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A possible new Bronze Age period at Troy

  • Donald Easton (a1) and Bernhard Weninger (a1)
Abstract

Statistical analysis of Carl Blegen's pottery sequence using Correspondence Analysis (CA) suggests a gap of 100–200 years between his Troy III and IV periods. From the Manfred Korfmann excavations three stratigraphic sequences hitherto assigned to Troy IV and V appear to bridge it. This allocation is based on stratigraphic/architectural grounds and on the observable development in ceramic shapes and wares. Heinrich Schliemann's pottery sequence from 1870–1873 is also analysed by CA and found to compare well with Blegen's (with limited exceptions probably due to the larger scope of his excavations), but it does not exhibit the same gap. This suggests that during the ‘bridge’ period occupation shrank to the summit on the western end of the citadel mound. This ‘bridge’ period of seven or more building phases has a distinctive ceramic assemblage and may be called the Proto-IV period. It is broadly contemporary with Middle Helladic I, Beycesultan VIII–VI, Küllüoba II and the Tarsus Early Bronze to Middle Bronze transitional period. Careful re-evaluation of the radiocarbon evidence dates it to ca 2150–1990 cal. BC. Botanical and faunal evidence from the strata in question attests significantly drier climatic conditions which, together with the smaller size of the settlement, probably reflect the 4.2ka cal. BP climatic deterioration.

Özet

Carl Blegen’in ‘Correspondence Analysis (CA)’ ‘Uygunluk Analizi’ kullanarak oluşturduğu seramik dizisinin istatistiksel analizi, bu yöntemle saptamış olduğu Troya III ve IV dönemleri arasında 100–200 yıllık bir boşluğa işaret etmektedir. Bugüne kadar Manfred Korfmann kazılarında, Troya IV ve V’e verilen üç stratigrafik sıra, bu boşluğa bir köprü oluşturmaktadır. Bu tespit, stratigrafik/mimari gerekçelere ve seramik malzeme ve biçimlerindeki gözlemlenebilir gelişime dayanmaktadır. Heinrich Schliemann’ın 1870–1873 seramik dizisi de CA yöntemi ile analiz edilmiş ve Blegen’inki ile (muhtemelen kazılarının kapsamının daha geniş olması nedeniyle birkaç istisna dışında) oldukça uyumludur, ancak aynı boşluğa sahip değildir. Bu; ‘geçiş’ döneminde yerleşimin, höyüğün batı ucundaki zirveye doğru küçüldüğünü göstermektedir. Yedi veya daha fazla yapı evresinin bulunduğu bu ‘geçiş’ döneminde belirgin bir seramik topluluğu vardır ve Proto-IV dönemi diye adlandırılabilir. Kabaca Orta Hellas I, Beycesultan VIII–VI, Küllüoba II ve Tarsus Erken Tunç döneminden Orta Tunç’a geçiş dönemiyle çağdaştır. Radyokarbon kanıtların dikkatle yeniden değerlendirilmesi ile yaklaşık M.Ö. 2150–1990 (kalibre edilmiş) tarihine verilmektedir. Sözkonusu yapı katlarından gelen botanik ve faunal kanıtlar, yerleşimin küçülmesi ile birlikte, muhtemelen günümüzden 4200 (kalibre edilmiş) yıl öncesindeki iklim bozulmasını yansıtan, önemli ölçüde daha kuru iklim koşullarını göstermektedir.

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To view supplementary material for this article, please visit https://doi.org/10.1017/S0066154618000029.

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To view supplementary material for this article, please visit https://doi.org/10.1017/S0066154618000029.

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Anatolian Studies
  • ISSN: 0066-1546
  • EISSN: 2048-0849
  • URL: /core/journals/anatolian-studies
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