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The beginning of herding and animal management: the early development of caprine herding on the Konya plain, central Anatolia

  • Caroline Middleton (a1)
Abstract

Little is known about the initial appearance of herding in central Anatolia. Although morphologically domestic caprines are present from the foundation of Çatalhöyük East, ca 7,100 cal. BC, how and when domestic caprines became an integral part of the central Anatolian economy, and their Status and relationship with earlier communities, is unclear. This article reports the results of a study in which carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to provide signatures of caprine diet and thus pasturing practices; as an animal's movements are affected by human Intervention, changes in animal diets should be visible through changes in δ15N and δ13C levels. A sequence of seven sites on the Konya piain, covering the period ca 9,000–4,500 cal. BC, provided bone samples for carbon and nitrogen analysis. An unaffected local dietary signature for caprines was created using the fauna from Epipalaeolithic Pınarbaşı and a C3/C4 plant baseline. This dietary signature, along with dietary information from the domesticated caprines at later sites, allowed changes in diet resulting from human Intervention to be mapped. Changes in diet are found to have occurred at sites where there is no morphometric or demographic data suggestive of early herding or domesticates. This new dietary data extends our knowledge and under-standing of how and when caprines and cattle came under human control on the Konya piain, central Anatolia.

Özet

Orta Anadolu’da hayvancılığın ilk ortaya çıkışı hakkında çok az şey bilinmektedir. Morfolojik olarak yerli keçiler, Çatalhöyük Doğu Höyüğü’nün kuruluşundan, yani yaklaşık M.Ö. 7100 cal. tarihinden beri mevcut olmasına rağmen, yerli keçilerin nasıl ve ne zaman Orta Anadolu ekonomisinin ayrılmaz bir parçası haline geldiği, konumları ve önceki topluluklarla olan ilişkileri belirsizdir. Bu makalede, karbon ve nitrojen stabil izotoplarının, keçilerin beslenme biçimini ve böylece otlatma uygulamalarını göstermek için kullanıldığı bir çalışmanın sonuçları rapor edilmiştir. Hayvan hareketlerinin insan müdahalesinden etkilenmesinden dolayı, hayvan yemlerinde meydana gelen değişiklikler δ15N ve δ13C tabakalarındaki değişiklikler yoluyla gözlenmiştir. Konya ovasında bulunan ve yaklaşık olarak M.Ö. 9000–4500 cal. tarihini kapsayan yedi tane yerleşimden karbon ve nitrojen analizleri için kemik örnekler ele geçmiştir. Keçiler için doğal (etkiye uğramamış) yerli beslenme şekli, Epipaleolitik dönem Pınarbaşı’nın faunasından ve C3/C4 bitki tabanından sağlanmıştır. Beslenmeye dair bu işaret, daha sonraki dönemlere ait yerleşimlerdeki evcilleştirilmiş keçilerden elde edilen bilgilerle birlikte, insan müdahalesinden kaynaklanan beslenme değişikliklerini saptamaya izin vermektedir. Beslenmedeki değişikliklerin, erken dönem hayvancılığı veya evcilleştirmeyi gösteren morfometrik veya demografik verilere sahip olmayan yerleşimlerde meydana geldiği tespit edilmiştir. Beslenmeyle ilgili bu yeni veriler, orta Anadolu’da yer alan Konya ovasındaki keçi ve sığırların insan kontrolü altına ne zaman ve nasıl girdiği konusundaki bilgi ve anlayışımızı geliştirmektedir.

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Anatolian Studies
  • ISSN: 0066-1546
  • EISSN: 2048-0849
  • URL: /core/journals/anatolian-studies
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