Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-684899dbb8-5dd2w Total loading time: 0.844 Render date: 2022-05-28T01:42:12.689Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true }

The World Distribution of Transferrin Variants and some Unsolved Problems

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 August 2014

R. L. Kirk*
Affiliation:
Human Genetics Group, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Canberra, Australia
*
Human Genetics Group, John Curtin School of Medical Research, Canberra, Australia

Summary

HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Nineteen variants of the iron-binding protein, transferrin, have been described in human serum. The world literature on the distribution of these variants in human populations is surveyed in comprehensive tables and attention is drawn to some of the outstanding deficiencies in our present knowledge of this distribution. It is pointed out that transferrin variants are important markers in anthropological studies.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The International Society for Twin Studies 1968

References

Allbrook, D., Barnicot, N. A., Dance, N., Lawler, S. D., Marshall, R., Mungai, J. (1965). Blood groups: haemoglobin and serum factors of the Karamojo. Hum. Biol., 37: 217237.Google ScholarPubMed
Allison, A. C., Barnicot, N. A. (1960). Haptoglobins and transferrins in some East African peoples. Acta Genet. Basel, 10: 1723.Google ScholarPubMed
Angelopoulos, B., Kalos, A., Danopoulos, E. (1967). Transferrin variants in Greeks. J. Med. Genet., 4: 162178.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arends, T. (1967). Los grupos séricos humanos determinables por métodos electroforéticos: su distribucion en Sud América. Acta Cient. Venez., Suppl. 3: 162178.Google Scholar
Arends, T. Brewer, G., Chagnon, N., Gallango, M. L., Gershowitz, H., Layrisse, M., Neel, J., Shrefpler, D., Ta-Shian, R., Weitkamp, L. (1967). Intratribal genetic differences among the Yanomama Indians of Southern Venezuela. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 57: 12521259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Arends, T. Gallango, M. L. (1962). Haptoglobin and transferrin groups in Venezuela. Proc. 8th Congr. Int. Soc. Blood Trans., Tokyo 1960. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
Arends, T. Gallango, M. L. (1964). Transferrins in Venezuela Indians: high frequency of a slow moving variant. Science, 143: 367368.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arends, T. Gallango, M. L. (1965). Transferrin groups in South American Indians. Proc. 10th Congr. Int. Soc. Blood Trans., Stockholm 1964.Google Scholar
Arends, T. Gallango, M. L. Parker, W. C., Bearn, A. G. (1962). A new variant of human transferrin in a Venezuelan family. Nature, 196: 477478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnicot, N. A. (1961). Haptoglobins and transferrins. In: Genetic Variations in Human Populations. Ed. Blumberg, B. S., Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
Barnicot, N. A., Kariks, J. (1960). Haptoglobin and transferrin variants in peoples of the New Guinea Highlands. Med. J. Aust, 2: 859861.Google Scholar
Barnicot, N. A., Garlick, J. P., Adam, A., Bat-Miriam, M. (1962). Haptoglobins and transferrins. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 20: 175208.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnicot, N. A., Garlick, J. P., Roberts, D. F. (1960). Haptoglobin and transferrin inheritance in Northern Nigerians. Ann. Hum. Genet., 24: 171183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnicot, N. A., Singer, R., Weiner, J. S. (1959). Haptoglobin and transferrin variants in Bushmen and some other South African peoples. Nature, 184: 2042.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barnicot, N. A., Krimbas, C., McConnell, R. B., Beaven, G. H. (1965). A genetical survey of Sphakiá, Crete. Hum. Biol., 37: 274298.Google ScholarPubMed
Beckman, L., Holmgren, G. (1961). Transferrin variants in Lapps and Swedes. Acta Genet. Basel, 11: 106110.Google ScholarPubMed
Beckman, L., Johannsson, E. O. (1967). Haptoglobins and transferrins in the Icelandic population. Acta Genet. Basel, 17: 341344.Google ScholarPubMed
Beckman, L., Holmgren, G., Martensson, E. H. (1962). Transferrin variants in the Swedish population. Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Hum. Genet., Rome 1963.Google Scholar
Beckman, L., Johnson, F. M., Sakai, R. K., Woods, J. L. (1964). Serum protein variations in Hawaiian population groups. Acta Genet. Basel, 14: 309318.Google ScholarPubMed
Beckman, L., Takman, J., Arfors, K. E. (1965). Distribution of blood and serum groups in a Swedish gypsy population. Acta Genet. Basel, 15: 134139.Google Scholar
Benerecetti-Santachiara, A. S., Modiano, G. (1964). The frequencies of haptoglobin and transferrin types in some villages of the Milan province. Acta Genet. Basel, 14: 3640.Google ScholarPubMed
Bennett, J. H., Auricht, C. O., Gray, A. J., Kirk, R. L., Lai, L. Y. C. (1961). Haptoglobin and transferrin types in the Kuru region of Australian New Guinea. Nature, 189: 6869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Birdsell, J. B. (1949). The racial origin of the extinct Tasmanians. Rec. Queen Victoria Mus., Launceston, 2(3): 105122.Google Scholar
Blumberg, B. S., Gentile, Z. (1961). Haptoglobins and transferrins of two tropical populations. Nature, 189: 897899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Blumberg, B. S., Murray, R. F., Allison, A. C., Barnicot, N. A., Hirschfeld, J., Krimbas, C. (1964). Serum protein polymorphisms in Greek populations. Ann. Hum. Genet., 28: 189194.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bonné, B. (1966). Genes and phenotypes in the Samaritan Isolate. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 24: 120.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Braend, M., Efremov, G., Fagerhol, M. K., Hartmann, O. (1965). Albumin and transferrin variants in Norwegians. Hereditas, 53: 137142.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Buettner-Janusch, J., Buettner-Janusch, V. (1964). Hemoglobins, haptoglobins and transferrins in the peoples of Madagascar. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 22: 163170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buettner-Janusch, J., Bove, J. R., Young, N. (1964). Genetic traits and problems of biological parenthood in two Peruvian Indian tribes. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 22: 149154.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cabannes, R., Beurrier, A., Monnet, B. (1965). Etudes des protéines, des haptoglobulines et des transferrines chez les Indiens de la Guyane Française. Nouv. Rev. Franc. Hemat., 5: 247260.Google Scholar
Cooper, A. J., Blumberg, B. S., Workman, P. L., McDonough, J. R. (1963). Biochemical polymorphic traits in a U.S. white and negro population. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 15: 420428.Google Scholar
Cooper, D. W., Lander, H., Kirk, R. L. (1964). D Adelaide — a new transferrin variant in man. Nature, 204: 102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Curtain, C. C., Gajdusek, D. C., Kidson, C., Gorman, J. G., Champness, L., Rodrigue, R. (1965). Haptoglobins and transferrins in Melanesia: relation to hemoglobin, serum haptoglobin and serum iron levels in population groups in Papua, New Guinea. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 23: 363379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curtain, C. C., Tindale, N. B., Simmons, R. T. (1966). Genetically determined blood protein factors in Australian aborigines of Bentinck, Mornington and Forsyth Islands and the Mainland Gulf of Carpentaria. Arch. Phys. Anthrop. Oceania, 1: 7480.Google Scholar
Doeblin, T. D., Ingall, G. B., Pinkerton, P. H., Dronamraju, K. R., Bannerman, R. M. (1968). Genetic studies of the Seneca Indians: haptoglobins, transferrins, G-6-PD deficiency, hemoglobinopathy, color blindness, morphological traits and dermatoglyphics. Acta Genet. Basel, 18: 251260.Google ScholarPubMed
Douglas, R., Jacobs, J., Hoult, G. E., Staveley, J. M. (1962). Blood groups, serum genetic factors and hemoglobins in Western Solomon Islanders. Transfusion, 2: 413418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Douglas, R., Jacobs, J., McCarthy, D. D., Staveley, J. M. (1966 a). Blood groups, serum genetic factors, and hemoglobins in Cook Islanders. I. Atiu Island. Transfusion, 6: 319323.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Douglas, R., McCarthy, D. D., Staveley, J. M. (1966 b). Blood groups, serum genetic factors, and hemoglobins in Cook Islanders. II. Rarotonga. Transfusion, 6: 324326.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Douglas, R., McCarthy, D. D., Sherliker, J., Staveley, J. M. (1961 a). Blood groups, serum genetic factors, and haemoglobins in Ellice Islanders. New Zeal. Med. J., 60: 259261.Google ScholarPubMed
Douglas, R., Jacobs, J., McCarthy, D. D., Sherliker, J., Staveley, J. M. (1961 b). Blood groups, serum genetic factors and hemoglobins in Gilbert Islanders. New Zeal. Med. J., 60: 146.Google ScholarPubMed
Flory, L. L. (1964). Serum factors of Australian aborigines from North Queensland. Nature, 201: 508509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fraser, G. R. Giblett, E. R., Stransky, E., Motulsky, A. G. (1964). Blood groups in the Philippines. J. Med. Genet., 1: 107.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gallango, M. L., Arends, T. (1966). Haemoglobin types and blood serum factors in Colombian Indians. Acta Genet. Basel, 16: 162168.Google ScholarPubMed
Giblett, E. R. (1962). The Plasma Transferrins. Progr. Med. Genet., Steinberg, A. G. and Beam, A. G. Eds. Grune and Stratton, N. Y., 2: 3463.Google Scholar
Giblett, E. R. (1966). Recent advances in haptoglobin and transferrin genetics. XIth Int. Congr. Haematol., Sydney 1966. Plenary Session Papers, 251259.Google Scholar
Giblett, E. R., Best, W. R. (1961). Haptoglobin and transferrin types in Peruvian Indians. Nature, 192: 1921300.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giblett, E. R., Hickman, C. G., Smithies, O. (1959). Serum transferrins. Nature, 183: 589590.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giblett, E. R., Motulsky, A. G., Fraser, G. R. (1966). Population genetic studies in the Congo. IV. Haptoglobin and transferrin serum groups in the Congo and in other African populations. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 18: 553558.Google Scholar
Glasgow, B. G., Goodwin, M. J., Jackson, F., Kopec, A. C., Lehmann, H., Mourant, A. E., Tills, D., Turner, R. W. D., Ward, M. P. (1968). The blood groups, serum groups and haemoglobins of the inhabitants of Lunana and Thimbu, Bhutan. Vox Sang., 14: 3142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glen-Bott, A. M., Harris, H., Robson, E. B., Bearn, A. G., Parker, W. C. (1964). Transferrin Dwigan. Acta Genet. Basel, 14: 5256.Google Scholar
Gordon, H., Robertson, M., Blair, J. M., Vooijs, M. (1964). Genetic markers in liver disease. S. Afr. Med. J., 38: 734735.Google ScholarPubMed
Harris, H., Penington, D. G., Robson, E. B., Scriver, C. R. (1960). A further genetically determined transferrin variant in man. Ann. Hum. Genet., 24: 327331.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, H., Robson, E. B., Siniscalco, M. (1958). ‘β-Globulin” variants in man. Nature, 182: 452.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Herzog, P., Gonzales, P. O. (1967). Hp-, Gm-, Inv- and Tf- types in Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Folia Haemat. (Leipzig), 87: 260266.Google Scholar
Horsfall, W. R., Smithies, O. (1958). Genetic control of some human serum β-globulins. Science, 128: 35.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jenkins, T., Steinberg, A. G. (1966). Some serum protein polymorphisms in Kalahari Bushmen and Bantu: gamma globulins, haptoglobins and transferrins. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 18: 399407.Google ScholarPubMed
Kirk, R. L. (1965). The distribution of genetic markers in Australian aborigines. Occasional Papers in Aboriginal Studies N. 4, Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, Canberra.Google Scholar
Kirk, R. L., Lai, L. Y. C. (1961). The distribution of haptoglobin and transferrin groups in South and South East Asia. Acta Genet. Basel, 11: 97105.Google ScholarPubMed
Kirk, R. L., Lai, L. Y. C., Horsfall, W. R. (1962). The haptoglobin and transferrin groups among Australian aborigines from North Queensland. Aust. J. Sci., 24: 486488.Google Scholar
Kirk, R. L., Parker, W. C., Bearn, A. G. (1964). The distribution of the transferrin variants D1 and Cchi in various populations. Acta Genet. Basel, 14: 4151.Google Scholar
Lai, L. Y. C. (1962). Studies of Serum Protein Types in Humans with special reference to Haptoglobins. Thesis, University of Western Australia.Google Scholar
Lai, L. Y. C. (1963). A new transferrin in New Guinea. Nature, 198: 589.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Eng, Lie-Injo Luan, Bolton, J. M., Fudenberg, H. H. (1967). Haptoglobins, transferrins and serum gammaglobulin types in Malayan aborigines. Nature, 215: 777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lisker, R., Loria, A., Cordova, M. S. (1965). Studies on several genetic hematological traits of the Mexican population. VIII. Hemoglobin S, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and other characteristics in a malarial region. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 17: 179187.Google Scholar
Lisker, R., Loria, A., Zarate, G. (1967 a). Studies on several genetic hematological traits of the Mexican population. XIII. Red cell and serum polymorphisms in Spanish immigrants. Acta Genet. Basel, 17: 524529.Google Scholar
Lisker, R., Reyes, G. R., López, G., Peral, A. M., Zarate, G. (1966). Características hematológicas hereditarias de la populación Mexicana. Estudio de una comunidad de origin italiano. Rev. Invest. Clin., 18: 1121.Google Scholar
Lisker, R., Zarate, G., Rodriguez, E. (1967 b). Studies on several genetic hematological traits of the Mexican population. XIV. Serum polymorphisms in several indian tribes. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 27: 2732.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, G. A., Sutton, H. E., Etcheverry, R. B., Swanson, J., Robinson, A. (1967). Distribution of hereditary blood groups among Indians in South America. IV. In Chile. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 27: 157194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Matson, G. A., Sutton, H. E., Swanson, J., Robinson, A. R. (1963). Distribution of haptoglobin, transferrin and hemoglobin types among Indians of Middle America: Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Hum. Biol., 35: 474483.Google ScholarPubMed
Matson, G. A., Sutton, H. E., Swanson, J., Robinson, A. R. (1965). Distribution of haptoglobin, transferrin and hemoglobin types among Indians of Middle America in British Honduras, Costa Rica and Panama. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 23: 123129.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, G. A., Sutton, H. E., Swanson, J., Robinson, A. R. (1966 a). Distribution of hereditary blood groups among Indians in South America. II. In Peru. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 24: 325350.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Matson, G. A., Sutton, H. E., Swanson, J., Robinson, A. R., Santiana, A. (1966 b). Distribution of hereditary blood groups among Indians in South America. I. In Ecuador. Amer. J. Phys. Anthrop., 24: 5170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Melartin, L., Kaarsalo, E. (1965). The distribution of transferrin variants in South-Western Finland and in Finnish Lapland. Acta Genet. Basel, 15: 6369.Google Scholar
Modiano, G., Benerecetti-Santachiara, A. S., Gonano, F., Zei, G., Capaldo, A., Cavalli-Sforza, L. L. (1965). An analysis of ABO, MN, Rh, Hp, Tf and G-6-PD types in a sample from the human population of the Lecce province. Ann. Hum. Genet., 29: 1931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Murray, R. F., Robinson, J. C., Blumberg, B. S. (1964). A new variant of transferrin from Greece. Nature, 204: 204382.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Neel, J. V., Abner, R. R., Wolf, W. Z., Livingstone, F. B., Sutton, H. E. (1961). The frequency of elevations in the A2 and fetal hemoglobin fractions in the natives of Liberia and adjacent regions, with data on haptoglobin and transferrin types. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 13: 382383.Google Scholar
Neel, J. V., Salzano, F. M., Junquera, P. C., Keiter, F., Maybury-Lewis, D. (1964). Studies on the Xavante Indians of the Brazilian Mato Grosso. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 16: 52140.Google ScholarPubMed
Nicholls, E. M., Lewis, H. B. M., Cooper, D. W., Bennett, J. H. (1965). Blood group and serum protein differences in some central Australian aborigines. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 17: 293307.Google ScholarPubMed
Parker, W. C., Bearn, A. G. (1960). Alterations in sialic acid content of human transferrin. Science, 133: 10141016.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, W. C., Bearn, A. G. (1961 a). Haptoglobin and transferrin variation in humans and primates: two new transferrins in Chinese and Japanese populations. Ann. Hum. Genet., 25: 227241.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Parker, W. C., Bearn, A. G. (1961 b). Haptoglobin and transferrin gene frequencies in a Navajo population: a new transferrin variant. Science, 134: 106108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parker, W. C., Bearn, A. G. (1962). Additional genetic variation of human serum transferrin. Science, 137: 854856.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Peetoom, F., Crommelin, S., Fontijn, A., Prins, H. K. (1965). Hereditary and acquired blood factors in the negroid population of Surinam. Trop. Geogr. Med., 17: 243245.Google ScholarPubMed
Persson, I. (1962). Transferrins in Greenland Eskimos. Acta Genet. Basel, 12: 4144.Google ScholarPubMed
Persson, I. (1968). The distribution of serum types in West Greenland Eskimos. Acta Genet. Basel, 18: 261270.Google ScholarPubMed
Plato, C. C., Rucknagel, D. L., Gershowitz, H. (1964). Studies on the distribution of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, thalassemia and other genetic traits in the coastal and mountain villages of Cyprus. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 16: 267270.Google ScholarPubMed
Prochnicka, B. (1966). The frequencies of transferrin types in the population of Cracow (Poland). Acta Genet. Basel, 16: 248249.Google Scholar
Ramot, B., Duudevani-Zikert, P., Kende, G. (1962). Haptoglobin and transferrin types in Israel. Ann. Hum. Genet., 25: 267272.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Roop, W. E., Roop, B. L., Putnam, F. W. (1968). Transferrin variants among blood donors. Vox Sang., 14: 255257.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salzano, F. M., Sutton, H. E. (1963). Haptoglobin and transferrin types in Southern Brazilian Indians. Acta Genet. Basel, 13: 18.Google ScholarPubMed
Salzano, F. M., Sutton, H. E. (1965). Haptoglobin and transferrin types of Indians from Santa Catarina, Brazil. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 17: 280289.Google ScholarPubMed
Sanford, R., Grimmo, A. E. P., Lee, Shun-Keung (1966). The haptoglobin and transferrin types of some Cantonese in Hong Kong. Vox Sang., 2: 106107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seppala, M. (1965). Distribution of serum transferrin groups in Finland and their inheritance. Ann. Med. Exp. Biol. Fenn., 43: 740.Google ScholarPubMed
Seppala, M., Ruoslahti, E., Makela, O. (1967). Inheritance and genetic linkage of Gc and Tf groups. Acta Genet. Basel, 17: 4754.Google Scholar
Shim, B. S., (1964). Occurrence of transferrin Dx in Korea. Nature, 203: 432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shreffler, D. C., Steinberg, A. G. (1967). Further studies on the Xavante Indians. IV. Serum protein groups and the SC1 trait of saliva in the Simões Lopez and São Marcos Xavantes. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 19: 514523.Google Scholar
Smithies, O. (1957). Variations in human serum β-globulins. Nature, 180: 14821483.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smithies, O. (1958). Third allele at the serum β-globulin locus in humans. Nature, 181: 12031204.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Staveley, J. M., Douglas, R. (1960). Transferrins in Tongans. New Zeal. Med. J., 59: 546.Google Scholar
Steinberg, A., Matsumoto, H. (1964). Studies on the Gm, Inv, Hp and Tf serum factors of Japanese populations and families. Hum. Biol., 36: 7785.Google ScholarPubMed
Sutton, H. E., Bowman, B. H. (1962). Genetic and chemical aspects of the transferrins. Proc. 2nd Int. Congr. Hum. Genet., Rome 1963.Google Scholar
Sutton, H. E., Matson, G. A., Robinson, A. R., Koucky, R. W. (1960). Distribution of haptoglobin, transferrin and hemoglobin types among Indians of Southern Mexico and Guatemala. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 12: 338347.Google ScholarPubMed
Tiwari, S. C. (1960). Haptoglobin and transferrin variants in some upper castes of Bengal. Anthropologist, 7: 1720.Google Scholar
Tiwari, S. C., (1961). The frequencies of serum haptoglobin and transferrin types in a Punjabi population. Anthropologist, 8: 2328.Google Scholar
Van Ros, G., Van Sande, M., Druet, R. (1963). Groupes d'haptoglobine et de transferrine dans des populations africaines et européennes. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop., 43: 511534.Google Scholar
Wang, An-Chuan., Sutton, H. E. (1965). Human transferrins C and D1: chemical difference in a peptide. Science, 149: 435437.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wang, An-Chuan., Sutton, H. E., Howard, P. N. (1967 a). Human transferrins C and DChi: an amino acid difference. Biochem. Genet., 1: 5559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wang, An-Chuan., Sutton, H. E., Riggs, A. (1966). A chemical difference between human transferrin B2 and C. Amer. J. Hum. Genet., 18: 454458.Google ScholarPubMed
Wang, An-Chuan., Sutton, H. E., Scott, I. D. ( 1967b). Transferrin D1: identity in Australian aborigines and American Negroes. Science, 156: 936937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
You have Access
12
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

The World Distribution of Transferrin Variants and some Unsolved Problems
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

The World Distribution of Transferrin Variants and some Unsolved Problems
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

The World Distribution of Transferrin Variants and some Unsolved Problems
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *