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The Geography of Emerging Global South Climate Change Litigation

  • Hari M. Osofsky (a1)
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This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

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1 Jacqueline Peel & Jolene Lin, Transnational Climate Litigation: The Contribution of the Global South, 113 AJIL 679 (2019).

2 For a ranking of carbon emissions by country, see Global Carbon Atlas (Nov. 24, 2019).

3 See id. For a comparison of per capita and total emissions, see Union of Concerned Scientists, Each Country's Share of CO2 Emissions (Oct. 10, 2019). These differences are captured to some extent by the differential obligations in the Paris Agreement. See Paris Agreement arts. 2(2), 4(1) & 4(4), Dec. 12, 2015, UNTS I-54113.

4 See Global Carbon Atlas, supra note 2.

5 Central Intelligence Agency, Country Comparison: GDP, The World Factbook.

6 For a discussion on the emergence of adaptation litigation in the Global North, see Jacqueline Peel & Hari M. Osofsky, Sue to Adapt?, 99 Minn. L. Rev. 2133 (2015).

7 See Peel & Lin, supra note 1, at 683-84, 702-03, Appendix Table 2.

8 See id. at 689 (citing Jacqueline Peel & Hari M. Osofsky,Climate Change Litigation: Regulatory Pathways to Cleaner Energy? 8–9 (2015) for categorization of cases).

9 See id. at 703-10.

10 Jacqueline Peel & Hari M. Osofsky,Climate Change Litigation: Regulatory Pathways to Cleaner Energy? (2015); Columbia Law School – Sabin Center for Climate Change Law and Arnold & Porter Kaye Scholer LLP, U.S. Climate Change Litigation, Climate Change Litigation Database.

11 Peel & Lin, supra note 1, Appendix (Komari v. Mayor of Samarinda (2013)).

12 Id. (Ali v. Federation of Pakistan (2016)).

13 Id. (Earthlife (2017); Khanyisa Project (2017); KiPower Project (2017)).

14 Id. (Lliuya v. RWE (2015)).

15 Id. (MoE v. Selatnasik and Simpang (2010); MoE v. PT Merbau Pelalawan Lestari (2014); MoE v. PT Kalista Alam (2013); MoEF v. PT Bumi Mekar Hijau (2016); MoEF v. PT Jatim Jaya Perkasa (2016); MoEF v. PT Waringin Agro Jaya (2017)).

16 Id. (Public Prosecutor's Office v. Oliveira (2008); Supreme Federal Court Case (2015)).

17 Id. (Maia Filho v. Fed. Envtl. Agency (2015)).

18 Id. (Public Prosecutor's Office v. H Carlos Scheider S/A Comercio e Industria (2007)).

19 Id. (Sao Paulo Public Prosecutor's Office v. United Airlines & Others (2014)).

20 Id. (Protection of High-Altitude Ecosystem (2016); Future Generations v. Ministry of Env't (2018)).

21 Id. (Karnataka Indus. Areas Dev. Board v. Sri C. Kenchappa (2006)).

22 Id. (Manushi Rickshaw Case (2010)).

23 Id. (Indian Council for Enviro-legal Action (ICELA) v. Ministry of Env't, Forest and Climate Change and Others (HFC-23 case) (2015)).

24 Id. (Victoria Segovia et al v. Climate Change Commission et al. (2017)).

25 Id. (Gbemre v. Shell & Others (2005)).

26 UNFCCC REDD+ Web Platform (last visited Nov. 24, 2019).

27 See Peel & Lin, supra note 1, at 716-17.

28 For a discussion of how subnational regions and variations interact with nation-state-based treaty systems, see Hari M. Osofsky, Rethinking the Geography of Local Climate Action: Multi-Level Network Participation in Metropolitan Regions, 2015 Utah L. Rev. 173; Hari M. Osofsky, Technology Transfer and Climate Change, in Sustainable Technology Transfer: A Guide to Global Development (Hans Henrik Lidgard et al., eds. 2011).

29 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, AR5 Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability (Mar. 2014).

30 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, Approaches to Address Loss and Damage Associated with Climate Change Impacts in Developing Countries.

31 See Peel & Osofsky, supra note 6.

32 See Peel & Lin, supra note 1, at 715 & n. 39.

33 See id. at 716-17.

34 Central Intelligence Agency, supra note 5.

35 Leghari v. Pakistan, W.P. No. 25501/2015, Lahore High Court, Order of Sep. 4, 2015, para. 1 (Pakistan).

36 See Peel & Lin, supra note 1, at Appendix, Table 2.

37 Id.; see also UN Dev. Programme, Small Island Nations at the Frontline of Climate Action (Sept. 18, 2017).

38 Peel & Osofsky, supra note 8.

39 Id.

40 Jacqueline Peel & Hari M. Osofsky, Litigation as a Climate Regulatory Tool, in International Judicial Practice on the Environment: Questions of Legitimacy (Christina Voight ed., 2019).

41 For an in-depth discussion of this petition and emerging human rights cases in both the Global North and Global South, see Jacqueline Peel & Hari M. Osofsky, Rights Turn in Climate Change Litigation?, Transnat'l Envtl. L. 1-31 (2017).

42 See id. at 74–75.

43 See Peel & Lin, supra note 1, at Appendix, Table 1 & Table 2.

44 See id.

45 Peel & Osofsky, supra note 8.

The Geography of Emerging Global South Climate Change Litigation

  • Hari M. Osofsky (a1)

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