Skip to main content
×
Home

CLASSIC MAYA TEXTILE PRODUCTION: INSIGHTS FROM MOTUL DE SAN JOSÉ, PETEN, GUATEMALA

  • Christina T. Halperin (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Textiles in ancient Mesoamerica served as a critical economic resource and symbolic display of status, wealth, and social affiliation. The economic significance of textiles can be explored, in part, by the archaeological identification and distribution of production tools: spinning and weaving implements. In the Maya area, however, few studies have examined the organization of textile production, and systematic documentation of tool distributions is lacking. This paper reviews previous archaeological research on Maya textile production and introduces new data from the Classic-period site of Motul de San José, Guatemala. These data complement current understandings of Classic Maya household economies by stressing the relative economic autonomy of households from the state in textile production and the heterogeneity of productive strategies within and between different households. Such heterogeneity is expressed, at least in the case of Motul de San José, by more intensive or larger-scale production conducted by large, elite households than by small, commoner households. This finding implies that textile production for tribute was not a central concern among lower-status groups in this area as it was among many Postclassic- and Contact-period commoners in Mesoamerica. Rather, Classic-period Maya royal and elite individuals were able to bolster further their economic and social standings through textile production because they had easier access to resources or surplus labor found in or associated with their own households.

Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail correspondence to:chrishalperin@yahoo.com
References
Hide All
Anawalt Patricia R. 1990 Indian Clothing before Cortés: Mesoamerican Costumes from the Codices. Civilization of the American Indian Series, 156. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Ashmore Wendy 2002 Encountering Maya Women. In Ancient Maya Women, edited by Ardren Traci, pp. 229245. AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Asturias de Barrios Linda, and García Dina Fernández (editors) 1992 La indumentaria y el tejido Mayas a traves del tiempo. Museo Ixchel del Traje Indígena de Guatemala, Guatemala City.
Atran Scott, Lois Ximena and Ucan Ek' Ediberto 2004 Plants of the Petén Itza' Maya. Memoirs of the Museum of Anthropology, 38. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Beaudry-Corbett Marilyn, and McCafferty Sharisse 2002 Spindle Whorls: Household Specialization at Ceren. In Ancient Maya Women, edited by Ardren Traci, pp. 5267. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Bell Ellen E. 2002 Engendering a Dynasty: A Royal Woman in the Margarita Tomb, Copan. In Ancient Maya Women, edited by Ardren Traci, pp. 89113. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Berdan Frances F. 1987 Cotton in Aztec Mexico. Mexican Studies 3:235262.
Brumfiel Elizabeth M. 1991 Weaving and Cooking: Women's Production in Aztec Mexico. In Engendering Archaeology: Women and Prehistory, edited by Gero Joan M. and Conkey Margaret W., pp. 224254. Basil Blackwell, Oxford.
Brumfiel Elizabeth M. 1994 The Economic Anthropology of the State: An Introduction. In The Economic Anthropology of the State, edited by Brumfiel Elizabeth M., pp. 117. University Press of America, Lanham, MD.
Brumfiel Elizabeth M. 1996 The Quality of Tribute Cloth: The Place of Evidence in Archaeological Argument. American Antiquity 61(3):453462.
Brumfiel Elizabeth M. 2006 Cloth, Gender, Continuity and Change: Fabricating Unity in Anthropology. American Anthropologist 108(4):862877.
Cano Fray Agustín 1984 Manche and Petén: The Hazards of Itzá Deceit and Barbarity. Translated by Bowditch Charles P. and Rivera Guillermo. Labyrinthos, Culver City, CA.
Charlton Thomas H., Nicholas Deborah L. and Charlton Cynthia Otis 1991 Aztec Craft Production and Specialization. World Archaeology 23(1):98114.
Ciaramella Mary 1999 Weavers in the Codices. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing, 44. Center for Maya Research, Washington, DC.
Clark John E., and Houston Stephen D. 1998 Craft Specialization, Gender, and Personhood among the Post-Conquest Maya of Yucatán, Mexico. In Craft and Social Identity, edited by Costin Cathy L. and Wright Rita P., pp. 3146. Archaeological Papers, 8. American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA.
Coe Michael D., and Kerr Justin 1998 The Art of the Maya Scribe. Harry N. Abrams, New York.
Cordry Donald B., and Cordry Dorothy M. 1968 Mexican Indian Costumes. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Costin Cathy L. 1991 Craft Specialization: Issues in Defining, Documenting, and Explaining the Organization of Production. In Archaeological Method and Theory, vol. 3, edited by Schiffer Michael B., pp. 156. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Costin Cathy L. 1993 Textiles, Women, and Political Economy in Late Prehispanic Peru. Research in Economic Anthropology 14:328.
Costin Cathy L. 1998 Housewives, Chosen Women, Skilled Men: Cloth Production and Social Identity in the Late Prehispanic Andes. In Craft and Social Identity, edited by Costin Cathy L. and Wright Rita P., pp. 123144. Archaeological Papers, 8. American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA.
Costin Cathy L. 2001 Craft Production Systems. In Archaeology at the Millennium: A Sourcebook, edited by Feinman Gary M. and Price T. Douglas, pp. 273344. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Costin Cathy L., and Hagstrum Melissa B. 1995 Standardization, Labor Investment, Skill, and the Organization of Ceramic Production in Late Prehispanic Highland Peru. American Antiquity 60(4):619639.
Dacus Chelsea 2005 Weaving the Past: An Examination of Bones Buried with an Elite Maya Woman. Unpublished master's thesis, Department of Art History, Southern Methodist University, Dallas.
D'Altroy Terence N., and Earle Timothy K. 1985 Staple Finance, Wealth Finance, and Storage in the Inka Political Economy. Current Anthropology 26(2):187206.
Deter-Wolf Aaron, and Charland Jessica 1999 Excavaciones de prueba en el sitio de Motul de San José. In Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José: Informe #2 Temporada de Campo 1999, edited by Foias Antonia E., pp. 3062. Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.
Emery Kitty F. 2003 Natural Resource Use and Classic Maya Economics: Environmental Archaeology at Motul de San José, Guatemala. Mayab 16:3348.
Fauman-Fichman Ruth 1999 Postclassic Craft Production in Morelos, Mexico: The Cotton Thread Industry in the Provinces. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh.
Feinman Gary M. 1999 Rethinking Our Assumptions: Economic Specialization at the Household Scale in Ancient Ejutla, Oaxaca, Mexico. In Pottery and People: A Dynamic Interaction, edited by Skibo James M. and Feinman Gary M., pp. 8198. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Feinman Gary M., and Nicholas Linda M. 2000 High-Intensity Household-Scale Production in Ancient Mesoamerica: A Perspective from Ejutla, Oaxaca. In Cultural Evolution: Contemporary Viewpoints, edited by Feinman Gary M. and Manzanilla Linda, pp. 119142. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.
Fekete Eva Elizabeth 1996 Excavating Gender: Rethinking the Archaeology of Maya Mortuary Practice. Unpublished master's thesis, Interdisciplinary Studies, York University, North York, Ontario.
Foias Antonia E. (editor) 1998 Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José: Informe #1 Temporada de Campo 1998. Report submitted to Williams College, Williamstown, MA, and the Institute of Anthropology and History, Guatemala City.
Foias Antonia E. (editor) 1999 Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José: Informe #2 Temporada de Campo 1999. Report submitted to Williams College, Williamstown, MA, and the Institute of Anthropology and History, Guatemala City.
Foias Antonia E. (editor) 2000 History, Politics and Economics at Motul de San José. Paper presented at the Maya Hieroglyphic Meetings, Austin, TX.
Foias Antonia E. (editor) 2001 Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José: Informe #4 Temporada de Campo 2001. Report submitted to Williams College, Williamstown, MA, and the Institute of Anthropology and History, Guatemala City.
Foias Antonia E. (editor) 2002 At the Crossroads: The Economic Basis of Political Power in the Petexbatun Region. In Ancient Maya Political Economies, edited by Masson Marilyn A. and Freidel David A., pp. 223248. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Foias Antonia E. (editor) 2003 Perspectivas teóricas en las dinámicas del estado Clásico maya: Resultados preliminares del Proyecto Eco-Arqueológico Motul de San José, 1998–2003. Mayab 16:1532.
Foias Antonia E., and Castellanos Jeanette E. (editors) 2000 Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José: Informe #3 Temporada de Campo 2000. Report submitted to Williams College, Williamstown, MA, and the Institute of Anthropology and History, Guatemala City.
Folan William J., Gunn Joel D., and del Rosario Domínguez Carrasco María 2001 Triadic Temples, Central Plazas, and Dynastic Palaces: A Diachronic Analysis of the Royal Court Complex, Calakmul, Mexico. In Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya: Volume 2, Data and Case Studies, edited by Inomata Takeshi and Houston Stephen D., pp. 223265. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Gillespie Susan D. 2000 Rethinking Ancient Maya Social Organization: Replacing “Lineage” with “House.” American Anthropologist 102(3):467484.
Goldstein Marilyn M. 1979 Maya Figurines from Campeche, Mexico: Classification on the Basis of Clay Chemistry, Style and Iconography. Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Columbia University, New York.
Haines Helen R., Feinman Gary M., and Nicholas Linda M. 2004 Household Economic Specialization and Social Differentiation: The Stone-Tool Assemblage at El Palmillo, Oaxaca. Ancient Mesoamerica 15:251266.
Hall Joanne 1976 Mexican Tapestry Weaving. J. Arvidson Press, Helena, MT.
Halperin Christina T., and Martínez Salguero Gerson 2006 Localizando evidencia de basureros y producción cerámica por medio de reconocimiento geofísco en Motul de San José, Petén. Paper presented at the XX Simposios de Investigaciones Arqueológicas en Guatemala, Guatemala City.
Halperin Christina T., Martínez Salguero Gerson, and Guzmán Jorge 2007 Excavaciones de dos grupos residenciales pequeños en el Centro Menor de Chäkokot: Operaciones 44E y 44C. In Proyecto Arqueologico Motul de San José, Informe #7, edited by Moriarty Matthew D., Spensley EllenCastellanos C. Jeannette E., and Foias Antonia E., pp. 7596. Report submitted to the Institute of Anthropology and History, Guatemala City, and Williams College, Williamstown, MA.
Halperin Christina T., Luin CamilioMcCraken Erin, Wyatt Andrew and Morales Tirso 2001 Programa de Excavaciones de Sondeos. In Proyecto Arqueologico Motul de San José: Informe #4 Temporada de Campo 2001, edited by Foias Antonia E., pp. 5766. Report submitted to the Institute of Anthropology and History, Guatemala City, and the Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.
Hamann Byron 1997 Weaving and the Iconography of Prestige: The Royal Gender Symbolism of Lord 5 Flower's/Lady 4 Rabbit's Family. In Women in Prehistory: North American and Mesoamerica, edited by Claassen Cheryl and Joyce Rosemary A., pp. 153172. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Hart Gillian 1992 Imagined Unities: Constructions of “The Household” in Economic Theory. In Understanding Economic Process, edited by Ortiz Sutti and Lees Susan, pp. 111130. Monographs in Economy Anthropology, No. 10, University Press of America, Lanham, MD.
Hayden Brian 1987 Past to Present Uses of Stone Tools in the Maya Highlands. In Lithics Studies among the Contemporary Highland Maya, edited by Hayden Brian, pp. 160234. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Hellmuth Nicholas 1977 Cholti-Lancandon (Chiapas) and Petén-Ytzá Agriculture, Settlement Pattern and Population. In Social Process in Maya Prehistory: Studies in Honour of Sir Eric Thompson, edited by Hammond Norman, pp. 421448. Academic Press, London.
Hendon Julia A. 1992 Hilado y tejido en la epoca prehispanica: Tecnología y relaciones de la producción textil. In La indumentaria y el tejido mayas a través del tiempo, edited by Barrios Linda Asturias de and García Dina Fernández, pp. 716. Monograph 8. Museo Ixchel del Traje Indígena, Guatemala City.
Hendon Julia A. 1995 Hilado y tejido en las tierras bajas Mayas en la época prehispánica: tecnología y relaciones sociales de la producción textil. Yaxkin 13:5770.
Hendon Julia A. 1997 Women's Work, Space, and Status. In Women in Prehistory: North American and Mesoamerica, edited by Claassen Cheryl and Joyce Rosemary A., pp. 3346. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Hendon Julia A. 1999 Multiple Sources of Prestige and the Social Evaluation of Women in Prehispanic Mesoamerica. In Material Symbols: Culture and Economy in Prehistory, edited by Robb John E., pp. 257276. Occasional Paper, 26. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
Hicks Frédéric 1994 Cloth in the Political Economy of the Aztec State. In Economies and Polities in the Aztec Realm, edited by Hodge Mary G. and Smith Michael E., pp. 89111. Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, State University of New York, Albany.
Houston Stephen D., and Stuart David 1998 The Ancient Maya Self: Personhood and Portraiture in the Classic Period. Res 33:73101.
Houston Stephen D., and Stuart David 2001 Peopling the Classic Maya Court. In Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya, Volume 1: Theory, Comparison, and Synthesis, edited by Inomata Takeshi and Houston Stephen D., pp. 5483. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Houston Stephen D., Stuart David and Taube Karl A. 2006 The Memory of Bones: Body, Being, and Experience among the Classic Maya. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Inomata Takeshi 1995 Archaeological Investigations at the Fortified Center of Aguateca, El Peten, Guatemala. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN.
Inomata Takeshi 2001 The Power and Ideology of Artistic Creation. Current Anthropology 42(3):321348.
Takeshi Inomata, Triadan Daniela, Ponciano Erick, Pinto Estela, Terry Richard E. and Eberl Markus 2002 Domestic and Political Lives of Classic Maya Elites: The Excavation of Rapidly Abondoned Structures at Aguateca. Latin American Antiquity 13(3):305330.
Ishihara Reiko 2007 Bridging the Chasm Between Religion and Politics: Archaeological Investigations of the Grietas at the Late Classic Maya Site of Aguateca, Peten, Guatemala. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Riverside.
Jensen Christopher T., Moriarty Matthew D.Johnson Kristofer D., Terry Richard E.Emery Kitty F., and Nelson Sheldon D. 2007 Soil Resources of the Motul de San José Maya: Correlating Soil Taxonomy and Modern Itzá Maya Soil Classification within a Classic Maya Archaeological Zone. Geoarchaeology 22(3):337357.
Johnston Kevin J. 2004 The “Invisible” Maya: Minimally Mounded Residential Settlement at Itzán, Petén, Guatemala. Latin American Antiquity 15(2):145175.
Joyce Rosemary A. 1993 Women's Work: Images of Production and Reproduction in Pre-Hispanic Southern Central America. Current Anthropology 34(3):255274.
Joyce Rosemary A. 1996 The Construction of Gender in Classic Maya Monuments. In Gender in Archaeology, edited by Wright Rita P., pp. 167195. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Joyce Rosemary A. 2000 Gender and Power in Prehispanic Mesoamerica. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Kent Kate Peck 1957 The Cultivation and Weaving of Cotton in the Prehistoric Southwestern United States. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
Kent Susan 1990 A Cross-Cultural Study of Segmentation, Architecture, and the Use of Space. In Domestic Architecture and the Use of Space: An Interdisciplinary Cross-Cultural Study, edited by Kent Susan, pp. 127152. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Kovacevich Brigitte 2007 Ritual, Crafting, and Agency at the Classic Maya Kingdom of Cancuen. In Mesoamerican Ritual Economies: Archaeologial and Ethnological Perspectives, edited by Wells E. Christian and Davis-Salazar Karla L., pp. 67114. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Levi Laura 2002 An Institutional Perspective on Prehispanic Maya Residential Variation: Settlement and Community at San Estevan, Belize. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 21:120141.
Marcus Joyce 1976 Emblem and State in the Classic Maya Lowlands: An Epigraphic Approach to Territorial Organization. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington DC.
Masson Marilyn A. 2000 In the Realm of Nachan Kan: Postclassic Maya Archaeology at Laguna de On, Belize. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
Mastache Guadalupe 1996 El tejido en el México antiguo. Arqueología Mexicana 3(17):1725.
Matul Daniel, and Fahsen Federico 2007 Códice de Madrid: Tz'ib' rech Madrid, Codex Tro-Cortesianus. Consejo Nacional de Educación, Guatemala City.
McAnany Patricia A. 1992 A Theoretical Perspective on Elites and the Economic Transformation of Classic Period Maya Households. In Understanding Economic Process, edited by Ortiz Sutti and Lees Susan, pp. 85103. Monographs in Economy Anthropology, No. 10, University Press of America, Lanham, MD.
McAnany Patricia A. 1993 The Economics of Social Power and Wealth among Eighth-Century Maya Households. In Lowland Maya Civilization in the Eighth Century a.d., edited by Sabloff Jeremy A. and Henderson John S., pp. 6589. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
McAnany Patricia A. 1995 Living with the Ancestors: Kinship and Kingship in Ancient Maya Society. University of Texas Press, Austin.
McAnany Patricia A., and Plank Shannon 2001 Perspectives on Actors, Gender Roles, and Architecture at Classic Maya Courts and Households. In Royal Courts of the Ancient Maya, Volume 1: Theory, Comparisons, and Synthesis, edited by Inomata Takeshi and Houston Stephen D., pp. 84129. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
McCafferty Geoffrey G., and McCaffery Sharisse D. 2006 Boys and Girls Interrupted: Mortuary Evidence of Children from Postclassic Cholula, Puebla. In The Social Experience of Childhood in Ancient Mesoamerica, edited by Ardren Traci and Hutson Scott R., pp. 2552. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.
McCafferty Sharisse D., and McCafferty Geoffrey G. 1991 Spinning and Weaving as Female Gender Identity in Post-Classic Mexico. In Textile Traditions of Mesoamerica and the Andes: An Anthology, edited by Schevill Margot Blum, Berlo Janet C., and Dwyer Edward B., pp. 1944. Garland, New York.
McCafferty Sharisse D., and McCafferty Geoffrey G. 1994 Engendering Tomb 7 at Monte Albán: Respinning an Old Yarn. Current Anthropology 35(2):143166.
McCafferty Sharisse D., and McCafferty Geoffrey G. 2000 Textile Production in Ancient Cholula, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 11:3954.
Means Philip Ainsworth 1917 History of the Spanish Conquest of Yucatan and of the Itzas. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 7. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Moholy-Nagy Hattula 2003 The Artifacts of Tikal: Utilitarian Artifacts and Unworked Material. Tikal Report 27B. Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Moore H. L. 1992 Households and Gender Relations: The Modelling of the Economy. In Understanding Economic Process, edited by Ortiz Sutti and Lees Susan, pp. 131150. Monographs in Economic Anthropology, No. 10. University Press of America, Lanham, MD.
Morehart Christopher T., and Helmke Christophe G.B. 2005 Locating Knowledge and Situating Power: A Paleoethnobotanical Perspective to Ancient Maya Gender and Social Relations. Paper presented at the 104th Annual Meetings of the American Anthropological AssociationWashington, DC.
Moriarty Matthew D. 2004 Settlement Archaeology at Motul de San José, Petén, Guatemala: Preliminary Results from the 1998–2003 Field Seasons. Mayab 17:2144.
Moriarty Matthew D., Ramirez FredySpensley Elly, and Buechler Jeffrey 2001 Reconocimiento, Mapeo, y Sondeos en la Periferia de Motul de San José: El Transecto Este. In Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José, Informe #4: Temporada de Campo 2001, edited by Foias Antonia E., pp. 86103. Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.
Morris Walter F Jr.. 1985 Warped Glyphs: A Reading of Maya Textiles. In Fourth Palenque Round Table, 1980, edited by Robertson Merle G. and Benson Elizabeth P., pp. 317323. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.
Nichols Deborah L., McLaughlin Mary Jane, and Benton Maura 2000 Production Intensification and Regional Specialization: Maguey Fibers and Textiles in the Aztec City-State of Otumba. Ancient Mesoamerica 11:267291.
O'Neale Lila M. 1945 Textiles of Highland Guatemala. Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC.
Osborne de Jongh 1965 Indian Crafts of Guatemala and El Salvador. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Parsons Jeffrey R., and Parsons Mary H. 1990 Maguey Utilization in Highland Central Mexico: An Archaeological Ethnography. Anthropological Papers, 82. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Parsons Mary H. 1972 Spindle Whorls from the Teotihuacan Valley. In Miscellaneous Studies in Mexican Prehistory, edited by Spence Michael W., Parsons Jeffrey R., and Parsons Mary H.. Anthropological Papers, 45. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Parsons Mary H. 1975 The Distribution of Late Postclassic Spindle Whorls in the Valley of Mexico. American Antiquity 40:207215.
Piña Chán Roman 1996 Las figurillas de Jaina. Arqueología Mexicana 3(18):5259.
Pohl John M.D. 1994 Weaving and Gift Exchange in the Mixtec Codices. In Cloth and Curing: Community and Change in Oaxaca, edited by Johnson Grace and Sharon Douglas, pp. 313. San Diego Museum Papers, San Diego.
Ponciano Erick M. 1995 Evidencia arqueologica sobre una especialización economica en la costa sur de Guatemala en el clasico tardío: El caso Flamenco. Los Investigadores de la Cultura Maya 4:268283.
Potter Daniel R. and King Eleanor M. 1995 A Heterarchical Approach to Lowland Maya Socioeconomies. In Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies, edited by Ehrenreich Robert M., Crumley Carole L., and Levy Janet L., pp. 1732. Archaeological Papers, 6. American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA.
Prechtel Martin, and Carlsen Robert S. 1988 Weaving and Cosmos amongst the Tzutujil Maya of Guatemala. Res 15:122132.
Proskouriakoff Tatiana 1962 The Artifacts of Mayapan. In Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico, edited by Pollock Harry E.D., Roys Ralph L., Proskouriakoff Tatiana and Smith A. Ledyard, pp. 321442. Publication 619. Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC.
Purseglove John William 1968 Tropical Crops, Dicotyledons 2. Longmans Green, London.
Ramirez Fredy, Sanchez Anita, and Alvarado Maria 2000 Programa de Excavaciones de Sondeo. In Proyecto Arqueológico Motul de San José: Informe #3 Temporada de Campo 2000, edited by Foias Antonia E. and Castellanos Jeanette E., pp. 928. Department of Anthropology and Sociology, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.
Reents-Budet Dorie (editor) 1994 Painting the Maya Universe: Royal Ceramics of the Classic Period. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.
Rice Prudence M. 1987 Economic Change in the Lowland Maya Late Classic Period. In Specialization, Exchange, and Complex Societies, edited by Brumfiel Elizabeth M. and Earle Timothy K., pp. 7685. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Rice Prudence M. 2004 Maya Political Science: Time, Astronomy, and the Cosmos. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Robin Cynthia 2002 Gender and Maya Farming at Chan Nòohol, Belize. In Ancient Maya Women, edited by Ardren Traci, pp. 1230. Altamira Press, Walnut Creek, CA.
Robin Cynthia 2004 Social Diversity and Everyday Life within Classic Maya Settlements. In Mesoamerican Archaeology: Theory and Practice, edited by Hendon Julia A. and Joyce Rosemary A., pp. 148168. Blackwell Publishing, Malden.
Schele Linda, and Mathews Peter 1998 The Code of Kings: The Language of Seven Sacred Maya Temples and Tombs. Scribner, New York.
Schmidt Peter. de la Garza Mercedes, and Nalda Enrique (editors) 1988 Maya. Rizzoli International, New York.
Scholes France V., and Roys Ralph L. 1948 The Maya Chontal Indians of Acalán-Tixchel. Publication No. 560. Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC.
Schortman Edward M., and Urban Patricia A. 2004 Modeling the Roles of Craft Production in Ancient Political Economies. Journal of Archaeological Research 12(2):185226.
Sheets Payson 2000 Provisioning the Ceren Household: The Vertical Economy, Village Economy, and Household Economy in the Southeast Maya Periphery. Ancient Mesoamerica 11:217230.
Sheets Payson, and Simmons Scott E. 2002 Household Production and Specialization at Cerén. In Before the Volcano Erupted: The Ancient Cerén Village in Central America, edited by Sheets Payson, pp. 178183. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Silverblatt Irene 1987 Moon, Sun, and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca and Colonial Peru. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Smith Michael E. 2003 Economic Change in Morelos Households. In The Postclassic Mesoamerican World, edited by Smith Michael E. and Berdan Frances F., pp. 249258. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Smith Michael E., and Hirth Kenneth G. 1988 The Development of Prehispanic Cotton-Spinning Technology in Western Morelos, Mexico. Journal of Field Archaeology 15(3):349358.
Sorensen Kathyrn, Glover Jeffrey B., and Fedick Scott L. 2003 A Volumetric Assessment of Ancient Maya Architecture: A GIS Approach to Settlement Patterns. In Enter the Past: The E-Way into the Four Dimensions of Cultural Heritage, edited by Wien Magistrat der Stadt, Erbe Referat Kulturelles, Wien Pí~Çí~êÅÜŽologie, pp. 308338. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Stark Barbara L., Heller Lynette and Ohnersorgen Michael A. 1998 People with Cloth: Mesoamerican Economic Change from the Perspective of Cotton in South-Central Veracruz. Latin American Antiquity 9(1):736.
Stuart David 1998 “The Fire Enters His House”: Architecture and Ritual in Classic Maya Texts. In Function and Meaning in Classic Maya Architecture, edited by Houston Stephen D., pp. 373425. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Stuart David, and Houston Stephen D. 1994 Classic Maya Place Names. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology, No. 33. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington DC.
Taschek Jennifer T. 1994 The Artifacts of Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico: Shell, Polished Stone, Bone, Wood, and Ceramics. Middle American Research Institute Publication 50. Tulane University, New Orleans.
Taube Karl A. 1994 The Birth Vase: Natal Imagery in Ancient Maya Myth and Ritual. In The Maya Vase Database: A Corpus of Rollout Photographs of Maya Vases, vol. 4, edited by Kerr Justin, pp. 652675. Kerr Associates, New York.
Taylor Dicey 1992 Painted Ladies: Costumes for Women on Tepeu Ceramics. In The Maya Vase Book: A Corpus of Rollout Photographs of Maya Vases, vol. 3, edited by Kerr Justin, pp. 513525. Kerr Associates, New York.
Tozzer Alfred M. 1941 Landa's Relación de las Cosas de Yucatán: A Translation. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 18. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Webb Elizabeth A., Schwarcz Henry P., Jensen Christopher T., Terry Richard E., Moriarty Matthew D., and Emery Kitty F. 2007 Stable Carbon Isotope Signature of Ancient Maize Agriculture in the Soils of Motul de San José, Guatemala. Geoarchaeology 22(3):291312.
Welsh W.B.M. 1988 An Analysis of Classic Lowland Maya Burials. BAR International Series 409. British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Wilk Richard R., and Netting Robert 1984 Households: Changing Forms and Functions. In Households: Comparative and Historical Studies of the Domestic Group, edited by Netting Richard M., Wilk Rirchard R. and Arnould Eric J., pp. 128. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Wilk Richard R., and Rathje William L. 1982 Household Archaeology. American Behavioral Scientist 25(6):617639.
Willey Gordon R. 1972 The Artifacts of Altar de Sacrificios. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology 64. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Willey Gordon R. 1978 Artifacts. In Excavations at Seibal, Department of Peten, Guatemala, edited by Willey Gordon R., pp. 1189. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Vol. 15, No. 2. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Willey Gordon R., Bullard William R.Glass John B., and Gifford James C. 1965 Prehistoric Maya Settlements in the Belize Valley. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, 54. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Wisdom Charles 1961 Los Chortis de Guatemala. Pineda Ibarra, Guatemala City.
Wright Rita P. 1996 Technology, Gender, and Class: Worlds of Difference in Ur III Mesopotamia. In Gender and Archaeology, edited by Wright Rita P., pp. 79110. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Yaeger Jason 2000 Changing Patterns of Social Organization: The Late and Terminal Classic Communities at San Lorenzo, Cayo District, Belize. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Zaro Gregory, and Lohse Jon C. 2005 Agricultural Rhythms and Rituals: Ancient Maya Solar Observation in Hinterland Blue Creek, Northern Belize. Latin American Antiquity 16(1):8198.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Ancient Mesoamerica
  • ISSN: 0956-5361
  • EISSN: 1469-1787
  • URL: /core/journals/ancient-mesoamerica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 13
Total number of PDF views: 48 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 332 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.