Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Constructing Norms for Global Cybersecurity

  • Martha Finnemore (a1) and Duncan B. Hollis (a2)
Abstract

On February 16, 2016, a U.S. court ordered Apple to circumvent the security features of an iPhone 5C used by one of the terrorists who committed the San Bernardino shootings. Apple refused. It argued that breaking encryption for one phone could not be done without undermining the security of encryption more generally. It made a public appeal for “everyone to step back and consider the implications” of having a “back door” key to unlock any phone—which governments (and others) could deploy to track users or access their data. The U.S. government eventually withdrew its suit after the F.B.I. hired an outside party to access the phone. But the incident sparked a wide-ranging debate over the appropriate standards of behavior for companies like Apple and for their customers in constructing and using information and communication technologies (ICTs). That debate, in turn, is part of a much larger conversation. Essential as the Internet is, “rules of the road” for cyberspace are often unclear and have become the focus of serious conflicts.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Ralph Langner , Stuxnet: Dissecting a Cyberwarfare Weapon, 9 IEEE Security & Privacy 49, 49–50 (2011)

Christopher Bronk & Eneken Tikk-Ringas , The Cyber Attack on Saudi Aramco, 55 Survival 81, 85–88 (2013)

Michael N. Barnett & Martha Finnemore , The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of International Organizations, 53 Int’l Org. 699, 710 –15 (1999)

Jerome H. Saltzer , David P. Reed & David D. Clark , End-to-End Arguments in System Design, 2 ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 277, 278–80 (1984)

Lawrence Lessig , The Regulation of Social Meaning, 62 U. Chi. L. Rev. 943, 1008–16 (1995)

Richard H. McAdams , The Origin, Development, and Regulation of Norms, 96 Mich. L. Rev. 338 (1997)

Kenneth Anderson , The Ottawa Convention Banning Landmines, the Role of International Non-governmental Organizations and the Idea of International Civil Society, 11 Eur. J. Int’l L. 91, 104–09 (2000)

Stuart Maslen & Peter Herby , An International Ban on Anti-personnel Mines: History and Negotiation of the “Ottawa Treaty, 38 Int’l Rev. Red Cross 693 (1998)

Måns Svensson & Stefan Larsson , Intellectual Property Law Compliance in Europe: Illegal File Sharing and the Role of Social Norms, 14 New Media & Soc. 1147, 1157–60 (2012)

Shane Greenstein , Commercialization of the Internet: The Interaction of Public Policy and Private Choices or Why Introducing the Market Worked So Well, in 1 Innovation Policy and The Economy 151, 154 ( Adam B. Jaffe , Josh Lerner & Scott Stern eds., 2001), at http://www.nber.org/chapters/c10779.pdf

John Rawls , The Idea of an Over lapping Consensus, 7 Oxford J. Legal Stud. 1 (1987)

Robert Sugden , Spontaneous Order, 3 J. Econ. Persp. 85, 87–97 (1989)

Jörg Kammerhofer , Uncertainty in the Formal Sources of International Law: Customary International Law and Some of Its Problems, 15 Eur. J. Int’l L. 523, 525–26 (2004)

Anthea Elizabeth Roberts , Traditional and Modern Approaches to Customary International Law: A Reconciliation, 95 AJIL 757, 757–60 (2001)

Stacie E. Goddard , Brokering Change: Networks and Entrepreneurs in International Politics, 1 Int’l Theory 249 (2009)

Harold Hongju Koh , Why Do Nations Obey International Law, 106 Yale L.J. 2599, 2630–34, 2648 (1997)

Cass R. Sunstein , Social Norms and Social Rules, 96 Colum. L. Rev 903, 929 (1996)

Kathryn Sikkink , Transnational Politics, International Relations Theory, and Human Rights, 31 Pol. Sci. & Pol. 517, 518–19 (1998)

Kenneth W. Abbott & Duncan Snidal , Values and Interests: International Legalization in the Fight Against Corruption, 31 J. Legal Stud. S 141, S154–71 (2002)

Richard Price , Reversing the Gun Sights: Transnational Civil Society Targets Land Mines, 52 Int’l Org. 613, 620–39 (1998)

Alex J. Bellamy , The Responsibility to Protect—Five Years On, 24 Ethics & Int’l Aff. 143, 143 (2010)

Robert D. Benford & David A. Snow , Framing Processes and Social Movements: An Overview and Assessment, 26 Ann. Rev. Soc. 611 (2000)

David A. Snow , E. Burke Rochford Jr., Steven K. Worden & Robert D. Benford , Frame Alignment Processes, Micromobilization, and Movement Participation, 51 Am. Soc. Rev. 464 (1986)

Dennis Chong & James N. Druckman , A Theory of Framing and Opinion Formation in Competitive Elite Environments, 57 J. Comm. 99 (2007)

Robert D. Benford , An Insider’s Critique of the Social Movement Framing Perspective, 67 Soc. Inquiry 409 (1997)

Lawrence Lessig , Social Meaning and Social Norms, 144 U. Pa. L. Rev. 2181, 2189 (1996)

Udi Sommer & Victor Asal , A Cross-national Analysis of the Guarantees of Rights, 35 Int’l Pol. Sci. Rev. 463 (2014)

John W. Meyer , John Boli , George M. Thomas & Francisco O. Ramirez , World Society and the Nation-State, 103 Am. J. Soc. 144 (1997)

Alastair Iain Johnston , Treating International Institutions as Social Environments, 45 Int’l Stud. Q. 487, 487 (2001)

Steven R. Ratner , Law Promotion Beyond Law Talk: The Red Cross, Persuasion, and the Laws of War, 22 Eur. J. Int’l L. 459 (2011)

Thomas Risse , “Let’s Argue!”: Communicative Action in World Politics, 54 Int’l Org. 1 (2000)

John W. Meyer , Francisco O. Ramirez & Yasemin Nuhoglu Soysal , World Expansion of Mass Education, 1870–1980, 65 Soc. Educ. 128 (1992)

Francisco O. Ramirez , Yasemin Soysal & Suzanne Shanahan , The Changing Logic of Political Citizenship: Cross-national Acquisition of Women’s Suffrage Rights, 1890 to 1990, 62 Am. Soc. Rev. 735 (1997)

Paul DiMaggio & Walter W. Powell , The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields, 48 Am. Soc. Rev. 147, 151 (1983)

Emilie M. Hafner-Burton , Sticks and Stones: Naming and Shaming the Human Rights Enforcement Problem, 62 Int’l Org. 689 (2008)

Martha Finnemore , Legitimacy, Hypocrisy, and the Social Structure of Unipolarity: Why Being a Unipole Isn’t All It’s Cracked Up to Be, 61 World Pol. 58, 72 (2009)

Antje Wiener , Enacting Meaning-in-Use: Qualitative Research on Norms and International Relations, 35 REV. Int’l Stud. 175 (2009)

Michael Barnett , Humanitarianism Transformed, 3 Persp. on Pol. 723, 728 (2005)

Jeffrey W. Legro , Which Norms Matter?: Revisiting the “Failure” of Internationalism, 51 Int’l Org. 31 (1997)

R. Charli Carpenter , Governing the Global Agenda: “Gatekeepers” and “Issue Adoption” in Transnational Advocacy Networks, in Who Governs The Globe? 202 ( Deborah D. Avant , Martha Finnemore & Susan K. Sell eds., 2010)

Uri Gneezy & Aldo Rustichini , A Fine Is a Price, 29 J. Legal Stud. 1 (2000)

Thomas Risse & Stephen C. Ropp , Introduction and Overview, in The Persistent Power of Human Rights: From Commitment to Compliance 3 ( Thomas Risse , Stephen C. Ropp & Kathryn Sikkink eds., 2013

Karen J. Alter & Sophie Meunier , The Politics of International Regime Complexity, 7 Persp. On Pol. 13 (2009)

Gordon E. Moore , Cramming More Components onto Integrated Circuits, 86 Proc. IEEE 82 (1998)

Thomas Rid & Ben Buchanan , Attributing Cyber Attacks, 38 J. Strategic Stud. 4 (2015)

Jon R. Lindsay , Stuxnet and the Limits of Cyber Warfare, 22 Security Stud. 365 (2013)

David R. Johnson & David Post , Law and Borders—the Rise of Law in Cyberspace, 48 Stan. L. Rev. 1367, 1375–76 (1996)

Alexander Klimburg , Mobilising Cyber Power, 53 Survival 41 (2011)

Virginia Haufler , Disclosure as Governance: The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative and Resource Management in the Developing World, 10 Global Envtl. Pol. 53 (2012)

Tim Wu , When Code Isn’t Law, 89 Val. Rev. 679 (2003)

Peter M. Haas , Introduction: Epistemic Communities and International Policy Coordination, 46 Int’l Org. 1 (1992)

Mark Raymond & Laura DeNardis , Multistakeholderism: Anatomy of an Inchoate Global Institution, 7 Int’l Theory 572 (2015)

Kenneth W. Abbott , Robert O. Keohane , Andrew Moravcsik , Anne-Marie Slaughter & Duncan Snidal , The Concept of Legalization, 54 Int’l Org. 401, 412–14 (2000)

Kal Raustiala , Form and Substance in International Agreements, 99 AJIL 581, 613 (2005)

Charles Lipson , Why Are Some International Agreements Informal?, 45 Int’l Org. 495 (1991)

Kenneth W. Abbott & Duncan Snidal , Hard and Soft Law in International Governance, 54 Int’l Org. 421 (2000)

Philip Allott , The Concept of International Law, 10 Eur. J. Int’l L. 31, 43 (1999)

Chris Brummer , Why Soft Law Dominates International Finance—and Not Trade, 13 J. Int’l Econ. L. 623 (2010)

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

American Journal of International Law
  • ISSN: 0002-9300
  • EISSN: 2161-7953
  • URL: /core/journals/american-journal-of-international-law
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 213 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 418 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 20th January 2017 - 24th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.