Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The Return of Quetzalcoatl: Evidence for the spread of a world religion during the Epiclassic period

  • William M. Ringle (a1), Tomás Gallareta Negrón (a2) and George J. Bey (a3)
Abstract
Abstract

Continuing analysis of the site of Chichen Itza suggests that its construction dates primarily to the Late Classic period, ca. a.d. 700–1000, rather than the Early Postclassic. This paper examines the implications of this redating for the well-known “Toltec” problem. Since Chichen largely antedated Tollan-phase Tula, we conclude that what is usually identified as Toltec imagery in fact dates to an earlier Epiclassic horizon extending from Morelos and Puebla to the Gulf Coast and Yucatan. Chichen Itza, we suggest, was the eastern node in a network of shrine centers dedicated primarily to Quetzalcoatl/Kukulcan. This network transcended political boundaries and included such sites as Cholula, Cacaxtla, El TajIn, Xochicalco, and ultimately Tula. The Quetzalcoatl cult is manifested by a specific complex of traits and seems to have expanded militarily with messianic vigor. Pilgrimage was also an important activity at these centers. This cult axis apparently continued into the Postclassic period, and was responsible for the distribution of the Mixteca-Puebla art style. In Yucatan, Mayapan would seem to have assumed Chichen's position as the major Yucatecan node, although accompanied by several new shrines along the Caribbean coast.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Acosta Jorge R. 1957 Resumen de los informes de las exploraciones arqueológicas en Tula, Hgo., durante las IX y X temporadas, 1953–1954. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia IX: 119169.
Adams Richard E.W. 1971 The Ceramics of Altar de Sacrificios. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 63, No. 1, Cambridge.
Adams Richard E.W. 1973 Maya Collapse: Transformation and Termination in the Ceramic Sequence at Altar de Sacrificios. In The Classic Maya Collapse, edited by Culbert T. Patrick, pp. 133164. School of American Research/University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Alva Ixtlilxochitl Fernando de 1975 Obras históricas. 2 vols. Edited by O'Gorman Edmundo. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
Carlos Alvarez A. 1975 Petroglifos y esculturas. In Teotenango: El antiguo lugar de la muralla, edited by Chan Román Piña, pp. 267307. Dirección de Turismo, Gobierno del Estado de México, México.
Anders Ferdinand, Jansen Maarten, and Pérez-Jiménez Gabina A. 1992a Crónica Mixteca: Libro explicativo del llamado Códice Zouche-Nuttall. Códices Mexicanos No. 2. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Vienna, and Fondo de Cultura Económica, México.
Anders Ferdinand, Jansen Maarten, and Pérez-Jiménez Gabina A. 1992b Origen e historia de los reyes Mixtecos: Libro explicativo del llamado Códice Vindobonensis. Codices Méxicanos No. 1. Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Vienna, and Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico.
Andrews Anthony P., Tomas Gallareta N., and Rafael Cobos P. 1989 Preliminary Report of the Cupul Survey Project. Mexicon XI:9195.
Andrews Anthony P., Tomas Gallareta N., Fernando Robles C., Rafael Cobos P., and Pura Cervera R. 1988 Isla Cerritos: An Itza Trading Port on the North Coast of Yucatan, Mexico. National Geographic Research 4:196207.
Wyllys Andrews E. IV 1970 Balankanche, Throne of the Tiger Priest. Publication No. 32. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Andrews E.W. IV, and Andrews E.W. V 1980 Excavations at Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico. Publication No. 48. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Wyllys Andrews E. V 1976 The Archaeology of Quelepa, El Salvador. Publication No. 42. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Angulo Villaseñor Jorge 1988 Prefacio. In Tiempo y asentamiento en Xochicalco, by Hirth Kenneth G. and Guillén Ann Cyphers, pp. 911. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
Ashmore Wendy 1989 Construction and Cosmology: Politics and Ideology in Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns. In Word and Image in Maya Culture: Explorations in Language, Writing, and Representation, edited by Hanks William F. and Rice Don S., pp. 272286. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Ball Joseph W. 1979 The 1977 Central College Symposium on Puuc Archaeology: A Summary View. In The Puuc: New Perspectives, edited by Mills Lawrence, pp. 4651. Scholarly Studies in the Liberal Arts No. 1. Central College, Pella, IA.
Ball Joseph W., and Ladd John M. 1992 Ceramics. In Artifacts from the Cenote of Sacrifice, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, edited by Coggins Clemency C., pp. 191233. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 10, No. 3. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Barrera Vásquez Alfredo, Manzano Juan Ramón Bastarrachea, Sansores William Brito, Salas Refugio Vermont, Góngora David Dzul, and Poot Domingo Dzul 1980 Diccionario Maya Cordemex. Ediciones Cordemex, Mérida, Mexico.
Berlo Janet C. 1989 Early Writing in Central Mexico: In Tlilli, In Tlapalli before A.D. 1000. In Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 1948. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Kathleen Berrin (editor) 1988 Feathered Serpents and Flowering Trees: Reconstructing the Murals of Teotihuacan. The Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, San Francisco.
Bey George J. III 1987 A Regional Analysis of Toltec Ceramics, Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Bey George J. III 1994 Changes in Domestic Pottery Production and Distribution in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico. Paper presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Atlanta.
Bey George J. III, Bond Tara M., Ringle William M., Hanson Craig A., Houck Charles W., and Lope Carlos Peraza 1998 The Ceramic Chronology of Ek Balam, Yucatan, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 9:101120.
Bey George J. III, Hanson Craig A., and Ringle William M. 1997 Classic to Postclassic at Ek Balam, Yucatan: Architectural and Ceramic Evidence for Defining the Transition. Latin American Antiquity 8:237254.
Brainerd George W. 1958 The Archaeological Ceramics of Yucatan. Anthropological Records, vol. 19. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Braswell Geoffrey E., and Glascock Michael D. 1995 Los artefactos de obsidiana de Chichén Itzá. Paper presented at the III Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico.
Brueggemann Juergen, and Guevara René Ortega 1989 El Proyecto Tajín. Arqueologia 5:153174.
Burger Richard L. 1992 Chavin and the Origins of Andean Civilization. Thames and Hudson, New York.
Butler Mary 1935 Piedras Negras Pottery. Piedras Negras Preliminary Papers No. 4. The University Museum, Philadelphia.
Byland Bruce E., and Pohl John M.D. 1994a In the Realm of 8 Deer: The Archaeology of the Mixtec Codices. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Byland Bruce E., and Pohl John M.D. 1994b Political Factions in the Transition from Classic to Postclassic in the Mixteca Alta. In Factional Competition and Political Development in the New World, edited by Brumfiel Elizabeth M. and Fox John W., pp. 117126. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Cabrera Castro Rubén, Sugiyama Saburo, and Cowgill George L. 1991 The Templo de Quetzalcoatl Project at Teotihuacan. Ancient Mesoamerica 2:7792.
Carlson John B. 1991 Venus-Regulated Warfare and Ritual Sacrifice in Mesoamerica: Teotihuacan and the Cacaxtla “Star Wars” Connection. Technical Publication No. 7. Center for Archaeoastronomy, College Park, MD.
Carrasco Vargas Ramón, and de Heredia Puente Eduardo Perez 1996 Los Ultimos Gobernantes de Kabah. In Eighth Palenque Round Table, 1993, edited by Macri Martha J. and McHargue Jan, pp. 297308. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.
Caso Alfonso 19581959 Glífos teotihuacanos. Revista Méxicana de Estudios Antropológicos 15(1):5170.
Caso Alfonso 1961 Nombres calendáricos de los dioses. El México Antiguo 9:77100.
Caso Alfonso 1962 Calendario y escritura en Xochicalco. Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropológicos 18(1):4980.
Caso Alfonso 1965 Lapidary Work, Goldwork, and Copperwork from Oaxaca. In Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica, Pt. 2, edited by Willey Gordon R., pp. 896930. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 3, Wauchope Robert, general editor. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Caso Alfonso 1979 Reyes y reinos de la mixteca. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico.
Caso Alfonso, and Bernal Ignacio 1965 Ceramics of Oaxaca. In Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica, Pt. 2, edited by Willey Gordon R., pp. 871895. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 3, Wauchope Robert, general editor. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Castillo Peña Patricia 1995 La expresión simbólica del Tajín. Serie Arqueología. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Rafael Cobos P. 1995 Katun and Ahau: Dating the End of Chichen Itza. Manuscript on file, Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans.
Coe Michael D. 1965 Archaeological Synthesis of Southern Veracruz and Tabasco. In Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica, Pt. 2, edited by Willey Gordon R., pp. 679715. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 3, Wauchope Robert, general editor. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Coggins Clemency C. 1987 New Fire at Chichen Itza. In Memorias del Primer Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas (1985), pp. 427484. Universidad Autónoma de México, Mexico.
Coggins Clemency C., and Shane Orrin C. III (editors) 1984 Cenote of Sacrifice: Maya Treasures from the Sacred Well at Chichén Itzá. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Cohodas Marvin 1989 The Epiclassic Problem: A Review and Alternative Model. In Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 219240. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Cohodas Marvin 1991 Ballgame Imagery of the Maya Lowlands: History and Iconography. In The Mesoamerican Ballgame, edited by Scarborough Vernon L. and Wilcox David R., pp. 251288. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Davies Nigel 1977 The Toltecs: Until the Fall of Tula. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
de Borhegyi Stephan F. 1965 Archaeological Synthesis of the Guatemalan Highlands. In Archaeology of Southern Mesoamerica, Pt. 1, edited by Willey Gordon R., pp. 358. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 2, Wauchope Robert, general editor. University of Texas Press, Austin.
de Montmollin Olivier 1997 A Regional Study of Classic Maya Ballcourts from the Upper Grijalva Basin, Chiapas, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 8:2341.
Diehl Richard A. 1983 Tula: The Toltec Capital of Ancient Mexico. Thames and Hudson, New York.
Diehl Richard A., and Berlo Janet Catherine (editors) 1989 Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
du Solier Wilfrido 1943 A Reconnaissance on Isla de Sacrificios, Veracruz, Mexico. Notes on Middle American Archaeology and Ethnology No. 14. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
Durán Fray D. 1971 Book of the Gods and Rites and the Ancient Calendar, translated and edited by Horcasitas Fernando and Heyden Doris. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Edmonson Munro S. 1986 Heaven Born Merida and Its Destiny: The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Erosa Peniche José A. 1939 Descubrimientos y exploración arqueológica de la subestructura del Castillo en Chichén Itzá. Actas del la Primera Sesión del XXVII Congreso Internacional de Americanistas 11:229248.
Bernd Fahmel B. 1988 Mesoamérica tolteca sus cerámicas de comercio principales. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
Firth Raymond 1996 Religion: A Humanist Interpretation. Routledge, London.
Florescano Enrique 1993 El mito de Quetzalcóatl. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico, DF.
Fox John W. 1991 The Lords of Light Versus the Lords of Dark: The Postclassic Highland Maya Ballgame. In The Mesoamerican Ballgame, edited by Scarborough Vernon L. and Wilcox David R., pp. 213238. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Freidel David, Schele Linda, and Parker Joy 1993 Maya Cosmos: Three Thousand Years on the Shaman's Path. William Morrow New York.
Gallareta Negrón Tomás, Fernando Robles C., Andrews Anthony P., Rafael Cobos P., and Pura Cervera R. 1989 Isla Cerritos: Un puerto maya prehispánico de la costa norte de Yucatán, México. In Memorias del Segundo Coloquio Internacional de Mayistas, pp. 311332. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
García Cook Angel 1981 The Historical Importance of Tlaxcala in the Cultural Development of the Central Highlands. In Handbook of Middle American Indians, Supplement I: Archaeology, edited by Bricker Victoria R. and Sabloff Jeremy A., pp. 244276. University of Texas Press, Austin.
García Payón José 1951 La pirámide del Tajín. Cuadernos Americanos 10(6):153177.
García Payón José 1973 Los enigmas de El Tajín. Colección Científica 3. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
María Garibay K. Angel 1985 Teogonía e historia de los mexicanos: Tres opusculos del siglo XVI. Editorial Porrúa, Mexico.
Gillespie Susan D. 1989 The Aztec Kings. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Gillespie Susan D. 1991 Ballgames and Boundaries. In The Mesoamerican Ballgame, edited by Scarborough Vernon L. and Wilcox David R., pp. 317345. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
González Crespo Norberto, Tarazona Silvia Garza, de Vega Nova Hortensia Guala Pablo Mayer, and Aguilar Giselle Canto 1995 Archaeological Investigations at Xochicalco, Morelos: 1984 and 1986. Ancient Mesoamerica 6:223236.
Graham lan 1996 Seibal. Corpus of Maya Hieroglyphic Inscriptions, vol. 7, pt. 1. Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge, MA.
Graham John A. 1990 Monumental Sculpture and Hieroglyphic Inscriptions. In Excavations at Seibal, edited by Willey Gordon R., pp. 179. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 17, No. 1. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Grübe Nikolai 1994 Hieroglyphic Sources for the History of Northwest Yucatan. In Hidden among the Hills, edited by Prem Hanns J., pp. 316358. Acta Mesoamericana 7. Verlag Von Flemming, Möckmühl.
Habel S. 1878 The Sculptures of Santa Lucia Cosumalwhuapa in Guatemala. Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge No. 269. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.
Healan Dan M. (editor) 1989 Tula of the Toltecs: Excavations and Survey. University of Iowa Press, Iowa City.
Healan Dan M. 1993 Local Versus Non-Local Obsidian Exchange at Tula and Its Implications for Post-Formative Mesoamerica. World Archaeology 24:449466.
Hernandez Francisco 1921 [1545] Of the Religious Beliefs of the Indians of Yucatan in 1545. In Reports on the Maya Indians of Yucatan, edited by Saville Marshall H., pp. 209215. Indian Notes and Monographs VoI. IX, No. 3. Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation, New York.
Hester Tomas R., Jack Robert N., and Heizer Robert F. 1972 Trace Element Analysis of Obsidian from the Site of Cholula, Mexico. In Contributions ofthe University of California Archaeological Research Facility 16:105110. Berkeley.
Hirth Kenneth G. 1989 Militarism and Social Organization at Xochicalco, Morelos. In Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 6982. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Hirth Kenneth G., and Guillén Ann Cyphers 1988 Tiempo y asentamiento en Xochicalco. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
Jack Robert N., Hester Tomas R., and Heizer Robert F. 1972 Geologic Sources of Archaeological Obsidian from Sites in Northern and Central Veracruz, Mexico. In Contributions of the University of California Archaeological Research Facility 16:117122. Berkeley.
Jiménez Moreno Wigberto 1942 El enigma de las olmecas. Cuadernos Americanos 49:5:113145.
Jiménez Moreno Wigberto 1966 Mesoamerica before the Toltecs. In Ancient Oaxaca, edited by Paddock John, pp. 182. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Kampen Michael E. 1972 The Sculptures of El Tajin, Veracruz, Mexico. University of Florida Press, Gainesville.
Kelley David H. 1982 Notes on Puuc Inscriptions and History. Supplement to The Puuc: New Perspectives, edited by Mills Lawrence. Central College, Pella, Iowa.
Kennedy Hugh 1986 The Prophet and the Age ofthe Caliphates. Longman, New York.
Kepecs Susan 1994 The Preliminary Regional Ceramic Sequence of Chikinchel, Northeast Yucatán, Mexico. Paper presented at the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Atlanta.
Kepecs Susan, Feinman Gary, and Boucher Sylviane 1994 Chichen Itza and Its Hinterland: A World-Systems Perspective. Ancient Mesoamerica 5:141158.
Kepecs Susan M., and Negrón Tomas Gallareta 1995 Una visión diacrónica de Chikinchel y Cupul, noreste de Yucatán, México. In Memorias del Segundo Congreso Internacional de Mayistas, pp. 275293. IIF/CEM, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
Kirchhoff Paul, Guemes Odena, and García Luis Reyes 1976 Historia Tolteca-Chichimeca. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México.
Konieczna Barbara, and Mayer Pablo 1976 Uxmal, Yucatán, informe de la temporada 1973–1974. In Investigaciones arqueológicas en el sureste. Cuadernos de los Centros No. 27, pp. 118. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.
Koontz Rex A. 1994 The Iconography of El Tajín, Veracruz, Mexico. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department ofAnthropology, University of Texas, Austin.
Kowalski Jeff K. 1987 The House of the Governor: A Maya Palace at Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Kowalski Jeff K. 1989 Who Am I among the Itza?: Links between Northern Yucatan and the Western Maya Lowlands and Highlands. In Mesoamerica af ter the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 173185. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Kowalski Jeff K. 1990 A Preliminary Report on the 1988 Field Season at the Nunnery Quadrangle, Uxmal, Yucatan, Mexico. Mexicon XII(2):2733.
Kowalski Jeff K., Rubio Alfredo Barrera, Más Heber Ojeda, and Herrera José Huchim 1996 Archaeological Excavations of a Round Temple at Uxmal: Summary Discussion and Implications for Northern Maya Culture History. In Eighth Palenque Round Table, 1993, edited by Macri Martha J. and McHargue Jan, pp. 281296. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.
Kremer Jürgen 1994 The Putun Hypothesis Reconsidered. In Hidden among the Hills, edited by Prem Hanns J., pp. 289307. Acta Mesoamericana 7. Verlag Von Flemming, Möckmühl.
Kubler George 1961 Chichen-Itza y Tula. Estudios de Cultura Maya 1:4780.
Kurjack Edward B. 1974 Prehistoric Lowland Maya Community and Social Organization: A Case Study at Dzibilchaltun, Yucatan, Mexico. Publication No. 38. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Kurjack Edward B., Ruben Maldonado C, and Robertson Merle G. 1991 Ballcourts of the Northern Maya Lowlands. In The Mesoamerican Ballgame, edited by Scarborough Vernon L. and Wilcox David R., pp. 145159. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Las Casas Fray Bartolomé de 1966 Los indios de México y Nueva España: Antología, edited by O'Gorman Edmundo. Editorial Porrua, Mexico.
Lincoln Charles E. 1986 The Chronology of Chichen Itza: A Review of the Literature. In Late Lowland Maya Civilization, edited by Sabloff Jeremy A. and Andrews E. Wyllys V, pp. 141198. School of American Research, Santa Fe, and University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Lincoln Charles E. 1990 Ethnicity and Social Organization at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Lind Michael D. 1994 Cholula and Mixteca Polychromes: Two Mixteca-Puebla Regional Sub-Styles. In Mixteca-Puebla: Discoveries and Research in Mesoamerican Art and Archaeology, edited by Nicholson H.B. and Keber Eloise Quiñones, pp. 7999. Labyrinthos, Culver City, CA.
Lira López Yamile 1990 La cerámica de El Tajín, norte de Veracruz. Betrage zur Archaologie Band 3, Berlin.
López Austin Alfredo 1973 Hombredios: religión y política en el mundo Náhuatl. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
López Austin Alfredo, Luján Leonardo López, and Sugiyama Saburo 1991 The Temple of Quetzalcoatl at Teotihuacan: Its Possible Ideological Significance. Ancient Mesoamerica 2:93105.
Lothrop Samuel K. 1952 Metals from the Cenote of Sacrífìce, Chichen Itza, Yucatan. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 10, No. 2. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Marcus Joyce, and Flannery Kent V. 1996 Zapotec Civilization: How Urban Society Evolved in Mexico's Oaxaca Valley. Thames and Hudson, London.
McCafferty Geoffrey G. 1996a The Ceramics and Chronology of Cholula, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 7:299323.
McCafferty Geoffrey G. 1996b Reinterpreting the Great Pyramid of Cholula, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 7:117.
McVicker Donald 1985 The “Mayanized” Mexicans. American Antiquity 50:82101.
Ruben Maldonado C. 1991 Tlalocs at Uxmal. In Sixth Palenque Round Table, 1986, edited by Fields Virginia M. and Robertson Merle Greene, pp. 97101. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Marquina Ignacio 1964 Arquitectura prehispánica. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia and Secretaría de Educación Pública, Mexico.
Marquina Ignacio 1971 La pintura en Cholula. In Artes de México 140. Mexico.
Mastache Alba Guadalupe, and Cobean Robert H. 1989 The Coyotlatelco Culture and the Origins of the Toltec State. In Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 4968. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Medellín Zenil Alfonso 1962 El monolito de Maltrata, Veracruz. Palabra y Hombre 24:3748.
Miller Arthur G. 1977 “Captains of the Itza”: Unpublished Mural Evidence from Chichén Itzá. In Social Process in Maya Prehistory, edited by Hammond Norman, pp. 197226. Academic Press, New York.
Miller Virginia E. 1991 The Frieze ofthe Palace ofthe Stuccoes, Acanceh, Yucatan, Mexico. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology No. 31. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Molina Feal Daniel 1995 Consideraciones sobre Ia cronología de Cacaxtla. In Antología de Cacaxtla, edited by Cook Angel García, Carrión Beatriz Leonor Merino, and Silva Lorena Mirambell, pp. 174179. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.
Morley Sylvanus G., and Brainerd George W. 1956 The Ancient Maya. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
Morris Early H., Chariot Jean, and Morris Ann A. 1931 The Temple of the Warriors at Chichen Itza, Yucatan. 2 vols. Publication No. 406. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
Nagao Debra 1989 Public Proclamation in the Art of Cacaxtla and Xochicalco. In Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 83104. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Carlos Navarette C. 1990 Chinkultic, un sitio-puerta intermedio entre los altos de Guate mala y el occidente de Chiapas. In La época Clásica: Nuevos hallaz gos, nuevas ideas, edited by de Méndez Amalia Cardós, pp. 447453. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.
Nicholson Henry B. 1976 Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl vs. Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl of Tollan: A Problem in Mesoamerican Religion and History. Actes du XLIIe Congrés International des Americanistes VI:3547.
Nicholson Henry B. 1978 The Deity 9 Wind “Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl” in the Mixteca Pictorials. Journal of Latin American Lore 4:6192.
Nicholson Henry B., and Keber Eloise Quiñones 1994 Introduction. In Mixteca-Puebla: Discoveries and Research in Mesoamerican Art and Archaeology, edited by Nicholson H.B. and Keber Eloise Quiñones, pp. vii–xv. Labyrinthos, Culver City, CA.
Paddock John 1966 Oaxaca in Ancient Mesoamerica. In Ancient Oaxaca, edited by Paddock John, pp. 83242. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.
Paddock John 1987 Cholula en Mesoamerica. Notas Mesoamericanas 10:2170.
Parsons Jeffrey R., Brumfiel Elizabeth, and Hodge Mary 1996 Developmental Implications of Earlier Dates for Early Aztec in the Basin of Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 7:217230.
Parsons Lee A. 1969 Bilbao, Guatemala: An Archaeological Study ofthe Pacific Coast Cotzumalhuapa Region, vol. 2. Publications in Anthropology No. 12. Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee, WI.
Parsons Lee A. 1991 The Ballgame in the Southern Pacific Coast Cotzumalhuapa Region and Its Impact on Kaminaljuyu during the Middle Classic. In The Mesoamerican Ballgame, edited by Scarborough Vernon L. and Wilcox David R., pp. 195212. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Peraza Lope Carlos A. 1993 Estudio y secuencia del material cerámico de San Gervasio, Co-zumel. Tésis de Licenciatura, Facultad de Ciencias Antropológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Merida.
Peterson David 1987 The Real Cholula. Notas Mesoamericanas 10:71118.
Pollock H.E.D. 1962 Introduction. In Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico, pp. 122. Publication No. 619. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
Proskouriakoff Tatiana 1962a Civic and Religious Structures of Mayapan. In Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico, pp. 87164. Publication No. 619. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
Proskouriakoff Tatiana 1962b The Artifacts of Mayapan. In Mayapan, Yucatan, Mexico, pp. 321442. Publication No. 619. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
Proskouriakoff Tatiana 1974 Jades from the Cenote of Sacrifice, Chichen Itza, Yucatan. Memoirs ofthe Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 10, No. 1. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Virgilio Reyes V. 1975 Arquitectura y poblamiento. In Teotenango: El antiguo lugar de la muralla, edited by Chan Román Piña, pp. 117188. Dirección de Turismo, Gobierno del Estado de México, Mexico.
Ringle William M., and Bey George J. 1992 The Center and Segmentary State Dynamics. Paper presented at the Wenner-Gren Conference on the Segmentary State and the Classic Maya Lowlands, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH.
Ringle William M, Bey George J., and Carlos Peraza L. 1991 An Itza Empire in Northern Yucatan?: A Neighboring View. Paper presented at the Symposium “Chichen Itza: The Site and Its Environs,” 47th International Congress of Americanists, New Orleans, LA.
Robertson Donald 1970 The Tulum Murals: The International Style of the Late Post-Classic. Verhandlungen des XXXVIII. Internationalen Amerikanisten-kongresses, Band II, pp. 7788. Kommissionsverlag Klaus Renner, Munich, Germany.
Robertson Merle Greene 1986 Some Observations on the X'telhu Panels at Yaxcaba, Yucatan. In Research and Reflections in Archaeology and History: Essays in Honor of Doris Stone, edited by Andrews E. Wyllys V, pp. 87111. Publication No. 57. Middle American Research Institute, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Robles Castellanos Fernando 1987 La sequencia cerámica preliminar de Isla Ceritos, Costa Centro-Norte de Yucatan. In Papers from the 1985 Maya Ceramic Conference, edited by Rice Prudence M. and Sharer Robert J., pp. 99109. BAR International Series 345(i). British Archaeological Reports, Oxford.
Robles Castellanos Fernando 1990 La secuencia cerámica de la región de Cohá, Quintana Roo. Colección cientifica del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico.
Rojas Gabriel de 1927 [1581] Relación de Cholula. Revista Méxicana de Estudios Históricos 1:Apéndice:158169.
Ruppert Karl, Shook Edwin M., Smith A.L., and Smith Robert E. 1954 Chichen Itza, Dzibiac, and Balam Canche, Yucatan. In Carnegie Institution of Washington Yearbook No. 53, pp. 286289. Washington, DC.
Ruz Lhuillier Alberto 1952 Exploraciones en Palenque: 1951. Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia V:4766.
Ruz Lhuillier Alberto 1958 El juego de pelota de Uxmal. In Miscellanea Paul Rivet. XXI Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, vol. I, pp. 635667. Universidad Autónoma de México, Mexico.
Sabloff Jeremy A. 1973 Continuity and Disruption during Terminal Late Classic Times at Seibal: Ceramic and Other Evidence. In The Classic Maya Collapse, edited by Culbert T. Patrick, pp. 107132. School ofAmerican Research, Santa Fe, and University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Sabloff Jeremy A. 1975 Excavations at Seibal. Ceramics. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 13, No. 2. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Sáenz César A. 1961 Tres estelas en Xochicalco. Revista Méxicana de Estudios Antropológicos 17:3966.
Saenz César A. 1963 Exploraciones en la pirámide de las serpientes emplumadas, Xochicalco, Mor. Revista Mexicana de Estudios Antropológicos 19:726.
Sanders William T. 1981 Ecological Adaptation in the Basin of Mexico: 23,000 B.c. to the Present. In Handbook of Middle American Indians, Supplement 1: Archaeology, edited by Bricker Victoria R. and Sabloff Jeremy A., pp. 147197. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Santana Sandoval Andrés, and Torres Rosalba Delgadillo 1995 Cacaxtla durante Ia transición del período Clásico al Posclásico. In Antología de Cacaxtla, edited by Cook Angel García, Carrión Beatriz Leonor Merino, and Silva Lorena Mirambell, pp. 358368. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico. Originally published 1990.
Schele Linda, and Freidel David 1990 A Forest of Kings: The Untold Story ofthe Ancient Maya. William Morrow, New York.
Schele Linda, and Miller Mary Ellen 1986 The Blood ofKings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, TX.
Séjourné Laurette 1966a Arquitectura y pintura en Teotihuacán. Siglo Veintiuno, Mexico.
Séjourné Laurette 1966b El Universo de Quetzalcoatl. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Mexico.
Seler Eduard 1991a The Ruins of Xochicalco. In Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology, vol. II, edited by Richardson J.E.S. Thompson Francis, and Comparato Frank E., pp. 7093. Labyrinthos, Culver City, CA.
Seler Eduard 1991b Archaeological Results of My First Trip to Mexico. In Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology, vol. II, edited by Richardson J.E.S. Thompson Francis, and Comparato Frank E., pp. 155202. Labyrinthos, Culver City, CA.
Seler Eduard 1992 Excavations at the Site of the Principal Temple in Mexico. In Collected Works in Mesoamerican Linguistics and Archaeology, vol. III, edited by Richardson J.E.S. Thompson Francis, and Comparato Frank E., pp. 114193. Labyrinthos, Culver City, CA.
Sharp Rosemary 1978 Architecture as Interelite Communication in Preconquest Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Yucatan. In Middle Classic Mesoamerica, A.D. 400–700, edited by Pasztory Esther, pp. 158171. Columbia University Press, New York.
Sheehy James J. 1991 Structure and Change in a Late Classic Maya Domestic Group at Copan, Honduras. Ancient Mesoamerica 2:119.
Sheets Payson D., Ladd John M., and Bathgate David 1992 Chipped-Stone Artifacts. In Artifacts from the Cenote of Sacrifice, Chichen Itza, Yucatan, edited by Coggins Clemency C., pp. 153189. Memoirs ofthe Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 10, No. 3. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Smith A.L. 1982 Excavations at Seibal. Major Architecture and Caches. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 15, No. 1. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Smith Mary Elizabeth 1973 Picture Writing from Ancient Southern Mexico. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Smith Robert E. 1971 The Pottery of Mayapan. Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. 66. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Spinden Ellen S. 1933 The Place of Tajin in Totonac Archaeology. American Anthropologist 35:225270.
Stark Barbara L., and Curet L. Antonio 1994 The Development of the Classic-Period Mixtequilla in South-Central Veracruz, Mexico. Ancient Mesoamerica 5:267287.
Stark Barbara L., Heller Lynette, Glascock Michael D., Elam J. Michael, and Neff Hector 1992 Obsidian-Artifact Source Analysis for the Mixtequilla Region, South-Central Veracruz, Mexico. Latin American Antiquity 3:221239.
Stirling Mathew W. 1943 Stone Monuments of Southern Mexico. Bulletin No. 138. Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, DC.
Stone Andrea 1989 Disconnection, Foreign Insignia, and Political Expansion: Teotihuacan and the Warrior Stelae of Piedras Negras. In Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 153172. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Stuart David, and Houston Stephen D. 1994. Classic Maya Place Names. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art & Archaeology No. 33. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Stuart George E. 1989 Introduction: The Hieroglyphic Record of Chichen Itza and Its Neighbors. In Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing, preface to Nos. 2325. Center for Maya Research, Washington, DC.
Stuiver Minze, and Remier Paula J. 1987 CALIB Radiocarbon Calibration Program, version 1.3. Quaternary Isotope Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle.
Sugiyama Saburo 1989 Iconographic Interpretations of the Temple of Quetzalcoatl at Teotihuacan. Mexicon 11(4):6874.
Taladoire Eric, and Colsenet Benoit 1991 “Bois Ton Sang, Beaumanoir”: The Political and Conflictual Aspects of the Ballgame in the Northern Chiapas Area. In The Mesoamerican Ballgame, edited by Scarborough Vernon L. and Wilcox David R., pp. 161174. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Tamayo Jorge L., and West Robert C. 1964 The Hydrography of Middle America. In Natural Environment and Early Cultures, edited by West Robert C., pp. 84121. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. 1, Wauchope Robert, general editor. University of Texas Press, Austin.
Taube Karl A. 1992a The Iconography of Mirrors at Teotihuacan. In Art, Ideology, and the City of Teotihuacan, edited by Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 169204. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Taube Karl A. 1992b The Temple of Quetzalcoatl and the Cult of Sacred War at Teotihuacan. Res 21:5387.
Taube Karl A. 1992c The Major Gods of Ancient Yucatan. Studies in Pre-Columbian Art and Archaeology No. 32. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Thayer James S. 1992 Pilgrimage and Its Influence on West African Islam. In Sacred Journeys: The Anthropology of Pilgrimage, edited by Morinis Alan, pp. 169187. Greenwood Press, Westport, CT.
Thompson J. Eric S. 1948 An Archaeological Reconnaissance in the Cotzumalhuapa Region, Escuintla, Guatemala. Contributions to American Anthropology and History No. 44. Publication No. 574. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC.
Thompson J. Eric S. 1970 Maya History and Religion. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.
Tourtellot Gair III 1988 Excavations at Seibal. Peripheral Survey and Excavation: Settlement and Community Patterns. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum ofArchaeology and Ethnology Vol. 16. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Tozzer Alfred M. (editor and translator) 1941 Landa's Relación de las cosas de Yucatán. Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology Vol. XVIII. Cambridge, MA.
Tozzer Alfred M. (editor and translator) 1957 Chichen Itza and Its Cenote of Sacrifice. Memoirs of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology Vols. 11 and 12. Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Ernesto Vargas P. 1975 La cerámica. In Teotenango: el antiguo lugar de la muralla, edited by Chan Román Piña, pp. 189265. Dirección de Turismo, Gobierno del Estado de México, Mexico, DF.
von Winning Hasso 1961 Teotihuacan Symbols: The Reptile's Eye Glyph. Ethnos 26:121166.
Wagner Elisabeth 1995 The Dates of the High Priest Grave (“Osario”) Inscription, Chichen Itzá, Yucatán. Mexicon XVIII(1):1013.
Webb Malcolm C. 1975 The Flag Follows Trade: An Essay on the Necessary Interaction of Military and Commercial Factors in State Formation. In Ancient Civilization and Trade, edited by Sabloff Jeremy A. and Karlovsky CC. Lamberg, pp. 155209. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.
Werbner Richard P. 1977 Introduction. In Regional Cults, edited by Werbner R.P., pp. ix–xxxvii. Monograph No. 16. Association of Social Anthropologists. Academic Press, New York.
Wilkerson S. Jeffrey K. 1984 In Search of the Mountain of Foam: Human Sacrifice in Eastern Mesoamerica. In Ritual Human Sacrifice in Mesoamerica, edited by Boone Elizabeth H., pp. 101132. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Wilkerson S. Jeffrey K. 1987 El Tajin: A Guide for Visitors. Universidad Veracruzana, Papantla, Mexico.
Wilkerson S. Jeffrey K. 1991 And Then They Were Sacrificed: The Ritual Ballgame of North-eastern Mesoamerica through Time and Space. In The Mesoamerican Ballgame, edited by Scarborough Vernon L. and Wilcox David R., pp. 4572. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Winter Marcus C. 1989 From Classic to Post-Classic in Pre-Hispanic Oaxaca. In Mesoamerica after the Decline of Teotihuacan, A.D. 700–900, edited by Diehl Richard A. and Berlo Janet Catherine, pp. 123130. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, DC.
Wren Linnea 1994 Ceremonialism in the Reliefs of the North Temple, Chichen Itza. In Seventh Palenque Round Table, 1989, edited by Robertson Merle Greene and Fields Virginia M., pp. 2531. Pre-Columbian Art Research Institute, San Francisco.
Yadeun Juan 1992 Toniná: El laberinto del inframundo. Gobierno del Estado de Chiapas/Espejo de Obsidian, Mexico.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Ancient Mesoamerica
  • ISSN: 0956-5361
  • EISSN: 1469-1787
  • URL: /core/journals/ancient-mesoamerica
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 91 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 666 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.