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A Peripteros of the Geometric Period in the Artemision of Ephesus

  • Anton Bammer

It was in 1908 that D. G. Hogarth first published information about a “Central Basis” (Pl. XI (a), Fig. 1) that he had excavated in 1904 and 1905 in the Artemision at Ephesus, and for many decades his words remained the authoritative statement concerning the early sanctuaries not only in Ephesus, but also in the rest of the classical world. A colloquium in the British Museum in 1984, however, demonstrated that there were issues, raised by numismatists and art historians, that continued to be at odds with the results of Hogarth's excavations, and that could only be solved by a further examination of the “central basis” in question.

As early as 1986, under the northern outer rim of the crepidoma of the archaic dipteros (Croesus temple), a square base had been discovered which obviously formed the centre of a distinct cult area. A flood stratum of sand, which was typical of all the parts of the Artemision we had excavated, appeared under the base. Fortunately, the low level of the ground water made it possible to measure this stratum (66 cm.) and to observe beneath it a new culture stratum—a pavement made of yellow marly limestone slabs—that had previously escaped detection. This observation gave rise to the hope that more discoveries could be expected under Hogarth's “central basis”.

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1 Hogarth, D. G. (ed.) Excavations at Ephesus (1908)

2 Kagan, D., AJA 86, 1982, 351 ff. and Price, M., in: Studies in Numismatic Method, presented to P. Grierson (1983) 1 ff. I would also like to thank S. Morris and A. Johnston for their considerable help and the British Academy for making it possible to me to do research in England in 1989. A first draft of the translation of this article was made by R. D. McGirr.

3 ÖJh 58, 1988, 1 ff.

4 Hogarth op. cit. 55 ff.; Atlas Pl. I, II; It is interesting that Löwy, E., SBWien 213, 1932, 3 ff. dated the base A (also B and C) in the Kroisos period. In doing this he was correct.

5 ÖJh 58, 1988, Beibl. 15, Abb. 16

6 ÖJh 58, 1988, Beibl. 11, Fig. 12 a, b; B. V. Head apud Hogarth op. cit. 74 ff.

7 ÖJh 58, 1988, Beibl. 11, Abb. 13, 14.

8 ÖJh 58, 1988, Beibl. 11, Abb. 12 a, b.

9 Juley, I. I., OpuscRom 6, 1968, Pl. 8 (reference from B. Shefton).

10 Hogarth op. cit. Pl. XLVII f.; Strong, D. E., Catalogue of the Carved Amber (BM Cat., 1966) 41 ff., Pl. If.

11 Le Monde de la Bible 64, 1990, 10 ff, RA 1991 (in press).

12 Reference from W. D. Niemeier; for the Bronze Age in Ephesos, ÖJh 57, 1986/1987, Beibl. 1 ff.

13 Heilmeyer, W.-D., Frühe olympische Tonfiguren, OlForsch. VII (1972); in addition drilled bear's teeth used as amulets were also found, see Bammer in: Ehalt, H. C. (ed.) Volksfrömmigkeit (1989) 46 and fig. 1; Beaven, E., BSA 82, 1987, 17 ff.

14 Following an idea of J. Coulton.

15 Price op. cit.; Kagan op. cit.

16 See above, note 10.

17 Bammer, in: Festschrift J. B. Trentini, Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft (1990); Caner, E., Fibeln in Anatolien (1983).

18 ÖJh 58, 1988, Beibl. 26 f., Abb. 30 f.

19 Concerning the origin of amber in general: Strong op. cit. 7 ff.; Catacchio, N. Negroni, Padusa 20, 1984, 91 ff.; Rottländer, R. C. A., Acta Praeh. et Arch. 4, 1973, 1 ff.; Harding, A., Hughes-Brock, H., mit Anhang von, C., Beck, W., BSA 69, 1974, 145 ff.; Beck, , Savaria 16, 1982, 11 ff.; Beck, , Sprincz, E., Acta Arch. Hung. 35, 1983, 171 ff.; Malinowski, T., Savaria 16, 1982, 11 ff.; Bouzek, J., “The Aegean, Anatolia, and Europe”, SIMA 29, 1985, 54 ff.; Hughes-Brock, , J. of Baltic Studies 16, 1985 (reference from H. Hughes-Brock).

20 For women's jewelry with amber teardrops, of the archaic graves of Chiaramonte in Basilicata: Bianco, S., in Archeologia, Arte e Storia alle Sorgenti del Lao (Catalogo della Mostra), Matera (1988) a cura di Paola Bottini, 89 ff. esp. fig. 36; Catacchio, N. Negroni in: Un decennio di Ricerche archeologiche II Quad. Ric. Scient. 100, Roma (1978) 175 ff. (reference from A. Mastrocinque)

21 ÖJh 58, 1988, Beibl. 26 Abb. 25–27, 30 ff.

22 Seiterle, G., Antike Welt 10, 1979, 3 ff.; Fleischer, R., AA 1983, 81 ff.; Alroth, B., Greek Gods and Figurines (Boreas 18, Uppsala, 1989), 25 ff.

23 Buchner, G., Boardman, J., JdI 8l, 1966, 1 ff.; Hölbl, G., Beziehungen der ägyptischen Kultur zu Altitalien, 1 (1979) 222 f. (EPRO)

24 Concerning the tree of life in the ancient orient: Kepenski, Chr., L'arbre stylisé en Asie occidentale au 2e mill. a. J. C. (1982)

25 The excavation in 1989 made it clear that also to the north and south of the “central basis” only one row of columns had existed; it is worth mentioning, however, that Schaber, W., Die archaischen Tempel der Artemis von Ephesos (1982) postulated a dipteral design for Hogarth's temple C.

26 Mallwitz, A., AA 1981, 599 ff. esp. 624 ff.; Fagerström, K., Greek Iron Age Architecture (1985) 85 f.; Martini, W., JdI 101, 1986, 63 ff.

27 Drerup, H. in Festschrift F. Hiller (1986) 3 ff.; Ainian, A. J. Mazarakis, in Early Greek Cult Practice ed. Hägg, R., Marinatos, N., Nordquist, G. C. (1988) 105 ff.; also Bammer, in: Archéologie de l'espace sacrificielle dans l'Antiquité classique (1990) in print

28 Rupp, D. W., Greek Altars of the Northeastern Peloponnese (UMI, 1980), ders., in Archéologie de l'espace sacrificielle loc. cit.

29 Drerup in Festschrift F. Matz (1962) 32 ff.

30 I would like to thank my following co-workers: G. Hochholdinger, Ch. Ertel, N. Patocka, G. Grabherr, J. Fürnholzer, M. Philipp, R. Posamentir, U. Arikan, F. Polat, B. Ulutuğ, W. Dollhäubl, J. Krämmer, C. Kralik, U. Muss, C. Meran-Kahane, M. Laubenberger, F. X. Prasczaits and E. Karhan. Apart from the budgeted funds of the Bundesministerium für Wissenschaft und Forschung, the Artemision project was sponsored by the following institutions: Fonds zur Förderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung, Hochschuljubiläumsstiftung der Stadt Wien, Gesellschaft der Freunde von Ephesos, Jubiläumsfonds der Österreichischen Nationalbank, and Incentive Tours.

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Anatolian Studies
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