Prosper Weil's article in the American Journal of International Law first appeared in 1982 in French in the Revue Générale de Droit International Public. In France, it has probably generated less debate than in the United States. Indeed, the positions taken by this stimulating, agile, and well-written article generally accord with the doctrinal tradition that largely predominates in the land of Jean Bodin, René Descartes, and Auguste Comte, namely, legal positivism. According to this tradition, legal scholars must first focus on the technical analysis of legal norms as they are set out and, above all, practiced by the various actors in legal relations, which on the international level are states and the international judge or arbitrator. After setting out the contexts of Weil's article, I shall state two reservations to its content and then turn to its contemporary relevance.