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Contemporary Practice of the United States Relating to International Law

  • Denys P. Myers

Extract

The Yugoslav Ambassador, concerned particularly with statements in the case of Arbulich’s Estate, 41 Calif. 2d 86, 257 Pac. 2d 433 (1953), cert. denied, 346 U. S. 897, digested in 48 A.J.I.L. 670 (1954), handed a note to the Secretary of State on April 18,1958, in which he asked for the Department of State’s understanding of the scope of Article II of the convention of October 14, 1881, for “facilitating and developing the commercial relations” of the two countries. In a reply dated April 24,1958 (file 211.683/41958) the Department of State concurred in the interpretation of the Yugoslav Ambassador.

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1 Yugoslavia in succession. In 1881 it was the Principality of Serbia, then the Kingdom of Serbia; in 1919 it became the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia on Oct. 3, 1929, and on Nov. 29, 1945, the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia. See Ivancevic v. Artukovic, 211 F. 2d 565 (9th Cir., 1954) ; cert. denied, 348 U. S. 818; digested in 48 A.J.I.L. 660 (1954).

2 2 Malloy, Treaties, etc., 1614 ; 22 Stat. 963.

3 T.I.A.S., No. 1803 ; 62 Stat. 968 ; 89 U.N. Treaty Series 43.

4 1 Malloy 20; 10 Stat. 1005. The Yugoslav note cited this Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation because the provisions of Art. IX were similar to the Yugoslav Convention of Legal Relations with Poland, May 4, 1923 (85 L.N. Treaty Series 455), Art. 23 of which had been interpreted along the lines of the Yugoslav reasoning.

5 No. 2, Serbian Consular Series, March 29, 1883, Ms. in National Archives.

6 A.J.I.L. Supp. 17 (1907); 1905 U. S. Foreign Relations 824; 98 Brit, and For. State Papers 735. See also Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Northern Islands: Background of Territorial Problems in the Japanese-Soviet Negotiations (Tokyo, 1955).

7 Decade of American Foreign Policy 33.

8 Ibid. 625.

9 Ibid. 633.

10 Ibid. 652.

11 1950-1955 American Foreign Policy 425.

12 T.I.A.S., No. 2490 ; 3 U. S. Treaties 3169 ; 136 U.N. Treaty Series 45. The treaty was in force April 28, 1952.

13 Exec. Agr. Series, No. 498; 59 Stat. 1823; The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945, p. 984; 40 A.J.I.L. 376 (1946). This “agreement” was a statement of concerted policy, not a treaty in a technical sense.

14 1950-1955 American Foreign Policy 885; 46 A.J.I.L. Supp. 91 (1952); T.I.A.S., No. 2491; 3 U. S. Treaties 3329; 136 U.N. Treaty Series 211.

15 Correspondence between the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and the Presidents of the U.S.A. and the Prime Ministers of Great Britain during the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, Vol. 2, p. 260 (Moscow, 1957).

16 10 U.N. Treaty Series 331 at 368; 14 Dept. of State Bulletin 201-208 (1945).

17 The Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945, p. 984 (Pub. 6199), cited note 13 above. For the interest of the U. S. Navy in a base in the Kuriles, see ibid. 389-392 (text of J.C.S. 1176/6) ; and for a paper on the Kurile Islands, pp. 379-383.

18 Set up by the Conference of British, Soviet, United States Foreign Ministers, Moscow, Dec. 27, 1945, Decade of American Foreign Policy 60-63.

19 Japanese Peace Treaty and Other Treaties relating to Security in the Pacific 17 (S. Execs. A, B, C and D, 82d Cong., 2d Secs.).

20 Soviet aide-mémoire, Nov. 20, 1950, 23 Dept. of State Bulletin 881 (1950) ; U. S. reply, Dec. 27, 1950, 24 ibid. 65 (1951) ; Soviet remarks, May 7, 1951, and U. S. reply, May 19, 1951, ibid. 852.

21 T.I.A.S., No. 2490; 3 U. S. Treaties 3167; 136 U.N. Treaty Series 45.

22 1950-1955 American Foreign Policy 450-451; Japanese Peace Treaty and Other Treaties, cited note 19 above, p. 22.

23 American Foreign Policy, cited above, p. 453. It was assumed in the negotiations that any dispute on the point would be referred to the International Court of Justice under the compromissary article of the treaty.

24 T.I.A.S., No. 1665; 61 Stat. 3301.

25 24 Dept. of State Bulletin 852 (1951).

26 T.T.A.S., No. 2491; 3 U. S. Treaties 3341; 208 U.N. Treaty Series 255.

27 T.I.A.S., No. 2490, p. 171; 3 U.S. Treaties 3167; 136 U.N. Treaty Series 45.

28 31 Dept. of State Bulletin 579 (1954). Part IV of the note discusses the Soviet position on the islands. See also I.C.J., Aerial Incident of 7 October 1952, Pleadings.

29 1956 American Foreign Policy 815.

30 Ibid. 817.

31 Ibid. 819; 263 U.N. Treaty Series 99.

32 Transcribed from unofficial English version.

33 New York Times, April 24, July 2, 1960.

34 T.I.A.S., No. 4530 ; Sen. Exec. A, 86th Cong., 1st Sess.

35 For the renewal of the commission under the Treaty of Arbitration and Conciliation between Switzerland and the United States, see 54 A.J.I.L. 638 (1960).

36 Established by Arts. VII and VIII of the Treaty respecting Boundary Waters between the United States and Canada, Jan. 11, 1909, 36 Stat. 2448; Treaty Series, No. 548; 3 Redmond 2607; 4 A.J.I.L. Supp. 239 (1910).

37 Ch. 5, Art. 7; Ch. 10, Art. 12; Annex (Charter), Convention on the Settlement of Matters arising out of the War and the Occupation, Bonn, May 26, 1952, 6 U. S. Treaties 4411, 4483, 4538; T.I.A.S., No. 3425; 332 U.N. Treaty Series 219; 49 A.J.I.L. Supp. 94, 107, 113 (1955).

38 Art. 28 and Annex IX (Charter), Agreement on German External Debts, Feb. 27, 1953, 4 U. S. Treaties 443, 460, 594; T.I.A.S., No. 2792; 333 U.N. Treaty Series 3; amended and extended, Dec. 1, 1954, and Nov. 30, 1956, 6 U. S. Treaties 865, and 7 U. S. Treaties 3442.

39 Art. 9 and Annex B (Charter), Convention on Relations between the Three Powers and the Federal Republic of Germany, Bonn, May 26, 1952, 6 U. S. Treaties 4251, 4259, 4264; T.I.A.S., No. 3425; amended by Schedule I to Protocol on the Termination of the Occupation Regime in the Federal Republic of Germany, Paris, Oct. 23, 1954, 6 U. S. Treaties 4119, 4130; T.I.A.S., No. 3425; 49 A.J.I.L. Supp. 60, 62 (1955).

40 Ch. 2, Art. 4, par. 6, transferred to Ch. 1, Art. 12, Convention on the Settlement of Matters arising out of the War and the Occupation, Bonn, May 26, 1952, 6 U. S. Treaties 4411, 4438; T.I.A.S., No. 3425; transferred provision by amendment in Schedule IV, Protocol on the Termination of the Occupation Regime in the Federal Republic of Germany, Paris, Oct. 23, 1954, 6 U. S. Treaties 4118, 5659; T.I.A.S., No. 3425; 49 A.J.I.L. Supp. 78 (1955).

41 Sec. 2, Agreement regarding the Validation of Dollar Bonds of German Issue, Bonn, Feb. 27, 1953, 4 U. S. Treaties 797, 5 U. S. Treaties 1; T.I.A.S., No. 2793; 223 U.N. Treaty Series 167.

42 2 Ch. 3, Art. 6, and Annex (Charter), Convention on the Settlement of Matters arising out of the War and the Occupation, Bonn, May 26, 1952, 6 U. S. Treaties 4411, 4460; T.I.A.S., No. 3425; 49 A.J.I.L. Supp. 83 (1955).

43 Law No. 25, April 25, 1953, Allied Kommandatura Berlin, Official Gazette, No. 47, p. 750.

44 Art. 83, Treaty of Peace with Italy, Paris, Feb. 10, 1947, 61 Stat. 1245; T.I.A.S., No. 1648; 49, 50 U.N. Treaty Series; 42 A.J.I.L. Supp. 47 (1948). Similar provisions were included in the other peace treaties of even date: Bulgaria, Art. 31; Hungary, Art. 40; Bumania, Art. 35. Edwin D. Dickinson was appointed United States Commissioner under these articles on Jan. 5, 1950 (22 Dept. of State Bulletin 97). Those commissions were not organized; see advisory opinions of the International Court of Justice, March 30 and July 18, 1950, [1950] I.C.J. Rep. 65, 121, 221.

45 Arts. 67-72, Charter of the Organization of American States, Bogotá, April 30, 1948, 2 U. S. Treaties 2394; T.I.A.S., No. 2361; 119 U.N. Treaty Series 3; 46 A.J.I.L. Supp. 43 (1952).

46 Art. XLIV, Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, The Hague, Oct. 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2199; Treaty Series, No. 536; 2 Malloy 2220, 2235; 2 A.J.I.L. Supp. 43 (1908). The 1907 Convention expands but does not supersede the Hague Convention of July 29, 1899, Art. XXIII of which first provided for the membership of the court, which serves as the national nominating groups for judges of the International Court of Justice (Art. 5, Statute). For the states parties to one or both conventions, see Treaties in Force . . . January 1, 1960, pp. 241-242.

47 U.N. General Assembly Res. 268(III)D and Annex, April 28, 1949, 3rd Sess., Official Records, Pt. II, Resolutions 13-16 (A/900).

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American Journal of International Law
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