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What Works in Human Rights Institutions?

  • Katerina Linos (a1) and Tom Pegram (a2)
Abstract

Since 1993, the United Nations has promoted national human rights institutions (NHRIs); these have spread to almost 120 countries. We assess what makes NHRIs effective, using quantitative and qualitative methods. We find that formal institutional safeguards contribute greatly to NHRI efficacy even in authoritarian and transition regimes. Complaint-handling mandates are particularly useful because they help NHRIs build broad bases of support. Our findings show how international organizations can wield great influence with soft tools such as recommendations and peer-review mechanisms.

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Corresponding author
Correspondence: klinos@berkeley.edu.
Correspondence: t.pegram@ucl.ac.uk.
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We thank Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks for their extraordinary help in collecting NHRI data. For very helpful comments we thank Kenneth Abbott, Carlos Alza, Gabby Blum, Anu Bradford, Curtis Bradley, Rachel Brewster, Brian Burdekin, Richard Carver, Fernando Castañeda, Adam Chilton, Alberto Coddou, Colm O'Cinneade, John Crabtree, Christopher Elmendorf, Laurel Fletcher, Stavros Gadinis, David Gartner, Fabrizio Gilardi, Tom Ginsburg, Jack Goldsmith, Bert Huang, Ryan Goodman, Andrew Guzman, Laurence Helfer, Courtney Hillebrecht, Derek Jinks, Katrien Meuwissen, Abraham Newman, Chris Robertson, Eric Posner, Chris Sidoti, Kathryn Sikkink, Beth Simmons, Duncan Snidal, Holger Spamann, Matthew Stephenson, Erik Voeten, Laurence Whitehead, and Mark Wu. We are also very grateful to the five anonymous reviewers for their feedback on this piece. We would like to thank Caroline Brandt, Sonakshi Kapoor, Kim Twist, and Lauriane Wolfe for excellent research assistance. We are very grateful to the many individuals who gave of their time during the course of our investigation. We would also like to thank all of the participants at workshops held at University College London, University of California, Berkeley, at the University of Chicago, at Duke University, at Harvard University, at the University of Oxford and the University of Zurich. We also thank the Berkeley Hellman Fund, the Berkeley Miller Center, and the Berkeley Jean Monnet Center for Excellence for their generous financial support.

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References
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1 See John Boli & George M. Thomas, Constructing World Culture: International Nongovernmental Organizations Since 1875 (1999).

2 Beth A. Simmons, Mobilizing for Human Rights: International Law in Domestic Politics 36–54 (2009).

3 See Elkins, Zachary, Ginsburg, Tom & Simmons, Beth A., Getting to Rights: Treaty Ratification, Constitutional Convergence, and Human Rights Practice , 54 Harv. Int'l L.J. 61 (2013); Ramirez, Francisco O., Soysal, Yasemin & Shanahan, Suzanne, The Changing Logic of Political Citizenship: Cross-National Acquisition of Women's Suffrage Rights, 1890 to 1990 , 62 Am. Soc. Rev. 735 (1997).

4 See, e.g., Hafner-Burton, Emilie M. & Tsutsui, Kiyoteru, Justice Lost! The Failure of International Human Rights Law to Matter Where Needed Most , 44 J. Peace Res. 407 (2007); Hathaway, Oona A., Do Human Rights Treaties Make a Difference? , 111 Yale L.J. 1935 (2002); Fariss, Christopher J., Respect for Human Rights Has Improved Over Time: Modeling the Changing Standard of Accountability , 108 Am. Pol. Sci. Rev. 297 (2014); Goodman, Ryan & Jinks, Derek, Measuring the Effects of Human Rights Treaties , 14 Eur. J. Int'l L. 171 (2003).

5 U.N. Centre for Human Rights, National Human Rights Institutions: A Handbook on the Establishment and Strengthening of National Human Rights Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, U.N. Sales No. E.95.XIV.2 (1995).

6 Id., para. 39.

7 See Linos, Katerina & Pegram, Thomas, The Language of Compromise in International Agreements , 70 Int'l Org. 587 (2016).

8 See Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI), ICC Accreditation, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), at http://nhri.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/GANHRIAccreditation/Pages/default.aspx; see also Linos, Katerina & Pegram, Tom, Architects of Their Own Making: National Human Rights Institutions and the United Nations , 38 Hum. Rts. Q. 1109, 1110 (2016).

9 See Kingsbury, Benedict, Krisch, Nico & Stewart, Richard B., The Emergence of Global Administrative Law , 68 Law & Contemp. Probs. 15–61 (2005).

10 Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7 at 597–605.

11 See, e.g., Richard Carver, Performance & Legitimacy: National Human Rights Institutions (2001) [hereinafter Carver 2001]; Richard Carver, Assessing the Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions (2005) [hereinafter Carver 2005]; Brian Burdekin & Jason Naum, National Human Rights Institutions in the Asia-Pacific Region (2007).

12 Amnesty International, NHRIs: Recommendations for Effective Protection and Promotion of Human Rights, AI Index: IOR 40/007/2001 (Oct. 2001), available at https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/128000/ior400072001en.pdf.

13 Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change: Assessing National Human Rights Institutions (Ryan Goodman & Thomas Pegram eds., 2012); Sonia Cardenas, Chains of Justice: The Global Rise of State Institutions for Human Rights (2014); Spencer, Sarah & Harvey, Colin, Context, Institution or Accountability? Exploring the Factors that Shape the Performance of National Human Rights and Equality Bodies , 42 Pol. & Politics 89–107 (2014).

14 See Agbakwa, Shedrack C. & Okafor, O.C., On Legalism, Popular Agency and ‘Voices of Suffering’: The Nigerian National Human Rights Commission in Context , 24 Hum. Rts. Q. 662 (2002); Uggla, Fredrik, The Ombudsman in Latin America , 36 J. Latin Am. Stud. 423 (2004); Domingo, Pilar, Weak Courts, Rights and Legal Mobilization in Bolivia , in Courts and Social Transformation in New Democracies: An Institutional Voice for the Poor? 233 (Gargarella, Roberto, Domingo, Pilar & Roux, Theunis eds., 2006); Finkel, Jodi, Explaining the Failure of Mexico's National Commission of Human Rights (Ombudsman's Office) After Democratization: Elections, Incentives, and Unaccountability in the Mexican Senate , 13 Hum. Rts, Rev. 473 (2012).

15 See Agbakwa & Okafor, supra note 14; Domingo, supra note 14; Finkel, Evgeny, The Authoritarian Advantage of Horizontal Accountability: Ombudsmen in Poland and Russia , 44 Comp. Pol. 291 (2012).

16 See Thomas Pegram, National Human Rights Institutions in Latin America: Politics and Institutionalization, in Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change, supra note 13, at 210, 210–40.

17 See Cole, Wade M. & Ramirez, Francisco O., Conditional Decoupling: Assessing the Impact of National Human Rights Institutions, 1981 to 2004 , 78 Am. Soc. Rev. 702 (2013).

18 Simmons, supra note 2; Human Rights Watch, Protectors or Pretenders? Government Human Rights Commissions in Africa 14 (Jan. 1, 2001); Carver 2001, supra note 11 at 59–63; Thomas Pegram & Ryan Goodman, Introduction: National Human Rights Institutions, State Conformity, and Social Change, in Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change, supra note 13, at 1, 18.

19 See David E. Lewis, Presidents and the Politics of Agency Design: Political Insulation in the United States Government Bureaucracy 1946–1997 (2003); Hyman, David A. & Kovacic, William E., Why Who What Matters: Governmental Design and Agency Performance , 82 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1446 (2014); Stephan S. Haggard & Robert Kaufman, The Politics of Economic Adjustment: International Constraints, Distributive Conflicts and the State (1992); McCubbins, Matthew, Noll, Roger G. & Weingast, Barry R., Structure and Process, Politics and Policy: Administrative Arrangement and the Political Control of Agencies , 75 Va. L. Rev. 431 (1989); Freeman, Jody & Rossi, Jim, Agency Coordination in Shared Regulatory Space , 125 Harv. L. Rev. 1131 (2012).

20 More specifically, “A” status National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) have speaking rights within the Human Rights Council; an NHRI peer review network, the Global Alliance of National Human Rights Institutions (GANHRI) awards “A” status. See infra Part II.A.1. for details. See also Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7 (indicating how the UN Paris Principles shaped the establishment of dozens of NHRIs) and Linos & Pegram, Architects of Their Own Making, supra note 8 (explaining how the UN has included NHRIs in treaty mechanisms).

21 Carver 2001, supra note 11, at 111–12.

22 See, e.g., Moe, Terry M., The New Economics of Organization , 28 Am. J. Pol. Sci. 739 (1984); Kingsbury, Krisch & Stewart, supra note 9; Pierson, Paul, Not Just What, but When: Timing and Sequence in Political Processes , 14 Stud. Am. Pol. Dev. 72 (2000); Levitsky, Steven & Murillo, María Victoria, Variation in Institutional Strength , 12 Ann. Rev. Pol. Sci. 115 (2009).

23 See Kim, Dongwook, International Nongovernmental Organizations and the Global Diffusion of National Human Rights Institutions , 67 Int'l Org. 505 (2013).

24 Chris Hanretty & Christel Koop, Political Independence, Accountability, and the Quality of Regulatory Decision-Making, Comp. Pol. Stud. (first pub. March 28, 2017), available at http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0010414017695329.

25 See id.; Cole & Ramirez, supra note 17.

26 See Alexander L. George & Andrew Bennett, Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences (2005).

27 For a similar inquiry into the impact of external environmental factors on the variable authority of international courts see Alter, Karen J., Helfer, Laurence R. & Madsen, Mikael Rask, How Context Shapes the Authority of International Courts , 79 Law & Contemp. Probs. (2016).

28 See Daniel P. Carpenter, The Forging of Bureaucratic Autonomy (2001); Abraham L. Newman, Protectors of Privacy. Regulating Personal Data in the Global Economy (2008); Jacob E. Gersen, Overlapping and Underlapping Jurisdiction in Administrative Law, 2006 Sup. Ct. Rev. 201 (2007).

29 Cole & Ramirez, supra note 17, at 714–15.

30 Randeep Ramesh, Equality and Human Rights Commission Has Workforce Halved, Guardian (May 15, 2012), at https://www.theguardian.com/society/2012/may/15/equality-human-rights-commission-cuts.

31 Finkel, Evgeny, The Authoritarian Advantage of Horizontal Accountability: Ombudsmen in Poland and Russia , 44 Comp. Pol. 291, 304 (2012).

32 See McCubbins, Matthew, Noll, Roger G. & Weingast, Barry R., Structure and Process, Politics and Policy: Administrative Arrangement and the Political Control of Agencies , 75 Va. L. Rev. 431, 443 (1989).

33 See generally Haggard & Kaufman, supra note 19.

34 See generally Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action (1971).

35 See Barkow, Rachel E., Insulating Agencies: Avoiding Capture Through Institutional Design , 89 Tex. L. Rev. 15, 42–64 (2010).

36 See Boin, Arjen & Goodin, Robert E., Institutionalizing Upstarts: The Demons of Deinstitutionalization and the Benefits of Recalcitrance , 42 Acta Politica 40 (2007).

37 See Lewis, David E., The Adverse Consequences of the Politics of Agency Design for Presidential Management in the United States: The Relative Durability of Insulated Agencies , 34 Brit. J. Pol. Sci. 377 (2004).

38 Hatchard, John, The Institution of the Ombudsman in Africa with Special Reference to Zimbabwe , 35 Int'l & Comp. L. Q. 255, 258 (1986).

39 See Scott Mainwaring, Presidentialism in Latin America, 25 Latin Am. Res. Rev. 157 (1990).

40 See Meuwissen, Katrien, NHRIs and the State: New and Independent Actors in the Multi-layered Human Rights System? , 15 Hum. Rts. L. Rev. 441–84 (2015).

41 Richard Carver, Measuring the Impact and Development Effectiveness of National Human Rights Institutions: A Proposed Framework for Evaluation, 22, UNDP, Bratislava Regional Ctr. (Feb. 2014) (on file with authors).

42 Interview with Brian Burdekin, former Special Adviser on National Institutions to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (1995–2003) (Mar. 30, 2012).

43 The South African Human Rights Commission, Critically Reflecting on an Institutional Journey 2002–2009, at 4 (2009), available at http://www.gov.za/sites/www.gov.za/files/critically_reflecting_report.pdf.

44 See Carver, Measuring the Impact, supra note 41.

45 See Carver 2005, supra note 11.

46 Richard Carver, National Human Rights Institutions in Central and Eastern Europe: The Ombudsman as Agent of International Law, in Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change, supra note 13, at 181, 200.

47 See Khan, Naefa, The Commission on Human Rights and Administrative Justice in Ghana: Working in the Micro and Around the Macro , in National Human Rights Institutions in Africa. Defenders of Human Rights, Managers of Conflict, Builders of Peace? 80 (Parlevliet, Michelle, Lamb, Guy & Maloka, Victoria eds., 2005).

48 Peter Rosenblum, Tainted Origins and Uncertain Outcomes: Evaluating NHRIs, in Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change, supra note 13, at 297, 313.

49 The most prominent example of judicial NHRIs are the Ghanaian, Kenyan, Ugandan, and Sierra Leonean offices which, to varying degrees, have court-like powers.

50 Barkow, supra note 35 at 59.

51 Julie Mertus, Evaluating NHRIs: Considering Structure, Mandate, and Impact, in Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change, supra note 13, at 74, 84–86.

52 See McCubbins, Matthew, Noll, Roger G. & Weingast, Barry R., Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control , 3 J. L., Econ., & Org. 243 (1987); Gutner, Tamar, Explaining the Gaps Between Mandate and Performance: Agency Theory and World Bank Environmental Reform , 5 Global Envtl. Pol. 10 (2005); Chun, Young Han & Rainey, Hal G., Goal Ambiguity in US Federal Agencies , 15 J. Pub. Admin., Res., & Theory 1 (2005); Miller, Geoffrey P., Independent Agencies , 1986 Sup. Ct. Rev. 41 (1986).

53 See Australian Human Rights Commission, Report of the National Inquiry into Youth Homelessness (Feb. 10, 1989); Australian Human Rights Commission, Report of the National Inquiry into the Human Rights of People with Mental Illness (Oct. 20, 1993); Chris Sidoti, Australian Human Rights Commissioner, Address at the National Conference on Mental Health Services, Policy and Law Reform into the Twenty First Century: Mental Health for All: What's the Vision? (Feb. 13–14,1997), available at https://www.humanrights.gov.au/news/speeches/mental-health-all-whats-vision.

54 John Ackerman, Organismos Autónomos y Democracia: El Caso Mexicano 130 (2007).

55 See Rule by Law: The Politics of Courts in Authoritarian Regimes (Ginsburg, Tom & Moustafa, Tamir eds., 2008); Solomon, Peter, Courts and Judges in Authoritarian Regimes , 60 World Pol. 122 (2007); Magaloni, Beatriz & Kricheli, Ruth, Political Order and One-Party Rule , 13 Ann. Rev. Pol. Sci. 123 (2010); Ginsburg, Tom & Versteeg, Mila, Why Do Countries Adopt Constitutional Review? , 30 J. L. Econ. & Org. 587 (2014).

56 See Simmons, supra note 2.

57 Barkow, supra note 35, at 50.

58 See Linos, Katerina, How to Select and Develop International Law Case Studies: Lessons from Comparative Law and Comparative Politics , 109 AJIL 475 (2015); Linos, Katerina & Carlson, Melissa, Qualitative Methods for Law Review Writing , 84 U. Chi. L. Rev. 213 (2017).

59 See Kim, supra note 23; Cole & Ramirez, supra note 17.

60 For details on the dataset and data collection process see Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7. We are immensely grateful to Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks for their invaluable assistance in this data collection effort.

61 Hanretty & Koop, supra note 24, at 7–10.

62 See GANHRI, supra note 8.

63 See Linos & Pegram, Architects of Their Own Making, supra note 8 (for analysis of significance of the GANHRI and Sub-committee on Accreditation (SCA) for Paris Principles compliance).

64 “A(reserved)” was retired in 2010 and “C” status in 2017.

65 We are developing a project investigating the significance and impact of the SCA, emblematic of peer review and global performance assessments as important new tools in global governance. See Kelley, Judith G. & Simmons, Beth A., Politics by Number: Indicators as Social Pressure in International Relations , 59 Am. J. Pol. Sci. 55 (2015).

66 GANHRI Rules of Procedure for the GANHRI Sub-Committee on Accreditation, adopted 6 March 2017, at http://nhri.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/GANHRIAccreditation/Pages/SCAGeneralObservations.aspx.

67 GANHRI General Observations of the Sub-Committee on Accreditation, adopted 6 March 2017, at http://nhri.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/GANHRIAccreditation/Pages/SCAGeneralObservations.aspx.

68 GANHRI Rules of Procedure, supra note 66.

69 Id., Rule 8.1.

70 See GANHRI Bureau, Practice Note 3: Assessing the Performance of NHRIs, 6 March 2017, at http://nhri.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/GANHRIAccreditation/Pages/SCAGeneralObservations.aspx.

71 See Brodie, Meg, Progressing Norm Socialisation: Why Membership Matters. The Impact of the Accreditation Process of the International Coordinating Committee of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights , 80 Nordic J. Int'l L. 143, 160 (2011); Peter Rosenblum, Tainted Origins and Uncertain Outcomes, in Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change, supra note 13, at 297.

72 Data from Reports of the SCA, available at http://nhri.ohchr.org/EN/Documents/Status%20Accreditation%20Chart%20.pdf (includes all accredited and reaccredited NHRIs).

73 See Linos & Pegram, Architects of Their Own Making, supra note 8, at 1124.

74 See cases of downgrading in Honduras (2010), Sri Lanka (2007), Thailand (2014), and Venezuela (2015).

75 See, e.g., Palestine Review, in GANHRI Report and Recommendations of the Session of the Sub-Committee on Accreditation, at 34 (Nov. 2015) (“PICHR continues to be an effective” NHRI, despite concerns expressed over lack of primary legislation); see also Australia Review, in GANHRI Report and Recommendations of the Session of the Sub-Committee on Accreditation, at 10–13 (Nov. 2016) (concerns expressed over selection and appointment).

76 Qatar: National Human Rights Committee to Keep Status A Despite Lack of Independence from the Executive, Alkarama (Feb. 1, 2016), at https://www.alkarama.org/en/articles/qatar-national-human-rights-committee-keep-status-despite-lack-independence-executive. See also AiNNI, An NGO Report on the Compliance with the Paris Principles by the National Human Rights Commission of India (Jan. 22, 2011), available at http://www.peopleswatch.org/dm-documents/HRD/NGO%20Report_Paris%20Principles_NHRC_India.pdf.

77 UN Body Defers NHRC Accreditation, Indian EXPRESS (Feb. 12, 2017), at http://indianexpress.com/article/india/un-body-defers-nhrc-accreditation-4520132.

78 See Preface Note in GANHRI Report and Recommendations of the Session of the Sub-Committee on Accreditation (May 9–13, 2016; Mar. 13–17, 2017).

79 Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7, at 615–16.

80 See Online Appendix 1 in AJIL Unbound.

81 See Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), The 20th Anniversary of OHCHR: 20 Human Rights Achievements, at http://www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/OHCHR20_Backup/Pages/Achievements.aspx.

82 Hanretty & Koop, supra note 24, at 7–10.

83 See Kim, supra note 23; Emilie Hafner-Burton, Making Human Rights a Reality (2013); Hafner-Burton, Emilie, Trading Human Rights: How Preferential Trade Agreements Influence Government Repression , 59 Int'l Org. 593 (2005); Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7.

84 Monty G. Marshall & Keith Jaggers, Polity IV Project: Political Regime Characteristics and Transitions, 1800–2002, Dataset Users’ Manual (2002), available at http://www3.nd.edu/~mcoppedg/crd/PolityIVUsersManualv2002.pdf.

85 See Cingranelli, David L., The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Data Project , 32 Hum. Rts. Q. 395 (2004).

86 The World Bank, World Bank National Accounts Data and OECD National Accounts Data Files: GDP Per Capita (1960–2015), at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD.

87 See Cole, Wade M. & Ramirez, Francisco O., Conditional Decoupling Assessing the Impact of National Human Rights Institutions, 1981 to 2004 , 78 Am. Soc. Rev. 702 (2013).

88 Id.

89 See Kristian S. Gleditsch, Expanded Trade and GDP Data, 46 J. Conflict Resol. 712 (2002).

90 See Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta & Strand, Håvard, Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset , 39 J. Peace Res. 615 (2002); Pettersson, Therése & Wallensteen, Peter, Armed Conflicts, 1946–2014 , 52 J. Peace Res. 536 (2015).

91 The World Bank, World Bank National Accounts Data and OECD National Accounts Data Files: Trade (% of GDP) (1960–2015), at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NE.TRD.GNFS.ZS.

92 Models presented in the appendix demonstrate that the results are robust to changes in the cut-point between democracies and autocracies. More specifically, when we compare stable democracies (scoring over five on the polity score) to all other countries, we find similar patterns.

93 See Linos, How to Select and Develop International Law Case Studies, supra note 58; Linos & Carlson, supra note 58; George & Bennett, supra note 26.

94 Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7, at 599.

95 Linos & Pegram, Architects of Their Own Making, supra note 8, at 1110, 1121; Linos & Pegram, supra note 7, The Language of Compromise, at 601–02.

96 Gerring, John, Is There a (Viable) Crucial-Case Method? , 40 Comp. Pol. Stud. 231, 234 (2007).

97 See Pegram, Thomas, Accountability in Hostile Times: The Case of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman 1996–2001 , 40 J. Latin Am. Stud. 51 (2008).

98 Uggla, supra note 14, at 446.

99 Pegram, Thomas, Weak Institutions, Rights Claims and Pathways to Compliance: The Transformative Role of the Peruvian Human Rights Ombudsman , 39 Oxford Dev. Stud. 229, 236 (2011).

100 Constitución Política del Perú [Political Constitution of Peru], Dec. 31, 1993, Art. 162.

101 Law No. 26520, Art. 26, Ley Orgánica de la Defensoría del Pueblo (Organic Law of the Office of the Ombudsman), Agosto 8, 1995 (Peru).

102 Id. Art. 9.

103 Id. Arts. 9, 27.

104 Id. Art. 9.

105 Interview with Samuel Abad, former Deputy Ombudsman for Constitutional Affairs, Defensoría del Pueblo (Peruvian NHRI), in Lima, Peru (July 14, 2005).

106 Email from Daniel Cotlear, Country Sector Leader, The World Bank, to author (Feb. 21, 2006, 04:04 EST) (on file with author).

107 See Pegram, Thomas, Diffusion Across Political Systems: The Global Spread of National Human Rights Institutions , 32 Hum. Rts. Q. 729 (2010). See generally Katerina Linos, The Democratic Foundations of Policy Diffusion: How Health, Family and Employment Laws Spread Across Countries (2013); Linos, Katerina, Diffusion Through Democracy , 55 Am. J. Pol. Sci. 678 (2011).

108 Santistevan, Jorge, El Defensor del Pueblo en Iberoamérica (The Ombudsman in Latin America) , in Retos Actuales de las Instituciones Nacionales de Protección y Promoción de los Derechos Humanos (Current Challenges of National Institutions for the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights) 27, 31 (2004).

109 Id. at 28. Across Latin America, all NHRIs adopted before the Paris Principles resembled the Spanish Ombudsmen in institutional design—these include Guatemala (1985), Mexico (1990), Honduras (1990), Colombia (1991), El Salvador (1991), Costa Rica (1992), Paraguay (1992), Argentina (1993), and Peru (1993).

110 Email from Jorge Santistevan, former Ombudsman (1996–2000), Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI), to author (Feb. 22, 2006, 14:28 GMT) (on file with author).

111 Id.

112 Interview with Samuel Abad, supra note 105.

113 Interview with Marcial Rubio, former Minister for Education, Ministerio de Educación del Perú (Ministry of Education of Peru), in Lima, Peru (Sept. 7, 2005).

114 Catherine Conaghan, Fujimori's Peru: Deception in the Public Sphere 25 (2005).

115 See Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI), Informes Anuales (Annual Reports), available at http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/informes-publicaciones.php.

116 Skype interview with Carlos Alza Barco, Director of the School of Government and Public Policy, Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (June 28, 2016).

117 See, e.g., Oficina de Prensa e Imagen Institucional, Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Office of Press and Institutional Image, Peruvian NHRI), Defensoría del Pueblo Recogera Quejas de Pobladores en Chilca, San Vincent e Imperial (Human Rights Ombudsman Receives Complaints from the Community of Chilca, San Vicente, and Imperial) (Sept. 27, 2011), available at http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/modules/Downloads/prensa/notas/2011/NP-277-11.pdf. See generally Notas de Prensa, Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Press Release, Peruvian NHRI), Defensoría Advierte Riesgos en el Proyecto de ley de Reconstrucción (Ombudsman Warns of Risks in the Reconstruction Bill) (Apr. 23, 2017), at http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/portal-noticias.php.

118 Skype Interview with Federico Chunga, Chief of Staff, Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI) (May 23, 2016).

119 Id.

120 See Gino Costa, Dos Años de la Comisión Ad-Hoc: Resultados y Perspectivas (Two Years of the Ad-Hoc Commission: Results and Perspectives), 1 Rev. De la Defensoría del Pueblo 127 (1998).

121 Pegram, Accountability in Hostile Times, supra note 97, at 74.

122 A similar dynamic is apparent with respect to INDECOPI, the Peruvian administrative agency responsible for intellectual property and consumer protection. See Helfer, Laurence R., Alter, Karen J. & Guerzovich, M. Florencia, Islands of Effective International Adjudication: Constructing an Intellectual Property Rule of Law in the Andean Community , 103 AJIL 1, 12 (2009).

123 Interview with Ana Leyva, Environmental Officer, FEDEPAZ, in Lima, Peru (Aug. 23, 2005).

124 See María Mamerita Mestanza Chávez v. Peru, Case 12.191, Inter-Am. Comm'n H.R., Report No. 71/03, OEA/Ser.L/V/II.118 (2003).

125 Defensoría del Pueblo (Peruvian NHRI), Informe Anual (Annual Report) 339 (1998).

126 Id.

127 Skype interview with Carlos Alza Barco, supra note 116.

128 Defensoría del Pueblo Insta a Sunat Colaborar en Procesos Judiciales Sobre Alimentos (Ombudsman Urges Sunat to Collaborate in Trials Concerning Food), Expreso (Nov. 18, 1999) (on file with author).

129 See Pegram, Weak Institutions, Right Claims and Pathways to Compliance, supra note 99, at 236.

130 Interview with Eduardo Vega, former Ombudsman (2011–2016), Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI), in Brussels, Belgium (June 4, 2015).

131 Legislative Decree No. 1146, Legislative Decree Amending Act No. 29248, Military Service Act, El Peruano (Dec. 11, 2012) (Peru).

132 See J. Cok, Ollanta Humala Criticó al Poder Judicial y a la Defensoría por Suspender Sorteo del Servicio Militar (Ollanta Humala Criticized the Judiciary and the Ombudsman for Suspending the Military Service Lottery), Diario Correo (June 18, 2013), at http://diariocorreo.pe/politica/ollanta-humala-critico-al-poder-judicial-y-a-92990.

133 Presidente Ollanta Humala Oficializó Categorización de Sierra del Divisor como Parque Nacional (President Ollanta Humala Officialized Categorization of Sierra del Divisor as a National Park), Ministerio Del Ambiente (Ministry of the Environment) (Nov. 7, 2015), at http://www.minam.gob.pe/peruclimatico/2015/11/07/presidente-ollanta-humala-oficializo-categorizacion-de-sierra-del-divisor-como-parque-nacional; see also Supreme Decree No. 014-2015-MINAM (Nov. 9, 2015) (Peru).

134 See Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI), supra note 115.

135 Skype Interview with Fernando Castañeda, Ombudsman for Constitutional Affairs, Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI) (June 13, 2016).

136 Defensoría del Pueblo (Peruvian NHRI), Informe Anual (Annual Report) (2014)

137 See Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI), Reporte de Intervenciones Defensoriales (Report on Defense Interventions) (2017), available at http://www.defensoria.gob.pe/emergenciasydesastresnaturales/images/repo_interv_dp.pdf.

138 Skype interview with Fernando Castañeda, supra note 135.

139 Law No. 26520, Art. 32, Ley Orgánica de la Defensoría del Pueblo (Organic Law of the Office of the Ombudsman), Agosto 8, 1995 (Peru).

140 Defensoría del Pueblo (Peruvian NHRI), Informe Anual (Annual Report) 32 (2016).

141 Interview with Walter Alban, former Ombudsman, Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI), in Lima, Peru (June 23, 2008).

142 Interview with Ismael Muñoz, Professor of Economics, La Catolica University, in Lima, Peru (June 19, 2008).

143 See Defensoría del Pueblo Perú (Peruvian NHRI), supra note 115 (budget data available in annual reports.); see also Xe, Current and Historical Rate Tables, at www.xe.com/currencytables (For historical conversion rates).

144 Skype interview with Carlos Alza Barco, supra note 116.

145 See Pegram, Accountability in Hostile Times, supra note 97, at 74; Pegram, Weak Institutions, Right Claims and Pathways to Compliance, supra note 99, at 234.

146 Interview with Marcial Rubio, supra note 113.

147 Carlos Noriega, Golpe de los Indignados en Perú (Blow of the Indignados in Peru), Página12 (July 25, 2013), at https://www.pagina12.com.ar/diario/elmundo/4-225231-2013-07-25.html.

148 Fujimoristas Hold Key to Ombudsman Election, Peru Support Group (Sept. 3, 2016), at http://www.perusupportgroup.org.uk/article-1173.html.

149 New Ombudsman Threatens to Downplay Human Rights Protection, Peru Support Group (Sept. 18, 2016), at http://www.perusupportgroup.org.uk/article-1186.html.

150 The ombudsman received an approval rating of 52% in December 2016, as compared to 18% for the judiciary, at http://www.andina.com.pe/agencia/noticia-el-51-confia-el-gobierno-segun-encuesta-pulso-peru-datum-643652.aspx.

151 Universidad Diego Portales, Informe Anual de Derechos Humanos de la Universidad Diego Portales (Annual Report on Human Rights by the Diego Portales University) 559–60 (2008).

152 Neira, Karinna Fernández & Engstrom, Par, Torture Incidence and Prevention in Chile: 1985–2014 , in Does Torture Prevention Work? 143 (Carver, Richard & Handley, Lisa eds., 2016).

153 Law No. 20405, Law of the National Institute of Human Rights, Diciembre 10, 2009, Diario Oficial [D.O.] (Chile).

154 Law No. 20405, Art. 6, Law of the National Institute of Human Rights, Diciembre 10, 2009, Diario Oficial [D.O.] (Chile).

155 Id. Art. 3(5).

156 Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7, at 612.

157 Id. at 612–13.

158 Id. at 613–14.

159 Law No. 20405, Art. 3(5), Law of the National Institute of Human Rights, Diciembre 10, 2009, Diario Oficial [D.O.] (Chile).

160 See, e.g., Natalia Cruces, Recurso de Amparo a Favor de Internos Contra Maltratos y/o Tortura de Gendarmería (Habeas Corpus in Favor of Inmates for Mistreatment and/or Torture by the Prison Service), La Izquierda Diario (June 11, 2015), at http://www.laizquierdadiario.com/Recurso-de-Amparo-a-favor-de-internos-contra-maltratos-y-o-tortura-de-Gendarmeria?id_rubrique=1201.

161 Comisión Ética Contra la Tortura (Ethical Commission Against Torture), ¡No a la tortura! a Nadie en Ningún Lugar y en Nombre de Nada (No to Torture! To No One Anywhere and in No One's Name) 163 (June 2011), available at https://notascect.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/2011-final-informecect_2011-quimantc3ba.pdf.

162 Skype Interview with Magdalena Garcés Fuentes, Human Rights litigator and former National Institute for Human Rights (INDH) official (Sept. 3, 2016).

163 Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos (National Institute of Human Rights), Informe Atención de Personas (Report of Care of People), Primer Semestre (First Semester) (2015) (on file with author) [hereinafter INDH 2015].

164 Commentary from Silvana Lauzán, Director of INDH Research Unit, at Diego Portales University, in Santiago, Chile (May 11, 2016).

165 Instituto Nacional de Derechos Humanos (National Institute of Human Rights), Informe Anual 2010: Situación de los Derechos Humanos en Chile (Annual Report 2010: Situation of Human Rights in Chile) 70 (2010).

166 Amnestía Internacional (Amnesty International), Agenda de Derechos Humanos para Chile: Periodo de Gobierno 20142017 (Human Rights Agenda for Chile: Government Period 2014–2017), available at http://amnistia.cl/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Agenda-de-DDHH-para-Chile.pdf.

167 Domingo Lovera & UNICEF, Igualdad y no Discriminación de Niños, Niñas y Adolescentes: Necesidad de un Sistema de Garantías Reforzadas (Equality And Non-discrimination Of Children And Adolescents: The Need For A System Of Enhanced Guarantees) 8 (2015), available at unicef.cl/web/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/3-Garantias-reforzadas-31.pdf.

168 Id. at 9.

169 McManus, Albert Coddou & Solar, Tomás Vial, Estándares y Criterios para la Creación de un Órgano Antidiscriminación (Standards and Criteria for the Creation of an Anti-discrimination Body) , Anuario de Derecho Público (Yearbook of Public Law) 216, 233 (2013).

170 INDH 2015, supra note 163.

171 Skype interview with Silvia Lauzán, Director of Research Unit, Instituto Nacional De Derechos Humanos (National Institute of Human Rights) (Mar. 10, 2016).

172 For example, although the Human Rights Program of the Ministry has a mandate to attend to serious human rights violations, it is unable to order reparations to victims or their families.

173 Many campaigning human rights NGOs disappeared during Chile's transition, viewed as out of step with the overriding objective of securing democracy. See Thomas C. Wright, Impunity, Human Rights, and Democracy: Chile and Argentina, 1990–2005, at 59 (2014).

174 Skype interview with Magdalena Garcés Fuentes, supra note 162.

175 Skype interview with Silvana Lauzán, supra note 171.

176 These include nationwide social protests, police violence, conflict between the state and the Mapuche people, and reconstruction following the earthquake of February 2010.

177 Juan Riquelme Díaz, La UDI Criticó Presupuesto del INDH de $5 Mil Millones para “Defender a Encapuchados” (UDI Criticized $5 Billion NHRI Budget for “Defending Masked Men”), El Mercurio (May 25, 2016), at http://www.soychile.cl/Valparaiso/Sociedad/2016/05/25/395441/La-UDI-critico-presupuesto-del-INDH-de-5-mil-millones-para-defender-a-encapuchados.aspx.

178 José Francisco García & Sergio Verdugo, Libertad y Desarrollo, Radiografía al Instituto Nacional de DD.HH (Libertad y Desarrollo, Radiography of the National Institute of Human Rights), INDH (2012), available at lyd.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/SI-INDH-versión-final.pdf.

179 Movilh Celebra Elección de Branislav Marelic como Nuevo Director del INDH (Movilh Celebrates Election of Branislav Marelic as New NHRI Director), Movilh (Aug. 2, 2016), at http://www.movilh.cl/movil-celebra-eleccion-de-branislav-marelic-como-nuevo-director-del-indh.

180 Linos & Pegram, Architects of Their Own Making, supra note 8, at 1121.

181 Human Rights Commission of Malaysia Act (Act No.597/1999) (Malaysia).

182 Garry Rodan & Caroline Hughes, The Politics of Accountability in Southeast Asia: The Dominance of Moral Ideologies 62 (2014).

183 Human Rights Commission of Malaysia Act, supra note 181. See also Thio, Li-ann, Panacea, Placebo, or Pawn? The Teething Problems of the Human Rights Commission of Malaysia (SUHAKAM) , 40 Geo. Wash. Int'l L. Rev. 1271 (2009).

184 Whiting, Amanda, Situating Suhakam: Human Rights Debates and Malaysia's National Human Rights Commission , 39 Stan. J. Int'l L. 59, 74 (2003).

185 Id. at 75

186 Human Rights Commission of Malaysia Act, supra note 181.

187 Garry Rodan & Caroline Hughes, The Politics of Accountability in Southeast Asia: The Dominance of Moral Ideologies 58 (2014).

188 Thio, supra note 183, at 1275.

189 Ken Setiawan, Promoting Human Rights: National Human Rights Commissions in Indonesia and Malaysia 158 (2013).

190 See SUHAKAM public inquiry reports, at http://www.suhakam.org.my/pusat-media/sumber/laporan-siasatan-awam.

191 Thio, supra note 183, at 1303.

192 As of September 2016, Malaysia has only ratified two treaties, the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

193 Setiawan, supra note 189, at 160–61.

194 Evans, Carolyn, Human Rights Commissions and Religious Conflict in the Asia-Pacific Region , 53 The Int'l & Comp. L. Q. 713, 720 (2004).

195 Thio, supra note 183, at 1310.

196 SUHAKAM, Rep. of the National Inquiry into the Land Rights of Indigenous Peoples (Apr. 2013), available at http://www.suhakam.org.my/pusat-media/sumber/laporan-siasatan-awam.

197 Brodie, Meg, Uncomfortable Truths: Protecting the Independence of National Human Rights Institutions to Inquire , 38 U.N.S.W. L.J. 1215, 1219 (2015).

198 See SUHAKAM, Suhakam to Conduct a National Inquiry into the Land Rights of Indigenous Peoples in Malaysia (May 13, 2011), available at http://nhri.ohchr.org/EN/Themes/BusinessHR/Business%20Womens%20and%20Childrens%20Rights/SUHAKAM%20BI%20FINAL.CD.pdf.

199 Malaysia Must Protect Environment, Indigenous Rights as It Reduces Poverty – UN expert, UN News Centre (Dec.18, 2013), at http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46774#.WP1Ktojysvg.

200 Loh Foon Fong, Cabinet Forms Committee on Indigenous Right, Star (June 17, 2015), at http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2015/06/17/cabinet-approves-indigenous-lands-rights.

201 Elizabeth Wong, Release the ISA-6, National Human Rights Society (HAKAM) Press Release (Apr. 10, 2003).

202 Setiawan, supra note 189, at 134.

203 Id.

204 Thio, supra note 183, at 1336.

205 Kieran Cooke, Asians Challenge West on Human Rights, Financial Times (June 11, 1993).

206 Setiawan, supra note 189, at 139.

207 Thio, supra note 183, at 1299.

208 Setiawan, supra note 189, at 139.

209 Leong Kar Yen, Abu Talibs Appointment Will Render Suhakam Meaningless: Aliran, Malaysiakini (Apr. 15, 2002), at https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/11107.

210 K. Kabilan, Suhakam Slams Police for Rights Abuses in Kesas Highway Assembly, Malaysiakini (Aug. 20 2001), at https://www.malaysiakini.com/news/4387.

211 Thio, supra note 183, at 1295.

212 The Asian NGOs Network on Nat'l Human Rights Inst., 2008 ANNI Report on the Performance and Establishment of National Human Rights Institutions in Asia, 96 (2008) (on file with author).

213 The Asian NGOs Network on Nat'l Human Rights Inst., 2009 ANNI Report on the Performance and Establishment of National Human Rights Institutions in Asia, 100 (2009), available at http://protectionline.org/files/2012/08/Report-on-the-Performance-and-Establishment-of-National-Human-Rights-Institutions-in-Asia-2009.pdf [hereinafter ANNI Report 2009].

214 Id. at 94.

215 Id. at 90.

216 Thio, supra note 183, at 1327.

217 Kieren Fitzpatrick & Catherine Renshaw, National Human Rights Institutions in the Asia Pacific Region: Change Agents Under Conditions of Uncertainty, in Human Rights, State Compliance, and Social Change, supra note 13, at 150, 163–64.

218 Skype Interview with Rosslyn Noonan, former Chief Commissioner, New Zealand Human Rights Commission (July 24, 2015).

219 The Asian NGOs Network on National Human Rights Inst., 2012 ANNI Report on the Performance and Establishment of National Human Rights Institutions in Asia, 124 (2012), available at http://www.forum-asia.org/uploads/books/2012/nov/05033_ANNI%202012.pdf.

220 See SUHAKAM, Suhakam's Findings from the Public Inquiry into the Incidents During and After the Public Assembly of 28 April 2012 (Apr. 17, 2013), available at http://www.suhakam.org.my/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/SUHAKAM-PRESS-STATEMENT_SUHAKAMS-FINDINGS-FROM-THE-PUBLIC-INQUIRY-INTO-THE-INCIDENTS-DURING-AND-AFTER-THE-PUBLIC-ASSEMBLY-OF-28-APRIL-2013_Released-on-17-April-2013.pdf.

221 SUARAM, Human Rights Rep. 2015 Overview: Civil and Political Rights 3 (2015), available at http://www.suaram.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/SUARAM-HR-OVERVIEW-2015-combined-ver1.pdf.

222 Skype Interview with Joses Kwan, East Asia Programme Associate, Forum-Asia (Sept. 23, 2015).

223 Id.

224 ANNI Report 2009, supra note 213, at 125.

225 Anisah Shukry, Suhakam Joins Call for Review of ISA Replacement Law, Malaysian Insider (Apr. 16, 2012), at https://blog.limkitsiang.com/2012/04/16/suhakam-joins-call-for-review-of-isa-replacement-law.

226 Gan Pei Ling, Suhakam Chief: “We're an Independent Entity, Nut Graph (Aug. 30, 2010), at http://www.thenutgraph.com/suhakam-chief-%E2%80%9Cwere-an-independent-entity%E2%80%9D (quoting Suhakam Chief, Tan Sri Hasmy Agam).

227 SUARAM, Human Rights Report 2015 Overview: Civil and Political Rights (2015), available at http://www.suaram.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/SUARAM-HR-OVERVIEW-2015-combined-ver1.pdf.

228 Suhakam Rubbishes ‘Narrow Approach’ to Interpret, Understand Human Rights, Malaysian Insider (Aug. 20, 2015).

229 Suhakam Seeks Answers from Putrajaya After Drastic Budget Cuts, Malaysian Insider (Nov. 10, 2015), available at https://sg.news.yahoo.com/suhakam-seeks-answers-putrajaya-drastic-050232095.html.

230 Khoo Ying Hooi, Suhakam Budget Cuts, a Case of ‘Don't Bite the Hand that Feeds You’?, Malaysian Insider (Dec. 14, 2015), available at http://hakam.org.my/wp/index.php/2015/12/14/suhakam-budget-cuts-a-case-of-dont-bite-the-hand-that-feeds-you-khoo-ying-hooi.

231 Ida Lim, Global Embarrassment for Malaysia if Suhakam Loses ‘Grade A’ Status, Chief Warns, Malay Mail (Apr. 15, 2015), at http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/global-embarrassment-for-malaysia-if-suhakam-loses-grade-a-status-chief-war.

232 Suhakam: Putrajaya Has Agreed to Review our Budget Cut, Malay Mail (Nov. 16, 2015), at http://www.themalaymailonline.com/malaysia/article/suhakam-putrajaya-has-agreed-to-review-our-budget-cut.

233 Elizabeth Zachariah, Suhakam Seeks Answers from Putrajaya After Drastic Budget Cuts, Malaysian Insider (Nov. 10, 2015), available at http://hakam.org.my/wp/index.php/2015/11/10/suhakam-seeks-answers-from-putrajaya-after-drastic-budget-cut (citing Sevan Doraisamy, Suaram Executive Director).

234 Const. (1987), Art. XIII, sec. 18 (Phil.).

235 Id.

236 Id.

237 Commissioner Rosario Braid, quoted in Deliberations of the Constitutional Committee, at 78–79 (Aug. 26, 1986), available at http://www.ombudsman.gov.ph/UNDP4/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/HR-Legislative-Agenda-Resource-book-1.pdf.

238 Commissioner Abraham F. Sarmiento, quoted in Deliberations of the Constitutional Committee, at 79 (Aug. 26, 1986), available at http://www.ombudsman.gov.ph/UNDP4/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/HR-Legislative-Agenda-Resource-book-1.pdf.

239 Const. (1987), Art. XIII, sec. 17 (Phil.).

240 Commissioner Edmundo O. Garcia, quoted in Deliberations of the Constitutional Committee, at 51 (Aug. 26, 1986), available at http://www.ombudsman.gov.ph/UNDP4/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/HR-Legislative-Agenda-Resource-book-1.pdf.

241 Jefferson Plantilla, Elusive Promise: Transitional Justice in the Philippines, in Human Rights Dialogue 1.8 (Spring 1997): “Transitional Justice in East Asia and its Impact on Human Rights,” (Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, 1997), available at https://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/archive/dialogue/1_08/articles/553.html/:pf_printable.

242 Abraham F. Sarmiento, Journey of a Retired Supreme Court Justice 24 (2008) [hereinafter Sarmiento 2008].

243 Belinda Aquino, The Human Rights Debacle in the Philippines, in Impunity and Human Rights in International Law and Practice 231–42 (Naomi Roht-Arriaza ed., 1995).

244 Frey, Barbara A., Commission on Human Rights: Advocate or Apologist , in The Philippines: A Human Rights Scrapbook 25 (Minnesota Lawyers International Human Rights Committee, 1989).

245 Philippines: A Country Study 231–32 (Ronald E. Dolan ed., 1991).

246 Sarmiento 2008, supra note 242, at 29.

247 Frey, supra note 244, at 28–29.

248 Leonard Davis, Revolutionary Struggle in the Philippines 178 (1988).

249 Gerard Clarke, The Politics of NGOs in South-East Asia: Participation and Protest in the Philippines 185 (1998).

250 The Carter Ctr., Investigating Abuses and Introducing Safeguards in the Democratization Process 76–77 (July 1992), available at https://www.cartercenter.org/documents/1209.pdf.

251 Frey, supra note 244. at 27.

252 Sarmiento 2008, supra note 242, at 32.

253 Skype interview with Paulynn Sicam, former Commissioner (1991–1994), Commission on Human Rights (June 27, 2016).

254 Id.

255 Interview with Gwen Pimentel Gana, Commissioner, Commission on Human Rights (June 30, 2016).

256 1994 UNESCO Prize for the Teaching of Human Rights, awarded to the CHR and José Zalaquett Daher, Paris (Jan. 26, 1995).

257 Center for Public Resource Management, Inc. (CPRM), Institutional Review & Performance Assessment: Commission on Human Rights 37 (2003).

258 U.S. Department of State, 2000 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Philippines (2001), available at http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2000/eap/764.htm.

259 U.S. Department of State, 1997 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, Philippines (1998).

260 Interview with Gwen Pimentel Gana, supra note 255 (GPG: “You don't need to be allowed, but there's no formal … requirement to submit a report.” TP: “Could I get the annual reports?” GPG: “I'm not sure… . Maybe we have a summary, but not annual reports.”). See also CPRM, supra note 257, at 39.

261 Sadiwa, Lalaine, Philippines , in Human Rights in Developing Countries: Yearbook 1995, at 298 (Baehr, Peter, Hey, Hilde, Smith, Jacqueline & Swineheart, Theresa eds., 1995).

262 Sarmiento 2008, supra note 242, at 39.

263 Clarke, supra note 249, at 187.

264 See Gov't Commission, NGO Differ in Appraisal of Ramos Rights Record, Ucanews (Aug. 25, 1993), at http://www.ucanews.com/story-archive/?post_name=/1993/08/25/govt-commission-ngo-differ-in-appraisal-of-ramos-rights-record&post_id=43873.

265 See Government Commission Reports Children's Rights Widely Violated, Ucanews (July 2, 1993).

266 Bleak Prospects for Human Rights Progress Seen at Present, Ucanews (Jan. 18, 1994), at http://www.ucanews.com/story-archive/?post_name=/1994/01/18/bleak-prospects-for-human-rights-progress-seen-at-present&post_id=44600.

267 Skype Interview with Paulynn Sicam, supra note 253.

268 See Simon Jr. v. CHR, G.R. No. 100150 (S.C., Jan. 5, 1994) (Phil.).

269 Id.

270 Padilla, J., dissenting in Simon Jr. v. CHR, supra note 268.

271 Leila de Lima, remarks delivered at The CHR on the Occasion of the Right to Food Forum (Oct. 1–3, 2008).

272 Interview with Gwen Pimentel Gana, supra note 255.

273 Skype Interview with Paulynn Sicam, supra note 253.

274 CPRM, supra note 257, at 35.

275 Id.

276 Skype Interview with Paulynn Sicam, supra note 253.

277 ANNI Report 2009, supra note 213, at 161–64.

278 CPRM, supra note 257, at 35.

279 Thio, Li-ann, Implementing Human Rights in ASEAN Countries: Promises to Keep and Miles to Go Before I Sleep , 2 Yale Hum. Rts. & Dev. L.J. 1, 71 (1999).

280 Ana Elzy E. Ofreneo, Director, Commission on Human Rights, Policies on Human Rights Education in the Philippines (2013), available at https://www.ihrec.ie/download/pdf/plenary_theme_1elzy_ofreneo.pdf.

281 Forum-Asia/PAHRA, Dissatisfaction with the CHR Chair Appointment (May 15, 2008).

282 Skype Interview with Paulynn Sicam, supra note 253.

283 Howie Severino, Leila de Lima: GMA News. TV's Public Servant of the Year, GMANews.TV (Dec. 31, 2009), at http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/180559/news/specialreports/leila-de-lima-gmanews-tv-s-public-servant-of-the-year.

284 Skype Interview with Paulynn Sicam, supra note 253.

285 Elfren S. Cruz, Leila de Lima: Justice Without Fear or Favor, Philstar Global (Aug. 30, 2015), at www.philstar.com/opinion/2015/08/30/1493911/leila-de-lima-justice-without-fear-or-favor.

286 Carlos Conde, Is Leila de Lima for Real?, GMA News (May 28, 2008), at http://www.gmanetwork.com/news/story/97855/opinion/is-leila-de-lima-for-real.

287 Karlos Manlupig & Tarra Quismundo, Duterte Calls HR Chair Idiot, Inquirer (May 27, 2016), at http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/787771/duterte-calls-chr-chair-idiot.

288 Christian V. Esguerra, CHR Claims Budget Dep't Nearly Halved its Funding Request, ABS-CBN (Aug. 25, 2016), at http://news.abs-cbn.com/news/08/25/16/chr-claims-budget-dept-nearly-halved-its-funding-request.

289 Philippines Leader Duterte Faces Investigation over Killings Claim, BBC (Dec. 22, 2016), at http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-38403977.

290 Linos & Pegram, Architects of Their Own Making, supra note 8, at 1110, 1121; Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7, at 589, 601–02.

291 See Cole & Ramirez, supra note 17.

292 See supra text accompanying notes 29–31.

293 See supra Parts III.B. and III.C.

294 See supra text accompanying note 186.

295 See supra text accompanying notes at 268–69.

296 For an in-depth account of feedback loops in constructivist and acculturation models of human rights, see Ryan Goodman & Derek Jinks, Socializing States: Promoting Human Rights through International Law (2013).

297 See supra text accompanying note at 147.

298 Pegram, Tom, Regulatory Stewardship and Intermediation: Lessons from Human Rights Governance , 670 Annals Am. Acad. Pol. & Soc. Sci. 225, 233–34 (2017).

299 See Gailmard, Sean, Politics, Principal-Agent Problems, and Public Service Motivation , 13 Int'l Pub. Mgmt. J. 35 (2010).

300 See Dancy, Geoff & Fariss, Christopher J., Rescuing Human Rights Law from International Legalism and its Critics , 39 Hum. Rts. Q. 1–36 (2017).

301 See Simmons, supra note 2.

302 See von Stein, Jana, Making Promises, Keeping Promises: Democracy, Ratification and Compliance in International Human Rights Law , 46 Brit. J. Pol. Sci. 655–79 (2016) (importance of credible domestic enforcement in mediating treaty effects).

304 See Karen Alter, The New Terrain of International Law: Courts, Politics, Rights (2014).

305 See Carver, Richard & Handley, Lisa, Identifying What Preventative Mechanisms Work , in Does Torture Prevention Work? 90 (Carver, Richard & Handley, Lisa eds., 2016).

306 Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Law and International Relations: The State of the Art (Dunoff, Jeffrey L. & Pollack, Mark A. eds., 2013).

307 See supra text accompanying notes 192–93, 202.

308 For further insight into the negotiations which informed the Paris Principles see Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7.

309 Morten Kjærum, National Human Rights Institutions Implementing Human Rights 9 (2003).

310 See Hafner-Burton, supra note 83.

311 See Simmons, supra note 2.

312 Kingsbury, Krisch & Stewart, supra note 9. See also Krisch, Nico, The Pluralism of Global Administrative Law , 17 Eur. J. Int'l Law 247–78 (2006).

313 See Pegram, Tom, Global Human Rights Governance and Orchestration: National Human Rights Institutions as Intermediaries , 21 Eur. J. Int'l Relations 595 (2015); Pegram, Regulatory Stewardship and Intermediation, supra note 298.

314 See José E Alvarez, International Organizations as Law-makers 588 (2005).

315 Linos & Pegram, The Language of Compromise, supra note 7, at 615.

316 Linos & Pegram, Architects of Their Own Making, supra note 8, at 1110; Pegram, Regulatory Stewardship and Intermediation, supra note 298, at 298.

317 Goodman & Jinks, supra note 296.

318 See Katerina Linos, The Democratic Foundations of Policy Diffusion: How Health, Family, and Employment Laws Spread Across Countries 13–35 (2013); Goodman, Ryan & Jinks, Derek, How to Influence States: Socialization and International Human Rights Law , 54 Duke L.J. 621 (2004).

319 This finding echoes research on treaty design effects highlighting the important distinction between precise but shallow commitments that require specific but insignificant departures from the status quo, and commitments that are both precise and deep, requiring states to take specific actions that significantly depart from what they would otherwise do. See Raustiala, Kal, Form and Substance in International Agreements , 99 AJIL 581 (2005).

320 Abbott, Kenneth W. & Snidal, Duncan, Hard and Soft Law in International Governance , 54 Int'l Org. 421, 428–29 (2000).

321 International Co-ordinating Committee of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, ICC Sub-Committee on Accreditation General Observation (May 2013), available at http://nhri.ohchr.org/EN/AboutUs/Governance/Documents/ICC%20SCA%20General%20Observations.pdf.

322 See Governance by Indicators, Global Power Through quantification and Rankings (Davis, Kevin, Fisher, Angelina, Kingsbury, Benedict & Merry, Sally Engle eds., 2012); Kelley, Judith G. & Simmons, Beth A., Politics by Number: Indicators as Social Pressure in International Relations , 59 Am. J. Pol. Sci. 55 (2015).

323 Tan Sri Hasmy Agam, Chairperson, Malaysian Human Rights Commission (Suhakam), Strengthening National Human Rights Institutions: The Paris Principles and the ICC Accreditation System, Presentation at the Geneva Side Event on Accreditation (Mar. 21, 2012); see also Thomas Pegram, Bridging the Divide: The Merger of The Irish Equality Authority and Human Rights Commission (2013), available at https://www.tcd.ie/policy-institute/assets/pdf/Studies_Policy_29_web.pdf.

324 Helfer, Laurence R. & Voeten, Erik, International Courts as Agents of Legal Change: Evidence from LGBT Rights in Europe , 68 Int'l Org. 77, 85 (2014).

We thank Ryan Goodman and Derek Jinks for their extraordinary help in collecting NHRI data. For very helpful comments we thank Kenneth Abbott, Carlos Alza, Gabby Blum, Anu Bradford, Curtis Bradley, Rachel Brewster, Brian Burdekin, Richard Carver, Fernando Castañeda, Adam Chilton, Alberto Coddou, Colm O'Cinneade, John Crabtree, Christopher Elmendorf, Laurel Fletcher, Stavros Gadinis, David Gartner, Fabrizio Gilardi, Tom Ginsburg, Jack Goldsmith, Bert Huang, Ryan Goodman, Andrew Guzman, Laurence Helfer, Courtney Hillebrecht, Derek Jinks, Katrien Meuwissen, Abraham Newman, Chris Robertson, Eric Posner, Chris Sidoti, Kathryn Sikkink, Beth Simmons, Duncan Snidal, Holger Spamann, Matthew Stephenson, Erik Voeten, Laurence Whitehead, and Mark Wu. We are also very grateful to the five anonymous reviewers for their feedback on this piece. We would like to thank Caroline Brandt, Sonakshi Kapoor, Kim Twist, and Lauriane Wolfe for excellent research assistance. We are very grateful to the many individuals who gave of their time during the course of our investigation. We would also like to thank all of the participants at workshops held at University College London, University of California, Berkeley, at the University of Chicago, at Duke University, at Harvard University, at the University of Oxford and the University of Zurich. We also thank the Berkeley Hellman Fund, the Berkeley Miller Center, and the Berkeley Jean Monnet Center for Excellence for their generous financial support.

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