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Introduction to Symposium on Global Animal Law (Part I): Animals Matter in International Law and International Law Matters for Animals

  • Anne Peters (a1)
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Abstract
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1 I will refer to nonhuman animals as “animals” and use the term “humans” to refer to human animals.

2 The prohibition of deliberate cruelty to animals has been qualified as a general principle of law (arguably also in the sense of Article 38(1)(c) ICJ Statute). See Reece v. Edmonton, 2011 ABCA 238 (Can., Alta., Ct. App.) (Fraser, J., dissenting), para. 56.

3 See for the full texts of legislation in 121 states: Legislation Database, Global Animal Law Project. See for an assessment of the quality of statutory protection of animals in fifty countries Animal Protection Index, World Animal Protection.

4 Pamela Frasch et al., Animal Law in a Nutshell (2d ed. 2016).

5 Jessica Eisen & Kristen Stilt, Protection and Status of Animals, in Max Planck Encyclopedia of Comparative Constitutional Law (Rainer Grote et al. eds., 2017).

6 Allgemeines Bürgerlicher Gesetzbuch [ABGB] [Civil Code] § 285a (Austria) (amended July 1, 1988); Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch [BGB] [Civil Code] § 90a (Ger.) (amended Aug. 20, 1990); Schweizerisches Zivilgesetzbuch [ZGB] Code civil [CC], Codice civile [Civil Code] Dec. 10, 1907, SR 210, RS 210, art. 641a (Switz.) (amended Oct. 4, 2002); Sachenrecht [SR] [Code of Property] art. 20a (Liech.) (law of May 14, 2003); Code civil (Civil Code) art. 515–14 (Fr.) (amended Feb. 16, 2015); Lei No. 8/2017 art. 1 (Port.) (amendment to the Portugese Civil Code of Mar. 3, 2017).

7 “Animal welfare” was initially a scientific (notably veterinarian) concept (David Fraser, Understanding Animal Welfare: The Science in its Cultural Context (2008). It has also become relevant as a philosophical and legal concept. In these debates, animal welfare is often pitted as a counterposition to animal rights, and as accepting the traditional status of animals as “objects” (things) as opposed to “subjects” (persons). Cf. Robert Garner, Animal Welfare: A Political Defense, 1 J. Animal L. & Ethics 161 (2006).

8 See the mainstreaming clause in Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union art. 13, May 9, 2008, 2008 O.J. (C 115) 47.

9 The Nonhuman Rights Project on Behalf of Hercules and Leo v. Samuel L. Stanley, as President of State University of New York at Stony Brook, 49 Misc 3d 746 (2015), denying habeas corpus because the judge felt hereof bound by precedent but finding “[e]fforts to extend legal rights to chimpanzees … understandable; some day they may even succeed.”

10 Tercer Juzgado de Garantías Mendoza, 3/11/2016, case no. P-72.254/15, declaring “chimpanzee Cecilia, who lives in the Province of Mendoza zoo, a non human legal person” and granting habeas corpus action.

11 Decision of the Colombian Supreme Court granting habeas corpus in favour of a spectacled bear (tremarctos ornatus) named Chucho, of July 26, 2017: Corte Suprema de justicia de Colombia [C.S.J.] [Supreme Court], julio 26, 2017, Luis Armando Tolosa Villabona, Magistrado ponente, AHC4806–2017, Radicación no. l7001–22–13–000–2017–00468–02. S ee sec. 2.4.3. on “sentient non-human beings as rights-holders.”

13 Sue Donaldson & Will Kymlicka, Zoopolis: A Political Theory of Animal Rights (2011).

14 The Oxford Handbook of Animal Studies (Linda Kalof ed., 2017).

15 See J. Critical Animal Stud. (since 2003).

16 Harriet Ritvo, On the Animal Turn, 136 Daedalus 118–292 (2007).

17 Margot Michel & Saskia Stucki, Rechtswissenschaft, in Disziplinierte Tiere? Perspektiven der Human–Animal Studies für die wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen 229–55 (Reingard Spannring et al. eds., 2015).

18 See only Paul Waldau, Animal Rights: What Everyone Needs to Know (2011).

19 This section develops further ideas submitted in Anne Peters, Global Animal Law: What It is and Why We Need It, 5 Transnat'l Envtl L. 9 (2016).

22 Convention on Biological Diversity, June 5, 1992, 1760 UNTS 79.

24 I use “global” and “transnational” as synonyms. For a description of transnational law which resembles global law as characterized here, compare: Veerle Heyvaert & Thijs Etty, Introducing Transnational Environmental Law, 1 Transnat'l Envtl L. 1 (2012).

25 Cf. Anne Peters, Animal Law – A Paradigm Change, in Animal Law: Reform or Revolution? 17 (Anne Peters et al. eds., 2015).

26 See Anne Peters, Liberté, Égalité, Animalité: Human-Animal Comparisons in Law, 5 Transnat'l Envntl L. 25 (2016).

29 Mathilde Cohen, Animal Colonialism: The Case of Milk, 111 AJIL Unbound 267 (2017).

30 Jérôme de Hemptinne, The Protection of Animals During Warfare, 111 AJIL Unbound 272 (2017).

31 Saskia Stucki, (Certified) Humane Violence?, 111 AJIL Unbound 277 (2017).

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