Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 22
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Kinne, Jörg 2016. Avian Medicine.

    Komorizono, Ryo Makino, Akiko Horie, Masayuki Honda, Tomoyuki and Tomonaga, Keizo 2016. Sequence determination of a new parrot bornavirus-5 strain in Japan: implications of clade-specific sequence diversity in the regions interacting with host factors. Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 60, Issue. 6, p. 437.

    Pendl •, Helene and Tizard, Ian 2016. Current Therapy in Avian Medicine and Surgery.

    Torres-Castro, Marco Noh-Pech, Henry Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Edwin García-Rejón, Julián Machain-Williams, Carlos Zavala-Castro, Jorge and Puerto, Fernando I. 2016. First Serological Evidence of Borna Disease Virus in Healthy Horses from Yucatan, Mexico. Advances in Microbiology, Vol. 06, Issue. 07, p. 489.

    Backues, Kay A. 2015. Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 8.

    Bourque, Laura Laniesse, Delphine Beaufrère, Hugues Pastor, Adriana Ojkic, Davor and Smith, Dale A. 2015. Identification of avian bornavirus in a Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) with neurological disease. Avian Pathology, Vol. 44, Issue. 4, p. 323.

    Farrukh, A. and Mayberry, J. F. 2015. Achalasia: an epidemiology update. Esophagus, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 170.

    Guo, Jianhua Tizard, Ian Baroch, John Shivaprasad, H. L. and Payne, Susan L. 2015. Avian Bornaviruses in North American Gulls. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 51, Issue. 3, p. 754.

    Long, Maureen T. 2015. Equine Neurology.

    Sassa, Yukiko Bui, Vuong Nghia Saitoh, Keisuke Watanabe, Yukiko Koyama, Satoshi Endoh, Daiji Horie, Masayuki Tomonaga, Keizo Furuya, Tetsuya Nagai, Makoto Omatsu, Tsutomu Imai, Kunitoshi Ogawa, Haruko and Mizutani, Tetsuya 2015. Parrot bornavirus-2 and -4 RNA detected in wild bird samples in Japan are phylogenetically adjacent to those found in pet birds in Japan. Virus Genes, Vol. 51, Issue. 2, p. 234.

    Thomsen, Anders F. Nielsen, Jesper B. Hjulsager, Charlotte K. Chriél, Mariann Smith, Dale A. and Bertelsen, Mads F. 2015. Aquatic Bird Bornavirus 1 in Wild Geese, Denmark. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 21, Issue. 12, p. 2201.

    Delnatte, Pauline Nagy, Éva Ojkic, Davor Leishman, David Crawshaw, Graham Elias, Kyle and Smith, Dale A. 2014. AVIAN BORNAVIRUS IN FREE-RANGING WATERFOWL: PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AND CLOACAL SHEDDING OF VIRAL RNA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 50, Issue. 3, p. 512.

    Delnatte, Pauline Nagy, Éva Ojkic, Davor Crawshaw, Graham and Smith, Dale A. 2014. Investigation into the possibility of vertical transmission of avian bornavirus in free-ranging Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Avian Pathology, Vol. 43, Issue. 4, p. 301.

    Guo, Jianhua Payne, Susan Zhang, Shuping Turner, Debra Tizard, Ian and Suchodolski, Paulette 2014. Current Protocols in Microbiology.

    Guo, Jianhua Shivaprasad, H L Rech, Raquel R Heatley, Jill J Tizard, Ian and Payne, Susan 2014. Characterization of a new genotype of avian bornavirus from wild ducks. Virology Journal, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,

    He, Mei An, Tie-Zhu and Teng, Chun-Bo 2014. Evolution of mammalian and avian bornaviruses. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Vol. 79, p. 385.

    Kim, Jin-Hyun Lee, Bu-Heung Cho, Jae-Keun Yoon, Won-Koung Kim, Won Kim, Hee-Jung Kim, Eun-Mi Kim, Ki-Seuk and Park, Choi-Kyu 2014. First detection of avian bornavirus by RT-PCR in proventricular dilatation disease-suspected Hahns Macaw (Ara nobilis nobilis) in Korea. Korean Journal of Veterinary Service, Vol. 37, Issue. 1, p. 79.

    Wensman, Jonas Johansson Jäderlund, Karin Hultin Holst, Bodil Ström and Berg, Mikael 2014. Borna disease virus infection in cats. The Veterinary Journal, Vol. 201, Issue. 2, p. 142.

    Björnsdóttir, Sigríður Agustsdóttir, Elfa Blomström, Anne-Lie Öström, Inga-Lena Örde Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg Svansson, Vilhjálmur and Wensman, Jonas Johansson 2013. Serological markers of Bornavirus infection found in horses in Iceland. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, Vol. 55, Issue. 1, p. 77.

    Brandão, João and Beaufrère, Hugues 2013. Clinical Update and Treatment of Selected Infectious Gastrointestinal Diseases in Avian Species. Journal of Exotic Pet Medicine, Vol. 22, Issue. 2, p. 101.


Birds and bornaviruses

  • Susan L. Payne (a1), Pauline Delnatte (a2), Jianhua Guo (a1), J. Jill Heatley (a3), Ian Tizard (a1) and Dale A. Smith (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 20 December 2012

In 2008, avian bornaviruses (ABV) were identified as the cause of proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is a significant condition of captive parrots first identified in the late 1970s. ABV infection has subsequently been shown to be widespread in wild waterfowl across the United States and Canada where the virus infects 10–20% of some populations of ducks, geese and swans. In most cases birds appear to be healthy and unaffected by the presence of the virus; however, infection can also result in severe non-suppurative encephalitis and lesions similar to those seen in parrots with PDD. ABVs are genetically diverse with seven identified genotypes in parrots and one in canaries. A unique goose genotype (ABV-CG) predominates in waterfowl in Canada and the northern United States. ABV appears to be endemic in North American waterfowl, in comparison to what appears to be an emerging disease in parrots. It is not known whether ABV can spread between waterfowl and parrots. The discovery of ABV infection in North American waterfowl suggests that European waterfowl should be evaluated for the presence of ABV, and also as a possible reservoir species for Borna disease virus (BDV), a related neurotropic virus affecting horses and sheep in central Europe. Although investigations have suggested that BDV is likely derived from a wildlife reservoir, for which the shrew and water vole are currently prime candidates, we suggest that the existence of other mammalian and avian reservoirs should not be discounted.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A Ackermann , T Guelzow , P Staeheli , U Schneider and B Heimrich (2010). Visualizing viral dissemination in the mouse nervous system using a green fluorescent protein-expressing Borna disease viral vector. Journal of Virology 84: 54385442.

E Asash , M Malkinson , R Meir , S Perl and Y Weisman (1996). Causes of losses including a Borna disease paralytic syndrome affecting young ostriches of one breeding organization over a five-year period (1989–1993). Avian Diseases 40: 240245.

VA Belyi , AJ Levine and AM Skalka (2010). Unexpected inheritance: multiple integrations of ancient bornavirus and ebolavirus/marburgvirus sequences in vertebrate genomes. PLoS Pathogens 6: e1001030.

M Berg , M Johansson , H Montell and AL Berg (2001). Wild birds as a possible natural reservoir of Borna disease virus. Epidemiology and Infection 127: 173178.

Y Berhane , DA Smith , S Newman , M Taylor , E Nagy , B Binnington and B Hunter (2001). Peripheral neuritis in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease. Avian Pathology 30: 563570.

KM Carbone (2001). Borna disease virus and human disease. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 14: 513527.

PY Daoust , RJ Julian , CV Yason and H Artsob (1991). Proventricular impaction associated with nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis and ganglioneuritis in two Canada geese. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 27: 513517.

P Delnatte , C Berkvens , M Kummrow , DA Smith , D Campbell , G Crawshaw , D Ojkic and J DeLay (2011). New genotype of avian bornavirus in wild geese and trumpeter swans in Canada. Veterinary Record 169: 108.

AY Gancz , AL Kistler , AL Greninger , Y Farnoushi , S Mechani , S Perl , A Berkowitz , N Perez , S Clubb , JL DeRisi , D Ganem and A Lublin (2009). Experimental induction of proventricular dilatation disease in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) inoculated with brain homogenates containing avian bornavirus 4. Virology Journal 6: e100.

P Gray , S Hoppes , P Suchodolski , N Mirhosseini , S Payne , I Villanueva , HL Shivaprasad , KS Honkavuori , WI Lipkin , T Briese , SM Reddy and I Tizard (2010). Use of avian bornavirus isolates to induce proventricular dilatation disease in conures. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16: 473479.

S Herzog and R Rott (1980). Replication of Borna disease virus in cell cultures. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 168: 153158.

M Hilbe , R Herrsche , J Kolodziejek , N Nowotny , K Zlinszky and F Ehrensperger (2006). Shrews as reservoir hosts of Borna disease virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 675677.

KS Honkavuori , HL Shivaprasad , BL Williams , PL Quan , M Hornig , C Street , G Palacios , SK Hutchison , M Franca , M Egholm , T Briese and WI Lipkin (2008). Novel borna virus in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14: 18831886.

M Horie , T Honda , Y Suzuki , Y Kobayashi , T Daito , T Oshita , K Ikuta , P Jern , T Gojobori , JM Coffin and K Tomonaga (2010). Endogenous non-retroviral RNA virus elements in mammalian genomes. Nature 463: 8490.

A Katzourakis and RJ Gifford (2010). Endogenous viral elements in animal genomes. PLoS Genetics 6: 1001191.

PM Kinnunen , C Billich , C Ek-Kommonen , H Henttonen , ERK Kallio , J Niemimaa , A Palva , P Staeheli , A Vaheri and O Vapalahti (2007). Serological evidence for Borna disease virus infection in humans, wild rodents and other vertebrates in Finland. Journal of Clinical Virology 38: 6469.

AL Kistler , A Gancz , S Clubb , P Skewes-Cox , K Fischer , K Sorber , CY Chiu , A Lublin , S Mechani , Y Farnoushi , A Greninger , CC Wen , SB Karlene , D Ganem and JL DeRisi (2008). Recovery of divergent avian bornaviruses from cases of proventricular dilatation disease: identification of a candidate etiologic agent. Virology Journal 5: e88.

J Kolodziejek , R Durrwald , S Herzog , F Ehrensperger , H Lussy and N Nowotny (2005). Genetic clustering of Borna disease virus natural animal isolates, laboratory and vaccine strains strongly reflects their regional geographical origin. Journal of General Virology 86: 385398.

WI Lipkin , T Briese and M Hornig (2011). Borna disease virus – fact and fantasy. Virus Research 162: 162172.

TH Ludwig , H Becht and L Groh (1973). Borna disease (BD), a slow virus infection. Biological properties of the virus. Medical Microbiology and Immunology 158: 275289.

AL Lundgren (1992). Feline nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis: a clinical and pathological study. Journal of Comparative Pathology 107: 411425.

M Malkinson , Y Weisman , E Ashash , L Bode and H Ludwig (1993a). Borna disease in ostriches. Veterinary Record 133: 304.

Y Matsumoto , Y Hayashi , H Omori , T Honda , T Daito , M Horie , K Ikuta , K Fujino , S Nakamura , U Schneider , G Chase , T Yoshimori , M Schwemmle and K Tomonaga (2012). Bornavirus closely associates and segregates with host chromosomes to ensure persistent intranuclear infection. Cell Host and Microbe 11: 492503.

N Mirhosseini , PL Gray , S Hoppes , I Tizard , HL Shivaprasad and S Payne (2011). Proventricular dilatation disease in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) following infection with a genotype 2 avian bornavirus. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 25: 199204.

H Ogawa , N Sanada , M Kudo , K Tuchiya , T Kodama and K Uetsuka (2011). Proventricular dilatation disease associated with avian bornavirus Infection in a citron-crested cockatoo that was born and hand-reared in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 73: 837840.

O Narayan , S Herzog , K Frese , H Scheefers and R Rott (1983). Behavioral disease in rats caused by immunopathological responses to persistent Borna virus in the brain. Science 220: 14011403.

S Payne , HL Shivaprasad , N Mirhosseini , P Gray , S Hoppes , H Weissenbock and I Tizard (2011b). Unusual and severe lesions of proventricular dilatation disease in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) acting as healthy carriers of avian bornavirus (ABV) and subsequently infected with a virulent strain of ABV. Avian Pathology 40: 1522.

SL Payne , L Covaleda , G Jianhua , J Baroch , PJ Ferro , B Lupiani , JJ Heatley and I Tizard (2011a). Detection and characterization of a distinct bornavirus lineage from healthy Canada geese (Branta canadensis). Journal of Virology 85: 1205312056.

D Perpinan , H Fernandez-Bellon , C Lopez and A Ramis (2007). Lymphocytic myenteric, subepicardial and pulmonary ganglioneuritis in four nonpsittacine birds. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery 21: 210214.

AK Piepenbring , D Enderlein , S Herzog , EF Kaleta , U Heffels-Redmann , S Ressmeyer , C Herden and M Lierz (2012). Pathogenesis of avian bornavirus in experimentally infected cockatiels. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18: 234241.

R Raghav , M Taylor , J Delay , D Ojkic , DL Pearl , AL Kistler , JL Derisi , D Ganem and DA Smith (2010). Avian bornavirus is present in many tissues of psittacine birds with histopathologic evidence of proventricular dilatation disease. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 22: 495508.

JA Richt , I Pfeuffer , M Christ , K Frese , K Bechter and S Herzog (1997). Borna disease virus infection in animals and humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3: 343352.

M Rinder , A Ackermann , H Kempf , B Kaspers , R Korbel and P Staeheli (2009). Broad tissue and cell tropism of avian bornavirus in parrots with proventricular dilatation disease. Journal of Virology 83: 54015407.

D Rubbensroth , M Rinder , B Kaspers and P Staeheli (2012). Efficient isolation of avian bornavirus (ABV) from naturally infected psittacine birds and identification of a new ABV genotype from a salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis). Veterinary Microbiology July 10 161: 3642.

U Schneider , M Schwemmle and P Staeheli (2005). Genome trimming: a unique strategy for replication control employed by Borna disease virus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 102: 34413446.

P Staeheli , C Sauder , J Hausmann , F Ehrensperger and M Schwemmle (2000). Epidemiology of Borna disease virus. Journal of General Virology 81: 21232135.

P Staeheli , M Rinder and B Kaspers (2010). Avian bornavirus associated with fatal disease in psittacine birds. Journal of Virology 84: 62696275.

K Tomonaga and KM Carbone (2002). Borna disease virus: spanning a century of science. In: KM Carbone . (ed.) Borna Disease Virus and its Role in Neurobehavioral Disease. Washington, DC: ASM Press, pp. 121.

K Tomonaga , T Kobayashi and K Ikuta (2002). Molecular and cellular biology of Borna disease virus infection. Microbes and Infection 4: 491500.

I Villanueva , P Gray , N Mirhosseini , S Payne , S Hoppes , KS Honkavuori , T Briese , D Turner and I Tizard (2010). The diagnosis of proventricular dilatation disease: use of a Western blot assay to detect antibodies against avian Borna virus. Veterinary Microbiology 143: 196201.

H Weissenbock , T Bakonyi , K Sekulin , F Ehrensperger , RJ Doneley , R Durrwald , R Hoop , K Erdelyi , J Gal , J Kolodziejek and N Nowotny (2009a). Avian bornaviruses in psittacine birds from Europe and Australia with proventricular dilatation disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15: 14531459.

H Weissenbock , K Sekulin , T Bakonyi , S Högler and N Nowotny (2009b). Novel avian bornavirus in a nonpsittacine species (canary; Serinus canaria) with enteric ganglioneuritis and encephalitis. Journal of Virology 83: 1136711371.

H Weissenbock , K Fragner , N Nedorost , MM Mostegl , K Sekulin , A Maderner , T Bakonyi and N Nowotny (2010). Localization of avian bornavirus RNA by in situ hybridization in tissues of psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease. Veterinary Microbiology 145: 916.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *