Ortiz, 315 F.3d 873 (8th Cir. 2002).

144 Id. at 886.

145 See, e.g„ United States v. Flores-Flores, 42 Fed. Appx. 868, 870 (7th Cir. 2002), 2002 WL 1732617 (dismissal of case); United States v. Minjares-Alvarez, 264 F.3d 980, 986 (10th Cir. 2001) (suppression of statements not a valid remedy); United States v. Felix-Felix, 275 F.3d 627, 635 (7th Cir. 2001) (exclusion of evidence); Bell v. Commonwealth, 563 S.E.2d 695, 707 (Va. 2002) (suppression of statements).

146 Those cases are United States v. Gonzales, 2003 WL 21878712, at *4 (8th Cir. 2003) (all nonjurisdictional defects, including violations of the Vienna Convention, are foreclosed by a plea of guilty); United States v. Emuegbunam, 268F.3d377, 391 (6th Cir. 2001) (no reversal of conviction because Vienna Convention does not create individually enforceable rights).

147 The Judgment hinted only that certain sentences would qualify as “severe penalties.” Perhaps a guideline for “severe” can be found in the Court’s characterization of two German cases, cited by the United States as evidence of German practice, as “relatively light criminal penalties.” The cases could involve sentences of two years and fifteen years. LaGrand, supra note 25, para. 63; Counter-Memorial of the United States (Ger. v. U.S.), supra note 124, para. 94 & Exs. 10, 11; Weigend, Thomas, Sentencing and Punishment in Germany, in Sentencing and Sanctions in Western Countries 188, 213 (Tonry, Michael & Frase, Richard S. eds., 2001)Google Scholar.

148 See, e.g., State v. Issa, 93 Ohio St.3d 49, 752 N.E.2d 904 (2001); Vasquez v. State, 2001 WL 1398441 (Del. Super. Ct. Nov. 5, 2001) (unpublished opinion); Gordon v. State, 2003 WL 22964723, 29 Fla. L. Weekly SI (Fla. Sup. Ct. Dec. 18, 2003).

149 Avena, supra note 25, para. 113.

150 United States ex rel. Madej v. Schomig, 223 F.Supp.2d 968, 979 (N.D. Ill. 2002) (quoting Breard v. Greene, 523 U.S. 371, 375 (1998) (per curiam); Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, supra note 120, Art. 36(2)).

151 United States ex rel Madej v. Schomig, 2002 WL 31386480 (N.D. Ill. Oct. 22, 2002).

152 For example, when a Mexican national petitioned the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals, citing LaGrand, the court followed the Supreme Court’s decision in Breard v. Greene, 523 U.S. 371, 375 (1998), applying the procedural default rule. Although the court explicitly declined to follow LaGrand, it effectively deferred to the ICJ by granting a new trial under its equitable powers. Valdez v. Oklahoma, 46 P.3d 703, 2002 WL 809243 (Okla. Crim. App. May 1, 2002) (Vienna Convention violation resulted in no prejudice to plaintiff).

However, soon after the Avena case was decided, the Oklahoma Court of Criminal Appeals ordered that Osbaldo Torres be given an evidentiary hearing on whether he had been prejudiced by the Vienna Convention violation. Torres v. State, No. PCD–04–442 (Okla. Crim. App. May 13, 2004). On the same day, Oklahoma governor Brad Henry commuted the death sentence to life in prison without parole, citing the Vienna Convention concerns and mentioning the influence of the State Department. Office of Governor Brad Henry, Press Release: Governor Henry Grants Clemency to Death Row Inmate Torres (May 13, 2004), at <http://www.governor.state.ok.us/>.

153 At least two Justices appear to be willing to follow the reasoning in LaGrand. Torres v. Mullin, 157 L.Ed.2d 454, 455 (2003) (Breyer J., dissenting from denial of cert.); id. at 454 (Stevens J., opinion respecting the denial of cert.).

154 Avena and Other Mexican Nationals (Mex. v. U.S.), Provisional Measures, para. 37 (Int’l Ct. Justice Feb. 5, 2003); ICJ Doc. CR 2003/29, at 46, para. 7.9 (Dec. 19, 2003) (Avena transcript).

155 ICJ Docs. CR 2003/2, supra note 139, at 9–12, CR 2003/29, supra note 154, at 46, para. 7.9.

156 ICJ Doc. CR 2003/2, supra note 139, at 10, para. 1.10.

157 Letter from William H. Taft IV, U.S. Department of State Legal Adviser, to Frank Keating, Governor of Oklahoma (July 11, 2001) (on file at George Washington Univ.), quoted in Murphy, Sean D., Contemporary Practice of the United States, 96 AJIL 461, 462 (2002)Google ScholarPubMed. The United States has called such letters “unprecedented and extraordinary interventions.” ICJ Doc. CR 2003/4, at 13 (Jan. 20, 2003).

158 Murphy, supra note 157 (citing Governor Frank Keating, Okla. Exec. Order No. 2001–24 (July 20, 2001)).

159 See supra note 152.

160 See Mexico, Press Release No. 283, Mexican National Gerardo Valdez Maltos, Who Was Facing the Death Penalty in Oklahoma, Has Been Sentenced to Life in Prison, Therefore Ruling out the Death Penalty (Nov. 24, 2003), at <http://www.sre.gob.mx>.

161 ICJ Doc. CR 2000/28, para. 2.30 (LaGrand transcript).

162 LaGrand, supra note 25, para. 113.

163 Avena, supra note 25, para. 143.

164 Id. However, if clemency proceedings were the only forum providing review and reconsideration, the review would not be available, much of the time, in cases involving “severe penalties” other than the death penalty.

165 Id.

166 Aceves, William J., The LaGrand Decision: Affirming the Status of Consular Assistance, in American Civil Liberties Union, 2001 International Civil Liberties Report 117, 122, availabe at <http://www.archive.aclu.org/library/iclr/2001/iclr2001_16.pdf>>Google Scholar.

167 ICJ Doc. CR 2003/25, at 15 (Dec. 15, 2003) (Avena transcript).

168 The Death Penalty Information Center reports that from 1977 to 2002 there were 6322 death sentences and 49 grants of clemency. Gov. George Ryan of Illinois granted clemency to every one of the 171 death row inmates in Illinois in January 2003. At <http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org> (visited May 13, 2004); see also Salladay, Robert, Clemency: Slim Chance These Days, S.F. Examiner, Nov. 29, 1998, at A1 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Individ. Pub. File.

169 Liebman, James S. etal., Capital Attrition: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973–1995, 78 Tex. L. Rev. 1839, 184952 (2000)Google Scholar.

170 As clemency boards are less likely than judicial bodies to understand or care about claims that are based on legalistic reasons, the disparity in overturn rates is probably even higher.

171 Avena, supra note 25, para. 141.

172 ICJ Doc. CR 2003/28, at 27, para. 67 (Dec. 18, 2003).

173 Information on individual clemency procedures can be found at the Criminal Justice Policy Foundation Web site, <http://www.cjpf.org>.

174 ICJ Doc. CR 2003/28, supra note 172, at 27–28, para. 67.

175 Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, supra note 19, 37 ILM at 174, para. 15.

176 Update: Hungary-Slovakia and the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, 1998 Colo. J. Int’l Envtl. L. Y.B. 260 Google Scholar.

177 Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, supra note 19, 37 ILM at 177, paras. 22–23.

178 Special Agreement for Submission to the International Court of Justice of the Differences Between Them Concerning the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, Apr. 7, 1993, Hung.-Slovk., 32 ILM 1293 (1993).

179 Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, supra 19, at 201–03, paras. 144–55.

180 Id. at 184–86, paras. 52–56, 196, paras. 112–13, & 200–01, para. 140.

181 Update: Hungary-Slovakia and the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, supra note 176.

182 ICJ Press Communique 98/28 (Sept. 3, 1998).

183 Slovak Government Commissioner Discusses Gabčíkovo Dam Project, Bratislava Pravda, Doc. FBIS–EEU–2001–0117 (Jan. 15, 2001)Google Scholar; Slovak Minister Optimistic About Talks with Hungary on Disputed Law, Radio Slovakia, BBC Worldwide Monitoring, Aug. 15, 2002 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File; György Moldova, A Tale of Two Dams, UNESCO Courier, Oct. 2001, available at <http://www.unesco.org>.

184 BBC Worldwide Monitoring, supra note 183; Update: Hungary-Slovakia and the Gabčíkovo-Nagymaros Project, supra note 176.

185 Elver, Hilal, Peaceful Uses of International Rivers: The Euphrates and Tigris Rivers Dispute 233 (2002)Google Scholar; Hungary Not to Build Dam on Danube, BBC Worldwide Monitoring, Jan. 15, 2004 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File; see also Bostian, Ida L., Note, Hushing the Danube: The World Court’s Decision Concerning the Gabčíkovo Dam, 9 Colo. J. Int’l Envtl. L. & Pol’y 401, 42021 (1998)Google Scholar (concluding that the Judgment has done little to help settle the dispute).

186 North Sea Continental Shelf (FRG v. Den.; FRG v. Neth.), 1969 ICJ Rep. 3, para. 85(b) (Feb. 20), quoted in Anderson, David, Negotiation and Dispute Settlement, in Remedies in International Law: The Institutional Dilemma 111, 11819 (Evans, Malcolm D. ed., 1998)Google Scholar.

187 Population as initially estimated by Nigeria (although later estimated to be 156,000). Counter-Memorial of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nig.), 1999 ICJ Pleadings, paras. 33, 416 (May); ICJ Doc. CR 2002/9, at 45, para. 134 (Mar. 1, 2002) (Cameroon v. Nigeria transcript).

188 Focus on Nigeria’s Response to ICJ Ruling on Bakassi Peninsula, UN Integrated Regional Information Networks, Oct. 15, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>>Google Scholar; Aziken, Emmanuel, Bakassi Representatives Vow to Remain in Nigeria Despite World CourtRuling, Lagos Vanguard (Internet Version), Doc. FBIS–AFR–2002–1011 (Oct. 11, 2002)Google Scholar.

189 Nigeria: World Court Says Able to Rule on Nigeria-Cameroon Dispute, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–98–162 (June 11, 1998)Google Scholar.

190 See International Court Poised to Rule on Nigeria-Cameroon Border Dispute, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–2002–1009 (Oct. 9, 2002)Google Scholar.

191 Id.

192 Land and Maritime Boundary Between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nig.), Preliminary Objections, 1998 ICJ Rep. 275, para. 18 (June 11).

193 Cameroon’s Biya Said Satisfied with Talks with Obasanjo, Annan on Bakassi Crisis, Radio France Internationale, Doc. FBIS–AFR–2002–0909 (Sept. 9, 2002)Google Scholar.

194 Nigerian Press Reports Four Killed in Border Clash with Cameroon, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–96–025 (Feb. 6, 1996)Google Scholar.

195 For a review of the decision itself, see Pieter H. F., Bekker, Case Report: Land and Maritime Boundary Between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria; Equatorial Guinea Intervening), in 97 AJIL 387 (2003)Google Scholar.

196 Also favorable to Nigeria was the Court’s rejection of Cameroon’s state responsibility reparation claims.

197 Land and Maritime Boundary Between Cameroon and Nigeria, supra note 25, para. 325.

198 The statement accepted the Court’s determinations on reparations, the land boundary between Lake Chad and Bakassi, and the international boundary south of the Maroua line. It rejected the Court’s ruling with respect to Bakassi itself and the Maroua Treaty of 1975. Cameroon; Bakassi: Why the ICJ Judgement Is Unacceptable—Government, Africa News Service, Oct. 24, 2002 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

199 Id.; see Counter-Memorial of the United States, supra note 124, para. 114.

200 Ogwuda, Austin, Bakassi: I’m Ready for Talks with Biya, Says Obasanjo, Vanguard (Lagos), Oct. 30, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>>Google Scholar.

201 Nigeria Has No Substantive Claim on Bakassi—Cameroonian Politician, Wkly. Trust (Kaduna), Dec. 13, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>>Google Scholar.

202 Id.

203 Nigeria Defends Defiance of World Court Border Ruling, UN Press Release SG/T/2344 (Sept. 10, 2002)Google Scholar; see Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–2002–1025 (Oct. 25, 2002).

204 Nigeria: Government Said [sic] Disputes UN Account of Meeting on Spat with Cameroon, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–AFR–2002–1030 (Oct. 30, 2002)Google Scholar.

205 Asobie, Assisi, Nigeria, Cameroun and the Unending Conflict over Bakassi, Vanguard (Lagos), Feb. 27, 2003, at <http://www.allafrica.com>Google Scholar.

206 Wkly. Trust, supra note 201.

207 Aziken, supra note 188. Nigeria said, however, that it will not go to war over the issue. Ohadoma, Chikas, Bakassi: Nigeria Bound by ICJ’s Ruling, SaysBritain, This Day (Lagos), Oct. 25, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>Google Scholar.

208 Aziken, supra note 188.

209 Bakassi Has Never Been Part of Cameroon—Paramount Ruler, Wkly. Trust (Kaduna), Dec. 13, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>>Google Scholar.

210 Agence France-Presse, supra note 203.

211 Id The ambassador denied that President Obasanjo made the promise: “There was no such sancrosact committment [sic] to the then impending verdict at the Paris meeting with President Biya . . . . [W]e cannot be taken captive of such a statement by an official in the office of the UN Secretary General.” Id.

212 See Akpo, Mudiaga Odje, ICJ Judgment on Bakassi: How Enforceable? This Day (Lagos), Nov. 19, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>Google Scholar; Umar, Bature, Bakassi: Senator Wants Military Combat-Ready, This Day (Lagos), Nov. 14, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>Google Scholar.

213 Ogwuda, supra note 200.

214 Agence France-Presse, supra note 190.

215 Nigeria Rejects ICJ Ruling; Cameroonians Urged to Continue to Live in Harmony with Nigerians, CRTV Online: National News Round-up, Oct. 25, 2002, at <http://www.crtv.cm/actualite_det.php?code=592>>Google Scholar.

216 In making enclaving possible, the Court rejected the equitable approach used in the Guinea/Guinea-Bissau arbitration to maximize stability in the region. See Land and Maritime Boundary Between Cameroon and Nigeria, supra note 25, para. 297; Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary Between Guinea and Guinea-Bissau (Feb. 14, 1985), 25ILM 251, 252 (1986).

217 Larewaju, Kolade, UN Panel on Bakassi Meets Dec. 1, Vanguard (Lagos), Nov. 29, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>>Google Scholar.

218 Abdulmajeed, Shakirat, Bakassi: C’ttee to Demarcate Border Set Up, Daily Trust (Abuja), Dec. 4, 2002, at <http://www.allafrica.com>Google Scholar.

219 Nigeria, Cameroon to Sign Friendship, Non-aggression Treaty, Xinhua General News Service, Feb. 1, 2004 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File; World Court Ruling DailyTrust (Abuja), Sept. 10, 2003, at <http://www.allafrica.com>; Abdullahi, Tasiu Abubakar, World Court Ruling: Cameroun Cedes Villages to Nigeria, DailyTrust (Abuja), Mar. 29, 2004, at <http://www.allafrica.com>Google Scholar.

220 Capella, Peter, Nigeria, Cameroon Move to Normalise Relations at Summit with UN, Agence France-Presse, Jan. 31, 2004 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File; Cameroon-Nigeria: Britain Offers CFA 1,000 Million for Demarcation, Cameroon Trib. (Yaoundé), Apr. 2, 2004, at <http://www.allafrica.com>.

221 Especially as full implementation of the judgments discussed below has taken an average of over two and a half years. However, for a positive early development, see supra note 152.

222 Jan Mayen, supra note 25, at 42–43, para. 9.

223 In 1981 Norwegian inspection authorities boarded a Danish ship fishing for capelin in the disputed area, angering Danish fishermen. An interim agreement between the Danish and Norwegian foreign ministers, assisted by a general depletion of capelin stock that led to an area wide agreement to cease capelin fishing, quelled the dispute until the ICJ ruling. Finn Laursen, Small Powers at Sea 89 (1993). Although brought unilaterally by Denmark, the case was, for all intents, consensually before the Court. Norway did not object to jurisdiction. Per Magid, Intervention, in ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium, supra note 1, at 365.

224 Jan Mayen, supra note 25, at 80–82, paras. 92–94.

225 Agreement on the Continental Shelf Between Iceland and Jan Mayen, Oct. 22, 1981, Ice.-Nor., 21 ILM 1222 (1982), available at <http://www.un.org/depts/los>.

226 Agreement Concerning the Delimitation of the Continental Shelf in the Area Between Jan Mayen and Greenland and Concerning the Boundary Between the Fishery Zones, Dec. 18, 1995, Nor.-Den., 1903 UNTS 171; Hans Longva, Intervention, in ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium, supra note 1, at 362; see also Additional Protocol to the 1995 Agreement, Nov. 11, 1997, 2100 UNTS 180.

227 Elettronica Sicula S.p.A., supra note 25, at 19–21, para. 10.

228 Id. at 81, para. 137.

229 Id.

230 Although Guinea-Bissau brought the suit unilaterally, Senegal did not contest jurisdiction. Arbitral Award of 31 July 1989, supra note 25, at 55, paras. 1–2.

231 Id. at 75–76, para. 69.

232 Forrest, Joshua B., Guinea-Bissau: Power, Conflict, and Renewal in a West African Nation 72 (1992)Google Scholar.

233 Id.

234 Anglin, Douglas G., Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa, pt 3(B) (b), in 1995–1996 études Stratégiques et Militaires, at <http://www.ulaval.ca/>>Google Scholar.

235 Maritime Delimitation Between Guinea-Bissau and Senegal (Guinea-Bissau v. Sen.), Application Instituting Proceedings at 2 (Mar. 12, 1991).

236 Seydou, Amadou Oumarou, Agreeing to Share, UNESCO Courier, Jul/Aug. 1998, at 58, available at <http://www.unesco.org/courier/1998_08/uk/dossier/txt34.htm>>Google Scholar.

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238 The second suit was probably a tactic to delay complying with any verdict from the first suit, and might be considered an attempt at legal noncompliance.

239 Guinea-Bissau has talked about renegotiating the division of oil profits under the 1993 Agreement with Senegal, as it currently receives 15% and Senegal 85%, per the ICJ Judgment. MBendi, Guinea-Bissau: Oil and Gas Industry (last modified Aug. 28, 2000), available at <http://www.mbendi.co.za/indy/oilg/af/gb/p0005.htm>.

240 Plant, Glen, Case Report Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions Between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain), in 96 AJIL 198, 20001 (2002)Google Scholar; Qatar Says Bahrain Agrees to World Court Arbitration on Islands, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–NES–96–015 (Jan. 23, 1996)Google Scholar.

241 Memorial of the State of Qatar (Qatar v. Bahr.), 1996 ICJ Pleadings, paras. 1–2 (Sept. 30).

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245 Saad, Rasha, Gulf Emirates Settle Debate, Al-Ahram Wkly. On-line, No. 526 (Mar. 22–28, 2001), at <http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2001/526/re3.htm>Google Scholar.

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247 Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, supra note 244; Qatar HailsLegal Victoryin Dispute, Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, DOC. FBIS–NES–95–033 (Feb. 16, 1995).

248 Qatar HailsLegal Victoryin Dispute, Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, supra note 247. The Court largely ignored Bahrain’s refusal to participate. Judge Nicolas Valticos, appointed by Bahrain, further argued that it had refused to submit the dispute for adjudication after the Court solicited both parties to do so. Qatar v. Bahrain, supra note 25, Jurisdiction and Admissibility (Feb. 15, 1995), 34 ILM 1204, 1241 (1995) (Valticos, J. ad hoc, diss. op.).

249 Qatar v. Bahrain, Jurisdiction and Admissibility (July 1, 1994), 33 ILM 1461 (1994).

250 Qatar v. Bahrain, Jurisdiction and Admissibility, supra note 248, at 1217, para. 50.

251 Id. at 1224–41 (Oda, Shahabuddeen, Koroma, JJ., & Valticos, J. ad hoc, diss, ops.); see also Qatar Says Bahrain Agrees to World Court Arbitration on Islands, Agence France-Presse, Doc. FBIS–NES–96–015 (Jan. 23, 1996)Google Scholar.

252 BAHRAIN: Minister on Israel, Qatar, Recent Troubles, Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, Doc. FBIS–NES–97–071 (Apr. 10, 1997) (interview with Bahraini foreign minister Sheik Mohammed bin Mubarak al-Khalifa by Wafa’i Diyab).

253 Id.

254 The Court also noted that Qatari vessels enjoyed a right of innocent passage in the waters separating the Hawar Islands from the other Bahraini islands. Qatar v. Bahrain, supra note 25, at 896, para. 252.

255 Id.

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257 Plant, supra note 240, at 205–06.

258 Id. at 209–10.

259 Agence France-Presse, supra note 242.

260 The Middle East and North Africa, supra note 96, at 222.

261 Bahrains al-Shihabi on Returning Home, ICJ Verdict, Opposition, Domestic Issues, Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, Doc. FBIS–NES–2001–0323 (Mar. 23, 2001) (interview with Bahraini dissident Sa’id al-Shihabi by Ghalib Darwish).

262 Id.

263 He stated that Bahrain’s “territory is not open to give and take.” Al-Sharq Al-Awsat, supra note 252.

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266 Saad, supra note 245; 44 Middle E. Econ. Surv., supra note 264.

267 Id.

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270 Botswana Accused in the NA, Namibian (Feb. 3, 2000), at <http://www.namibian.com.na/2000/February/News/accused.html>>Google Scholar.

271 Namibian, supra note 268; Anglin, supra note 234, pt. 2(A) (b). Additionally, Anglin asserts that Namibia “intimated that it might find difficulty complying with an unfavourable court judgement.” Id., pt. 3(B) (b).

272 Memorial of the Republic of Botswana (Bots. v Namib.), 1997 ICJ Pleadings, para. 11 (Feb. 28).

273 Kasikili/Sedudu Island, sujbranote 25, paras. 1–2; Christof Maletsky, Kasikili KO, Namibian (Dec. 13, 1999), at <http://www.namibian.com.na/Netstories/December99/ko.html>.

274 Kasikili/Sedudu Island, supra note 25, paras. 102–04.

275 Maletsky, supra note 273.

276 Governments Reach New Border Settlement, Africa News, Mar. 7, 2003 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File; Delimitation Report Presented to the National Assembly, Africa News, June 18, 2003 Google Scholar, available in id.

277 Arrest Warrant of 11 April 2000, supra note 25, paras. 1–2, 10.

278 Id., para. 78.

279 Id.

280 Immediately after the verdict, the Belgian Foreign Ministry called for the case against Israeli prime minister Ariel Sharon to be dropped, as well as that against Ndombasi. Belgian War Crimes Law Rejected, BBC News: World Edition (Feb. 14, 2002), at <http://news.bbc.co.uk>>Google Scholar.

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283 Ratner, Steven R., Belgium’s War Crimes Statute: A Postmortem, 97 AJIL 888 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar.

284 Sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan, supra note 25, para. 150.

285 Indonesia Disappointed with Court Ruling on Disputed Islands, Agence France-Presse, Dec. 17, 2002 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File; Andriyanto, Heru & Jingsheng, Zhai, Indonesia Accepts ICJ’s Rule for Regional Peace, Xinhua General News Service, Dec. 18, 2002 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File. Indonesian president Megawati Sukarnoputri has defended the loss, saying that she did not lose the islands because Indonesia never owned them in the first place. President Requested to Explain Loss of Sipadan-Ligitan to House, Indonesian National News Agency, Sept. 19, 2003 Google Scholar, available in lexis, News Library, Allnws File.

286 Oil Platforms, supra note 25, paras. 1, 9, 19.

287 Id., para. 125.

288 As the Court found that the U.S. attacks were not justified, Iran could ask for reparations under general international law, but it could not claim a right under the 1955 treaty. Id., para. 125(1).

289 The Avena case is not included in the following analysis.

290 These factors are recognized (among many others) as relevant to conflict resolution in the international relations literature. See, e.g., Huth, Paul K., Standing Your Ground: Territorial Disputes and International Conflict (1996)Google Scholar.

291 Norway and Senegal did not object to litigating the case concerned before the Court, and should be considered as willing participants.

292 Of these states, however, only Qatar and the United States (in Elettronica Sicula) lost after winning on jurisdiction, and Qatar alone lost a comparatively large claim.

293 That state was Belgium in the Arrest Warrant case. Libya can also be considered a losing party that was nonconsensually before the Court because of the change in the political situation soon after the commencement of the case. See supra notes 73–79 and corresponding text.

294 To protest the case, Bahrain refused to participate for a time. See supra note 248.

295 Gabčíkovo-NagymarosProjectis included as a functional boundary dispute, as it implicates land use and environmental concerns over a large area on either side of the border, even though the parties do not disagree about the boundary itself.

296 El Salvador is the one exception, although its noncompliance over the maritime boundary was directly tied to a dispute over the adjoining land.

297 See supra note 7.

298 The only instance of Security Council action was the establishment of UNASOG, which had symbolic power but contributed little to the effectiveness of the Judgment. It is unclear whether Chad’s 1997 threat to go to the Security Council was effective in securing peace with Libya. Honduran complaints to the Security Council and demands for action may have helped secure the latest demarcation agreement with El Salvador.

299 Fitzmaurice thought that states entered into adjudication in part because of a subconscious expectation that they could escape an award if it went too far awry. See Oscar Schachter, International Law in Theory and Practice 228 (1991). It is possible that some noncompliance may actually make the ICJ a more attractive forum for important disputes.

300 Charney, supra note 6, at 302–03. Bahrain did refuse to participate for a time duringjurisdictional proceedings, but its lack of participation was of minor significance to the case (as it otherwise participated fully).

301 UN Charter Art. 1, para. 1; see also Singh, Nagendra, The Role And Record of the International Court of Justice 11, 31920 (1989)Google Scholar; Hans Corell, Presentation, in ICJ/UNITAR Colloquium, supra note 1, at 6.

302 Many cases are setded during proceedings, those where the Court rejects jurisdiction, those in which the threat of litigation has an effect, and cases brought under the Court’s advisory jurisdiction. Judge Bedjaoui points out that there are many recent examples of this phenomenon. Bedjaoui, supra note 23, at 22–23.

303 Jennings, Robert Y., The Proper Work and Purposes of the ICJ, in ICJ Future Role, supra note 1, at 33, 37 Google Scholar.