Skip to main content
×
Home

The molecular biology of bovine immunodeficiency virus: a comparison with other lentiviruses

  • Marie-Claude St-Louis (a1), Mihaela Cojocariu (a1) and Denis Archambault (a1)
Abstract
Abstract

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was first isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome. The virus isolated induced the formation of syncytia in cell cultures and was structurally similar to maedi-visna virus. Twenty years later, it was demonstrated that the bovine R-29 isolate was indeed a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus. Like other lentiviruses, BIV has a complex genomic structure characterized by the presence of several regulatory/accessory genes that encode proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and, more particularly, molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins, in comparison with those of other lentiviruses.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*University of Québec at Montréal, Department of Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, CanadaH3C 3P8 E-mail: archambault.denis@uqam.ca
References
Hide All
Abed Y and Archambault D (2000). A viral transmembrane recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Virological Methods 85: 109116.
Abed Y, St-Laurent G, Zhang H, Jacobs RM and Archambault D (1999). Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 6: 168172.
Abelson ML and Schoborg RV (2003). Characterization of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) rev N-terminal elements required for efficient interaction with the RRE. Virus Research 92: 2335.
Agnarsdóttir G, Thorsteinsdottir H, Oskarsson T, Matthiasdottir S, St Haflidadottir B, Andresson OS and Andresdottir V (2000). The long terminal repeat is a determinant of cell tropism of maedi-visna virus. Journal of General Virology 81: 19011905.
Albrecht TR, Lund LH and Garcia-Blanco MA (2000). Canine cyclin T1 rescues equine infectious anemia virus tat trans-activation in human cells. Virology 268: 711.
Aldrovandi GM, Gao L, Bristol G and Zack JA (1998). Regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef required for function in vivo. Journal of Virology 72: 70327039.
Alkhatib G, Combadiere C, Broder CC, Feng Y, Kennedy PE, Murphy PM and Berger EA (1996). CC CKR5: MIP1-α, MIP1-β receptor as a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Science 272: 19551958.
Anderson S, Shugars DC, Swanstrom R and Garcia JV (1993). Nef from primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suppresses surface CD4 expression in human and mouse T cells. Journal of Virology 67: 49234931.
Atkinson B, Liu ZQ and Wood C (1992). Use of bacterial trpE fusion vectors to express and characterize the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus core protein. Journal of Virological Methods 36: 3549.
Barboric M, Taube R, Nekrep N, Fujinaga K and Peterlin BM (2000). Binding of Tat to TAR and recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b occur independently in bovine immunodeficiency virus. Jounal of Virology 74: 60396044.
Baron T, Malland F, Polack B, Bandemps D and Belli P (1995). The bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) is transcriptionally active in experimentally infected calves. Archives of Virology 140: 14611467.
Baron T, Bandemps D, Malland F, Cheynand V, Levy D and Belli P (1998). Detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infection in experimentally infected calves. Archives of Virology 43: 181189.
Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamarand S, Gruest J, Dauguet C, Axler-Blin C, Vezinand-Brun F, Rouzioux C, Rozenbaum W and Montagnier L (1983). Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220: 868871.
Battles JK, Hu MY, Rasmussen L, Tobin GJ and Gonda MA (1992). Immunological characterization of the gag gene products of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Virology 66: 68686877.
Belshan M, Harris ME, Shoemaker AE, Hope TJ and Carpenter S (1998). Biological characterization of Rev variation in equine infectious anemia virus. Journal of Virology 72: 44214426.
Belshan M, Baccam P, Oaks JL, Sponseller BA, Murphy SC, Cornette J and Carpenter S (2001). Genetic and biological variation in equine infectious anemia virus Rev correlates with variable stages of clinical disease in an experimentally infected pony. Virology 279: 185200.
Benko DM, Schartz S, Pavlakis GN and Felber BK (1990). A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, share sequences with tat, env and rev proteins. Journal of Virology 64: 25052518.
Bieniasz PD, Grdina TA, Bogerd HP and Cullen BR (1998). Recruitment of a protein complex containing Tat and cyclin T1 to TAR governs the species specificity of HIV-1 Tat. EMBO Journal 17: 70567065.
Bogerd HP, Wiegand HL, Bieniasz PD and Cullen BR (2000). Functional differences between human and bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat transcription factors. Journal of Virology 74: 46664671.
Borman AM, Quillent C, Charneau P, Dauguet C and Clavel F (1995). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif- mutant particles from restrictive cells: role of Vif in correct particle assembly and infectivity. Jounal of Virology 69: 20582067.
Bouillant AM, Ruckerbauer GM and Nielsen KH (1989). Replication of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in diploid and aneuploid cells: permanent, latent and virus-productive infections in vitro. Research in Virology 140: 511529.
Boyer PL, Ferris AL and Hughes SH (1992). Mutational analysis of the fingers domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. Journal of Virology 66: 75337537.
Braun MJ, Lahn S, Boyd AL, Kost TA, Nagashima K and Gonda MA (1988). Molecular cloning of biologically active proviruses of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 167: 515523.
Brice PC, Kelley AC and Butler PJ (1999). Sensitive in vitro analysis of HIV-1 Rev multimerization. Nucleic Acids Research 27: 20802085.
Burkala EJ, Ellis TM, Voigt V and Wilcox GE (1999). Serological evidence of an Australian bovine lentivirus. Veterinary Microbiology 68: 171177.
Burke DS (1997). Recombination in HIV: an important viral evolutionary strategy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3: 253259.
Carpenter S, Miller LD, Alexandersen S, Whetstone CA, VanDerMaaten MJ, Viuff B, Wannemuehler Y, Miller JM and Roth JA (1992). Characterization of early pathogenic effects after experimental infection of calves with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 66: 10741083.
Carpenter S, Nadin-Davis SA, Wannemuehler Y and Roth JA (1993). Identification of transactivation-response sequences in the long terminal repeat of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 67: 43994403.
Carpenter CC, Fischl MA, Hammer SM, Hirsch MS, Jacobsen DM, Katzenstein DA, Montaner JS, Richman DD, Saag MS, Schooley RT, Thompson MA, Vella S, Yeni PG and Volberding PA (1997). Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in 1997. Updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. Journal of the American Medical Association 277: 19621969.
Carpenter S, Vaughn EM, Yang J, Baccamp P, Roth JA and Wannemulher Y (2000). Antigenic and genetic stability of bovine immunodeficiency virus during long-term persistence in cattle experimentally infected with BIV (R29) isolate. Journal of General Virology 81: 14631472.
Carruth LM, Morse BA and Clements JE (1996). The leucine domain of the visna virus Tat protein mediates targeting to an AP-1 site in the viral long terminal repeat. Journal of Virology 70: 43384344.
Cavirani S, Donofrio G, Chiocco D, Foni E, Martelli P, Allegri G, Cabassi CS, De Iaco B and Flammini CF (1998). Seroprevalence to bovine immunodeficiency virus and lack of association with leukocyte counts in Italian dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 37: 147157.
Chadwick BJ, Coelen RJ, Wilcox GE, Sammels LM and Kertayadnya G (1995). Nucleotide sequence analysis of Jembrana disease virus: a bovine lentivirus associated with an acute disease syndrome. Journal of General Virology 76: 16371650.
Chatterji U, de Parseval A and Elder JH (2002). Feline immunodeficiency virus OrfA is distinct from other lentivirus transactivators. Journal of Virology 76: 96249634.
Chen L and Frankel AD (1994). An RNA-binding peptide from bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat protein recognizes an unusual RNA structure. Biochemistry 33: 27082715.
Chen L and Frankel AD (1995). A peptide interaction in the major groove of RNA resembles protein interactions in the minor groove of DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 50775081.
Chen BK, Gandhi RT and Baltimore D (1996). CD4 down-modulation during infection of human T cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves independent activities of vpu, env and nef. Journal of Virology 70: 60446053.
Chen D, Fong Y and Zhou Q (1999a). Specific interaction of Tat with the human but not rodent P-TEFb complex mediates the species-specific Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America 96: 27282733.
Chen H, Wilcox G, Kertayadnya G and Wood C (1999b). Characterization of the Jembrana disease virus tat gene and the cis-and trans-regulatory elements in its long terminal repeats. Journal of Virology 73: 658666.
Cheng SM, Blume M, Lee SG, Hung PP, Hirsch VM and Johnson PR (1990). Coexpression of biologically active simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Rev and Env in an SV40 system: the SIV rev gene regulates env expression. Virology 177: 816819.
Chirmule N and Pahwa S (1996). Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions. Microbiology Reviews 60: 386406.
Cho KO, Meas S, Park NY, Kim YH, Lim YK, Endoh D, Lee SI, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C and Onuma M (1999). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy and beef cattle herds in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Medical Sciences 61: 549551.
Clements JE and Zink MC (1996). Molecular biology and pathogenesis of animal lentivirus infections. Clinical Microbiology Review 9: 100117.
Cockerell GL, Jensen WA, Rovnak J, Ennis WH and Gonda MA (1992). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus and bovine leukemia virus in a dairy cattle herd. Veterinary Microbiology 31: 109116.
Colvin RA and Garcia-Blanco MA (1992). Unusual structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activation response element. Journal of Virology 2: 930935.
Cook KS, Fisk GJ, Hauber J, Usman N, Daly TJ and Rusche JR (1991). Characterization of HIV-1 REV protein: binding stoichiometry and minimal RNA substrate. Nucleic Acids Research 19: 15771583.
Cooper CR, Hanson LA, Diehl WJ, Pharr GT and Coats KS (1999). Natural selection of the Pol gene of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Virology 255: 294301.
Cujec TP, Cho H, Maldonado E, Meyer J, Reinberg D and Peterlin BM (1997a). The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Molecular and Cellular Biology 17: 18171823.
Cujec TP, Okamoto H, Fujinaga K, Meyer J, Chamberlin H, Morgan DO and Peterlin BM (1997b). The HIV transactivator TAT binds to the CDK-activating kinase and activates the phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Genes and Development 11: 26452657.
Cullen BR (1998). Retroviruses as model systems for the study of nuclear RNA export pathways. Virology 249: 203210.
Das C, Edgcomb SP, Peteranderl R, Chen L and Frankel AD (2004). Evidence for conformational flexibility in the Tat-TAR recognition motif of cyclin T1. Virology 318: 306317.
De Parseval A and Elder JH (1999). Demonstration that orf2 encodes the feline immunodeficiency virus transactivating (Tat) protein and characterization of a unique gene product with partial rev activity. Journal of Virology 73: 608617.
Derse D and Newbold SH (1993). Mutagenesis of EIAV TAT reveals structural features essential for transcriptional activation and TAR element recognition. Virology 194: 530536.
Derse D, Carvalho M, Carroll R and Peterlin BM (1991). A minimal lentivirus Tat. Journal of Virology 65: 70127015.
Desrosiers RC (2001). Nonhuman lentiviruses. In: Knipe DM and Howley , editors. Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 20952121.
Dillon PJ, Nelbock P, Perkins A and Rosen CA (1991). Structural and functional analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Rev protein. Journal of Virology 65: 445449.
Dorn P, DaSilva L, Martarano L and Derse D (1990). Equine infectious anemia virus tat: insights into the structure, function, and evolution of lentivirus trans-activator proteins. Journal of Virology 64: 16161624.
Efthymiadis A, Briggs LJ and Jans DA (1998). The HIV-1 Tat nuclear localization sequence confers novel nuclear import properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273: 16231628.
Emerman M and Malim MH (1998). HIV-1 regulatory/accessory genes: keys to unraveling viral and host cell biology. Science 280: 18801884.
Felber BK, Hadzopoulou-Cladaras M, Cladaras C, Copeland T and Pavlakis GN (1989). Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 affects the stability and transport of the viral mRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86: 14951499.
Feng S and Holland EC (1988). HIV-1 tat trans-activation requires the loop sequence within tar. Nature 334: 165168.
Fisher AG, Ensoli B, Ivanoff L, Chamberlain M, Petteway S, Ratner L, Gallo RC and Wong-Staal F (1987). The sor gene of HIV-1 is required for efficient virus transmission in vitro. Science 237: 888893.
Fong SE, Pallansch LA, Mikovits JA, Lackman-Smith CS, Ruscetti FW and Gonda MA (1995). Cis-acting regulatory elements in the bovine immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. Virology 209: 604614.
Fong SE, Greenwood JD, Williamson JC, Derse D, Pallansch LA, Copeland T, Rasmussen L, Mentzer A, Nagashima K, Tobin G and Gonda MA (1997). Bovine immunodeficiency virus tat gene: cloning of two distinct cDNAs and identification, characterization, and immunolocalization of the tat gene products. Virology 233: 339357.
Foster JL, Anderson SJ, Frazier AL and Garcia JV (1994). Specific suppression of human CD4 surface expression by Nef from the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239open. Virology 9: 373379.
Fouchier RA, Groenink M, Kootstra NA, Tersmette M, Huisman HG, Miedema F and Schuitemaker H (1992). Phenotype-associated sequence variation in the third variable domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 molecule. Journal of Virology 66: 31833187.
Fritz CC and Green MR (1996). HIV Rev uses a conserved cellular protein export pathway for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral RNAs. Current Biology 6: 848854.
Fujinaga K, Cujec TP, Peng J, Garriga J, Price DH, Grana X and Peterlin BM (1998). The ability of positive transcription elongation factor B to transactivate human immunodeficiency virus transcription depends on a functional kinase domain, cyclin T1, and Tat. Journal of Virology 72: 71547159.
Gabuzda DH, Lawrence K, Langhoff E, Terwilliger E, Dorfman T, Haseltine WA and Sodroski J (1992). Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Journal of Virology 66: 64896495.
Gaines H, von Sydow M, Sonnerborg A, Albert J, Czajkowski J, Pehrson PO, Chiodi F, Moberg L, Fenyo EM and Asjo B (1987). Antibody response in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. Lancet 1: 12491253.
Garber ME, Wei P, KewalRamani VN, Mayall TP, Herrmann CH, Rice AP, Littman DR and Jones KA (1998). The interaction between HIV-1 Tat and human cyclin T1 requires zinc and a critical cysteine residue that is not conserved in the murine CycT1 protein. Genes and Development 12: 35123527.
Garber ME, Mayall TP, Suess EM, Meisenhelder J, Thompson NE and Jones KA (2000). CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. Molecular and Cellular Biology 20: 69586969.
Garcia JV and Miller AD (1991). Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef. Nature 350: 508511.
Garcia-Martinez LF, Mavankal G, Neveu JM, Lane WS, Ivanov D and Gaynor RB (1997). Purification of a Tat-associated kinase reveals a TFIIH complex that modulates HIV-1 transcription. EMBO Jounal 16: 28362850.
Garvey KJ, Oberste MS, Elser JE, Braun MJ and Gonda MA (1990). Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of biologically active proviruses of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 175: 391409.
Gdovin SL and Clements JE (1992). Molecular mechanisms of visna virus Tat: identification of the targets for transcriptional activation and evidence for a post-transcriptional effect. Virology 188: 438450.
Geleziunas R, Bour S and Wainberg MA (1994). Cell surface down-modulation of CD4 after infection by HIV-1. FASEB Journal 8: 593600.
Gemeniano MC, Sawai ET, Leutenegger CM and Sparger EE (2003). Feline immunodeficiency virus ORF-Ais required for virus particle formation and virus infectivity. Journal of Virology 77: 88198830.
Geng Y, Kashanchi F and Wood C (1992). Activation of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus expression by bovine herpesvirus type 1. Virology 187: 832836.
Goff SP (2001) Retroviridae: The Retroviruses and their replication. In: Knipe DM and Howley , editors. Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 843911.
Gold MO, Yang X, Herrmann CH and Rice AP (1998). PITALRE, The catalytic subunit of TAK, is required for human immunodeficiency virus Tat transactivation in vivo. Journal of Virology 72: 44484453.
Golub EI, Li GG and Volsky DJ (1990). Differences in the basal activity of the long terminal repeat determine different replicative capacities of two closely related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. Journal of Virology 64: 36543660.
Gonda MA, Braun MJ, Carter SG, Kost TA, Bess JW, Arthur LO and Van Der Maaten MJ (1987). Characterization and molecular cloning of a bovine lentivirus related to the human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 330: 388391.
Gonda MA, Oberste MS, Garvey KJ, Pallansch LA, Battles JK, Pifat DY, Bess JW Jr and Nagashima K (1990). Development of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus as a model of lentivirus disease. Developments in Biological Standardization 72: 97110.
Gonda MA, Luther DG, Fong SE and Tobin GJ (1994). Bovine immunodeficiency virus: molecular biology and virus-host interactions. Virus Research 32: 155181.
Gradil CM, Watson RE, Renshaw RW, Gilbert RO and Dubovi EJ (1999). Detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus DNA in the blood and semen of experimentally infected bulls. Veterinary Microbiology 70: 2131.
Greenbaum NL (1996). How Tat targets TAR: structure of the BIV peptide-RNA complex. Structure 4: 59.
Gunnery S, Green SR and Mathews MB (1992). Tat-responsive region RNA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 stimulates protein synthesis in vivo and in vitro: relationship between structure and function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 23: 1155711561.
Guo X, Hu J, Whitney JB, Russell RS and Liang C (2004). Important role for the CA-NC spacer region in the assembly of bovine immunodeficiency virus Gag protein. Journal of Virology 8: 5160.
Guy B, Kieny MP, Riviere Y, Le Peuch C, Dott K, Girard M, Montagnier L and Lecocq JP (1987). HIV F/3' orf encodes a phosphorylated GTP-binding protein resembling an oncogene product. Nature 330: 266269.
Harmache A, Vitu C, Russo P, Bouyac M, Hieblot C, Peveri P, Vigne R and Suzan M (1995). The caprine arthritis encephalitis virus tat gene is dispensable for efficient viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Virology 69: 445454.
Henderson BR and Percipalle P (1997). Interactions between HIV Rev and nuclear import and export factors: the Rev nuclear localisation signal mediates specific binding to human importin-beta. Journal of Molecular Biology 274: 693707.
Herrmann CH and Rice AP (1995). Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactor. Journal of Virology 69: 16121620.
Hiebenthal-Millow K, Greenough TC, Bretttler DB, Schindler M, Wildum S, Sullivan JL and Kirchhoff F (2003). Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression. Virology 317: 109118.
Hindmarsh P and Leis J (1999). Retroviral DNA integration. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 63: 836843.
Hirai N, Kabeya H, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C and Onuma M (1996a). Immunomodulative effects of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV)-infection and mixed infection of BIV and bovine leukemia virus on sheep. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 44: 153163.
Hirai N, Kabeya H, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C and Onuma M (1996b) Detection of antibodies against bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in daily cattle in Hokkaido. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 58: 455457.
Hoffman DW and White SW (1995). NMR analysis of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA element of equine infectious anemia virus. Nucleic Acids Research 23: 40584065.
Hope TJ (1999). The ins and outs of HIV Rev. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 365: 186191.
Hsiou Y, Ding J, Das K, Clark AD Jr, Boyer PL, Lewi P, Janssen PA, Kleim JP, Rosner M, Hughes Sh and Arnold E (2001). The Lys103Asn mutation of HIV-1 RT: a novel mechanism of drug resistance. Journal of Molecular Biology 309: 437445.
Hua J, Caffrey JJ and Cullen BR (1996). Functional consequences of natural sequence variation in the activation domain of HIV-1 Rev. Virology 222: 423429.
Ippolito JA and Steitz TA (2000). The structure of the HIV-1 RRE high affinity rev binding site at 1.6 A resolution. Journal of Molecular Biology 295: 711717.
Isaacson JA, Roth JA, Wood C and Carpenter S (1995). Loss of Gag-specific antibody reactivity in cattle experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Viral Immunology 8: 2736.
Isel C and Karn J (1999). Direct evidence that HIV-1 Tat stimulates RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain hyperphosphorylation during transcriptional elongation. Journal of Molecular Biology 90: 929941.
Jackson MK, Knowles DP, Stem TA, Harwood WG, Robinson MM and Cheevers WP (1991). Genetic structure of the pol-env region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus genome. Virology 180: 389394.
Jacobs RM, Smith HE, Whestone CA, Suarez DL and Jefferson B and Valli VF (1994). Haematological and lymphocyte subset analyses in sheep inoculated with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Veterinary Research Communications 18: 471482.
Jacobs RM, Pollari FL, McNab WB and Jefferson B (1995). A serological survey of bovine syncytial virus in Ontario: associations with bovine leukemia and immunodeficiency-like viruses, production records, and management practices. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 59: 271278.
Jeang KT, Xiao H and Rich EA (1999). Multifaceted activities of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription, Tat. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 88378840.
Jeong KS, Nam YS and Venkatesan S (2000). Deletions near the N-terminus of HIV-1 Rev reduce RNA binding affinity and dominantly interfere with Rev function irrespective of the RNA target. Archives of Virology 145: 24432467.
Kalinski H, Mashiah P, Rotem D, Orzech Y, Sherman L, Miki T, Yaniv A, Gazit A and Tronick SR (1994). Characterization of cDNAs species encoding the Tat protein of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Virology 204: 828834.
Kalvatchev Z, Walder R, Barrios M and Garzaro D (1995). Acquired immune dysfunction in rabbits experimentally infected with an infectious molecular clone of the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV127). Viral Immunology 8: 5964.
Kalvatchev Z, Walder R, Perez F, Garzaro D and Barrios M (1998). Infection of rabbits with R29 strain of bovine immunodeficiency virus: virulence, immunosuppression, and progressive mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Viral Immunology 11: 5966.
Kalvatchev Z, Walder R, Garzaro D and Barrios M (2000). Detection of genetic diversity among bovine immunodeficiency virus population by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Viral Immunology 13: 373381.
Kan NC, Franchini G, Wong-Staal F, DuBois GC, Robey WG, Lautenberger JA and Papas TS (1986). Identification of HTLV-III/LAV sor gene product and detection of antibodies in human sera. Science 231: 15531555.
Kao S, Akari H, Khan MA, Dettenhofer M, Yu XF and Strebel K (2003). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif is efficiently packaged into virions during productive but not chronic infection. Journal of Virology 77: 11311140.
Karn J (1999). Tackling Tat. Journal of Molecular Biology 293: 235254.
Kashanchi F, Liu ZQ, Atkinson B and Wood C (1991). Comparative evaluation of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infection by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 31: 197209.
Kawaguchi Y, Maeda K, Pecoraro MR, Inoshima Y, Jang HK, Kohmoto M, Iwatsuki K, Ikeda Y, Shimojima M and Tohya Y (1995). The feline herpesvirus type 1 ICP4 down-regulates feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed gene expression via the C/EBP site in the LTR. Jounal of Veterinary Medical Science 57: 11291131.
Kempster S, Collins ME and Brownlie J (2002). Tat protein expression in MDBK cells does not confer susceptibility to bovine immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Virology 147: 643649.
Krebs FC, Mehrens D, Pomeroy S, Goodenow MM and Wigdahl B (1998). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat quasispecies differ in basal transcription and nuclear factor recruitment in human glial cells and lymphocytes. Journal of Biomedical Science 5: 3144.
Kristbjornsdottir HB, Andresdottir V, Svansson V, Torsteinsdottir S and Matthiasdottir S, Andresson OS (2004). The vif gene of maedi-visna virus is essential for infectivity in vivo and in vitro. Virology 318: 350359.
Kwak YT, Ivanov D, Guo J, Nee E and Gaynor RB (1999). Role of the human and murine cyclin T proteins in regulating HIV-1 tat-activation. Journal of Molecular Biology 288: 5769.
Lavallee C, Yao XJ, Ladha A, Gottlinger H, Haseltine WA and Cohen EA (1994). Requirement of the Pr55gag precursor for incorporation of the Vpr product into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral particles. Journal of Virology 68: 19261934.
Lechner F, Machado J, Bertoni G, Seow HF, Dobbelaere DA and Peterhans E (1997). Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus dysregulates the expression of cytokines in macrophages. Journal of Virology 71: 74887497.
Lee TH, Coligan JE, Allan JS, McLane MF, Groopman JE and Essex M (1986). A new HTLV-III/LAV protein encoded by a gene found in cytopathic retroviruses. Science 231: 15461549.
Lim AC and Barton JK (1997). Targeting the Tat-binding site of bovine immunodeficiency virus TAR RNA with a shape-selective rhodium complex. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 5: 11311136.
Liu ZQ, Sheridan D and Wood C (1992). Identification and characterization of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus tat gene. Journal of Virology 66: 51375140.
Love DC, Sweitzer TD and Hanover JA (1998). Reconstitution of HIV-1 rev nuclear export: independent requirements for nuclear import and export. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 1060810613.
Lu YL, Spearman P and Ratner L (1993). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R localization in infected cells and virions. Journal of Virology 67: 65426550.
Lu M, Zheng L, Mitchell K, Kapil S, Wood C and Minocha H (2002). Unique epitope of bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein spans the cleavage site between p16 (MA) and p2L. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9: 12771281.
Lustig B, Bahar I and Jernigan RL (1998). RNA bulge entropies in the unbound state correlate with peptide binding strengths for HIV-1 and BIV TAR RNA because of improved conformational access. Nucleic Acids Research 26: 52125217.
Malmquist WA, Van der Maaten MJ and Boothe AD (1969). Isolation, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy of a syncytial virus of lymphosarcomatous and apparently normal cattle. Cancer Research 29: 188200.
Mancebo HS, Lee G, Flygare J, Tomassini J, Luu P, Zhu Y, Peng J, Blau C, Hazuda D, Price D and Flores O (1997). P-TEFb kinase is required for HIV Tat transcriptional activation in vivo and in vitro. Genes and Development 20: 26332644.
Mansky LM (1998). Retrovirus mutation rates and their role in genetic variation. Journal of General Virology 79: 13371345.
Martin SJ, O'Neill TP, Bilello JA and Eiseman JL (1991). Lymphocyte transformation abnormalities in bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infected calves. Immunology Letters 27: 8184.
Martins LP, Chenciner N, Asjo B, Meyerhans A and Wain-Hobson S (1991). Independent fluctuation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev and gp41 quasispecies in vivo. Journal of Virology 65: 45024507.
McNab WB, Jacobs RM and Smith HE (1994). A serological survey for bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in Ontario dairy cattle and association between test results, production records and management practices. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 58: 3641.
Meas S, Kabeya H, Yoshihara S, Ohashi K, Matsuki S, Mikami Y, Sugimoto C and Onuma M (1998). Seroprevalence and field isolation of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 60: 11951202.
Meas S, Ohashi K, Tum S, Chhin M, Te K, Miura K, Sugimoto C and Onuma M (2000a). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 779781.
Meas S, Sando J, Sugimoto C, Bakhsh M, Riaz M, Sato T, Naeem K, Ohashi K and Onuma M (2000b). Infection of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in water buffalo and cattle populations in Pakistan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 329339.
Meas S, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C and Onuma M (2001). Phylogenetic relationships of bovine immunodeficiency virus in cattle and buffaloes based on surface envelope gene sequences. Archives of Virology 146: 10371045.
Meas S, Usui T, Ohashi K, Sugimoto C and Onuma M (2002). Vertical transmission of bovine leukemia virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy cattle herds. Veterinary Microbiology 84: 275282.
Mhashilkar AM, Bagley J, Chen SY, Szilvay AM, Helland DG and Marasco WA (1997). Inhibition of HIV-1 Tat-mediated LTR transactivation and HIV-1 infection by anti-Tat single chain intrabodies. EMBO Journal 14: 15421551.
Mikaelian I, Krieg M, Gait MJ and Karn J (1996). Interactions of INS (CRS) elements and the splicing machinery regulate the production of Rev-responsive mRNAs. Journal of Molecular Biology 257: 246264.
Milich L, Margolin B and Swanstrom R (1993). V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env protein: interpreting sequence variability. Journal of Virology 67: 5623–3634.
Molina RP, Matukonis M, Paszkiet B, Zhang J, Kaleko M and Luo T (2002). Mapping of the bovine immunodeficiency virus packaging signal and RRE and incorporation into a minimal gene transfer vector. Virology 304: 1023.
Moody CA, Pharr GT, Murphey J, Hughlett MB, Weaver CC, Nelson PD and Coats KS (2002). Confirmation of vertical transmission of bovine immunodeficiency virus in naturally infected dairy cattle using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 14: 113119.
Moore EC, Keil D and Coats KS (1996). Thermal inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 42804283.
Moras D and Poterszman A (1996). Getting into the major groove. Protein-RNA interactions. Current Biology 6: 530532.
Morse BA, Carruth LM and Clements JE (1999). Targeting of the visna virus tat protein to AP-1 sites: interactions with the bZIP domains of fos and jun in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Virology 73: 3745.
Muluneh A (1994). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency-virus (BIV) antibodies in the cattle population in Germany. Zentralblattfür Veterinarmedizin 41: 679684.
Munro R, Lysons R, Venables C, Horigan M, Jeffrey M and Dawson M (1998). Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112). Journal of Comparative Pathology 119: 121134.
Nagashunmugam T, Velpandi A, Otsuka T, Cartas M and Srinivasan A (1992). Analysis of the viral determinants underlying replication kinetics and cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus. Pathobiology 60: 234245.
Najera I, Holguin A, Quinones-Mateu ME, Munoz-Fernandez MA, Najera R, Lopez-Galindez C and Domingo E (1995). Pol gene quasispecies of human immunodeficiency virus: mutations associated with drug resistance in virus from patients undergoing no drug therapy. Journal of Virology 69: 2331.
Nam YS, Petrovic A, Jeong KS and Venkatesan S (2001). Exchange of the basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev for a polyarginine stretch expands the RNA binding specificity, and a minimal arginine cluster is required for optimal RRE RNA binding affinity, nuclear accumulation, and trans-activation. Journal of Virology 75: 29572971.
Nash JW, Hanson LA and St Cyr Coats K (1995a). Bovine immunodeficiency virus in stud bull semen. American Journal of Veterinary Research 6: 760763.
Nash JW, Hanson LA and St Cyr Coats K (1995b). Detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in blood and milk-derived leukocytes by use of polymerase chain reaction. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 445449.
Oberste MS, Greenwood JD and Gonda MA (1991). Analysis of the transcription pattern and mapping of the putative rev and env splice junctions of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 65: 39323937.
Oberste MS, Williamson JC, Greenwood JD, Nagashima K, Copeland TD and Gonda MA (1993). Characterization of bovine immunodeficiency virus rev cDNAs and identification and subcellular localization of the Rev protein. Journal of Virology 67: 63956405.
Okamoto H, Sheline CT, Corden JL, Jones KA and Peterlin BM (1996). Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93: 1157511579.
Okamoto M, Okamoto T and Baba M (1999). Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 6: 492497.
Onuma M, Koomoto E, Furuyama H, Yasutomi Y, Taniyama H, Iwai H and Kawakami Y (1992). Infection and dysfunction of monocytes induced by experimental inoculation of calves with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 5: 10091015.
Pallansch LA, Lackman-Smith CS and Gonda MA (1992). Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus encodes factors which trans activate the long terminal repeat. Journal of Virology 66: 26472652.
Pancio HA, Vander Heyden N and Ratner L (2000). The C-terminal proline-rich tail of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx is necessary for nuclear localization of the viral preintegration complex in nondividing cells. Journal of Virology 74: 61626167.
Paxton WG, Runge M, Horaist C, Cohen C, Alexander RW and Bernstein KE (1993). Immunohistochemical localization of rat angiotensin II AT1 receptor. American Journal of Physiology 264: 989995.
Peloponese JM Jr, Collette Y, Gregoire C, Bailly C, Campese D, Meurs EF, Olive D and Loret EP (1999). Full peptide synthesis, purification, and characterization of six Tat variants. Differences observed between HIV-1 isolates from Africa and other continents. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 1147311478.
Phillips TR, Lamont C, Konings DA, Shacklett BL, Hamson CA, Luciw PA and Elder JH (1992). Identification of the Rev transactivation and Rev-responsive elements of feline immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Virology 66: 54645471.
Pieniazek D, Rayfield M, Hu DJ, Nkengasong J, Wiktor SZ, Downing R, Biryahwaho B, Mastro T, Tanuri A, Soriano V, Lal R and Dondero T (2000). Protease sequences from HIV-1 group M subtypes A-H reveal distinct amino acid mutation patterns associated with protease resistance in protease inhibitor-naive individuals worldwide. HIV Variant Working Group. AIDS 14: 14891495.
Pifat DY, Ennis WH, Ward JM, Oberste MS and Gonda M (1992). Persistent infection of rabbits with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 66: 45184524.
Piguet V and Trono D (1999). The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses. Reviews in Medical Virology 9: 111120.
Ping YH and Rana TM (1999). Tat-associated kinase (p-TEFb): a component of transcription preinitiation and elongation complexes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 73997404.
Polack B, Schwartz I, Berthelemy M, Belloc C, Manand G, Vuillaume A, Baron T, Gonda MA and Levy D (1996). Serologic evidence for bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in France. Veterinary Microbiology 48: 165173.
Puglisi JD, Chen L, Blanchard S and Frankel AD (1995). Solution structure of a bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat-TAR peptide-RNA complex. Science 270: 12001203.
Rabson AB, Hamagishi Y, Steele PE, Tykocinski M and Martin MA (1985). Characterization of human endogenous retroviral envelope RNA transcripts. Journal of Virology 56: 176182.
Rasmussen L, Battles JK, Ennis WH, Nagashima K and Gonda MA (1990). Characterization of virus-like particles produced by a recombinant baculovirus containing the gag gene of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 178: 435451.
Rasmussen L, Greenwood J and Gonda MA (1992). Expression of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Virology 186: 551561.
Ruben S, Perkins A, Purcell R, Joung K, Sia R, Burghoff R, Haseltine WA and Rosen CA (1989). Structural and functional characterization of human immunodeficiency virus tat protein. Journal of Virology 63: 18.
Rubio A, Leal M, Pineda JA, Caruz A, Luque F, Rey C, Sanchez-Quijano A and Lissen E (1997). Increase in the frequency of mutation at codon 215 associated with zidovudine resistance in HIV-1-infected antiviral-naive patients from 1989 to 1996. AIDS 11: 11841186.
Salfeld J, Gottlinger HG, Sia RA, Park RE, Sodroski JG and Haseltine WA (1990). A tripartite HIV-1 tat-env-rev fusion protein. EMBO Journal 9: 965970.
Saltarelli MJ, Schoborg R, Gdovin SL and Clements JE (1993). The CAEV tat gene trans-activates the viral LTR and is necessary for efficient viral replication. Virology 197: 3544.
Sanfridson A, Cullen BR and Doyle C (1994). The simian immunodeficiency virus Nef protein promotes degradation of CD4 in human T cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269: 917920.
Schoborg RV and Clements JE (1996). Definition of the RRE binding and activation domains of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Rev protein. Virology 226: 113121.
Schoborg RV, Saltarelli MJ and Clements JE (1994). A Rev protein is expressed in caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-infected cells and is required for efficient viral replication. Virology 202: 115.
Scobie L, Venables C, Sayers AR, Weightman S and Jarrett O (2001). Prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in cattle in Great Britain. Veterinary Record 149: 459460.
Smith HE and Jacobs RM (1993). Serological evidence of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infection in a sheep. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 57: 305306.
Smith HE, Jacobs RM and Mallard B (1994). Cell-mediated and humoral immunity in sheep exposed to bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 17: 2939.
Snider TG, Hoyt PG, Jenny BF, Coats KS, Luther DG, Storts RW, Battles JK and Gonda MA (1997). Natural and experimental bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 13: 151176.
Sodroski J, Goh WC, Rosen C, Campbell K and Haseltine WA (1986). Role of the HTLV-III/LAV envelope in syncytium formation and cytopathicity. Nature 322: 470474.
Sommerfelt MA (1999). Retrovirus receptors. Journal of General Virology 80: 30493064.
Southgate CD and Green MR (1995). Delineating minimal protein domains and promoter elements for transcriptional activation by lentivirus tat proteins. Journal of Virology 69: 26052610.
StCyr Coats K, Pruett SB, Nash JW and Cooper CR (1994). Bovine immunodeficiency virus: incidence of infection in Mississippi dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 42: 181189.
Strebel K, Daugherty D, Clouse K, Cohen D, Folks T and Martin MA (1987). The HIV ‘A’ (sor) gene product is essential for virus infectivity. Nature 328: 728738.
Suarez DL and Whetstone CA (1995). Identification of hypervariable and conserved regions in the surface envelope gene in the bovine lentivirus. Virology 212: 728733.
Suarez DL and Whetstone CA (1997). Size variation within the second hypervariable region of the surface envelope gene of the bovine lentivirus BIV in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. Journal of Virology 71: 24822486.
Suarez DL, Van Der Maaten MJ, Wood C and Whetstone CA (1993). Isolation and characterization of new wild-type isolates of bovine lentivirus Journal of Virology 67: 50515055.
Suarez DL, Van der Maaten MJ and Whetstone CA (1995). Improved early and long-term detection of bovine lentivirus by a nested polymerase chain reaction test in experimentally infected calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 579586.
Subbramanian RA and Cohen EA (1994). Molecular biology of the human immunodeficiency virus accessory proteins. Journal of Virology 68: 68316835.
Sune C, Goldstrohm AC, Peng J, Price DH and Garcia-Blanco MA (2000). An in vitro transcription system that recapitulates equine infectious anemia virus tat-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat activity demonstrates a role for positive transcription elongation factor b and associated proteins in the mechanism of Tat activation. Virology 274: 356366.
Taube R, Fujinaga K, Wimmer J, Barboric M and Peterlin M (1999). Tat transactivation: A model for the regulation of eucaryotic transcriptional elongation. Virology 264: 245253.
Taube R, Fujinaga K, Irwin D, Wimmer J, Geyer M and Peterlin BM (2000). Interactions between equine cyclin T1, Tat, and TAR are disrupted by a leucine-to-valine substitution found in human cyclin T1. Journal of Virology 74: 892899.
Thomas SL, Oft M, Jaksche H, Casari G, Heger P, Dobrovnik M, Bevec D and Hauber J (1998). Functional analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein oligomerization interface. Journal of Virology 72: 29352944.
Tiley LS, Brown PH, Le SY, Maizel JV, Clements JE and Cullen BR (1990). Visna virus encodes a post-transcriptional regulator of viral structural gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87: 74977501.
Tiley LS, Malim MH and Cullen BR (1991). Conserved functional organization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and visna virus Rev proteins. Journal of Virology 65: 3877–81.
Tiley LS, Malim MH, Tewary HK, Stockley PG and Cullen BR (1992). Identification of a high-affinity RNA-binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America 89: 758762.
Tobin GJ, Sowder RC, Fabris D, Hu MY, Battles JK, Fenselau C, Henderson LE and Gonda MA (1994). Amino acid sequence analysis of the proteolytic cleavage products of the bovine immunodeficiency virus Gag precursor polypeptide. Journal of Virology 11: 76207627.
Truyen U, Parrish CR, Harder TC and Kaaden OR (1995). There is nothing permanent except change. The emergence of new virus diseases. Veterinary Microbiology 43: 103122.
Turelli P, Guiguen F, Mornex JF, Vigne R and Querat G (1997). dUTPase-minus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is attenuated for pathogenesis and accumulates G-to-A substitutions. Journal of Virology 71: 45224530.
Van Der Maaten MJ, Boothe AD and Seger CL (1972). Isolation of a virus from cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 49: 16491657.
Van Der Maaten MJ and Whetstone CA (1992). Infection of rabbits with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Veterinary Microbiology 30: 125135.
Venables C, Lysons R, Horigan M, Stagg D and Dawson M (1997). Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus: inactivation in milk by pasteurisation. Veterinary Record 140: 275277.
Vergne L, Peeters M, Mpoudi-Ngole E, Bourgeois A, Liegeois F, Toure-Kane C, Mboup S, Mulanga-Kabeya C, Saman E, Jourdan J, Reynes J and Delaporte E (2000). Genetic diversity of protease and reverse transcriptase sequences in non-subtype-B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains: evidence of many minor drug resistance mutations in treatment-naive patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38: 39193925.
Von Schwedler U, Song J, Aiken C and Trono D (1993). Vif is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral DNA synthesis in infected cells. Journal of Virology 67: 49454955.
Walder R, Kalvatchev Z, Tobin GJ, Barrios MN, Garzaro DJ and Gonda MA (1995). Possible role of bovine immunodeficiency virus in bovine paraplegic syndrome: evidence from immunochemical, virological and seroprevalence studies. Research in Virology 46: 313323.
Walder R, Kalvatchev L, Perez F, Garzaro D and Barrios M (2001). Bovine immunodeficiency virus in experimentally infected rabbit: tropism for lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 24: 120.
Wareing S, Hartaningsih N, Wilcox GE and Penhale WJ (1999). Evidence for immunosuppression associated with Jembrana disease virus infection of cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 68: 179185.
Whetstone CA, Van Der Maaten MJ and Black JW (1990). Humoral immune response to the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. Journal of Virology 64: 35573561.
Whetstone CA, Van Der Maaten MJ and Miller JM (1991). A western blot assay for the detection of antibodies to bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in experimentally inoculated cattle, sheep, and goats. Archives of Virology 116: 119131.
Whetstone CA, Sayre KR, Dock NL, Van Der Maaten MJ, Miller JM, Lillehoj E and Alexander SS (1992). Examination of whether persistently indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western immunoblot reactions are due to serological reactivity with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30: 764770.
Wilcox GE, Chadwick BJ and Kertayadnya G (1995). Recent advances in the understanding of Jembrana disease. Veterinary Microbiology 46: 249255.
Willbold D, Kruger U, Frank R, Rosin-Arbesfeld R, Gazit A, Yaniv A and Rosch P (1993). Sequence-specific resonance assignments of the 1H-NMR spectra of a synthetic, biologically active EIAV Tat protein. Biochemistry 32: 84398445.
Willbold D, Rosin-Arbesfeld R, Sticht H, Frank R and Rosch P (1994). Structure of the equine infectious anemia virus Tat protein. Science 264: 15841587.
Willbold D, Metzger AU, Sticht H, Gallert KC, Voit R, Dank N, Bayer P, Krauss G, Goody RS and Rosch P (1998). Equine infectious anemia virus transactivator is a homeodomain-type protein. Journal of Molecular Biology 277: 749755.
Willey RL, Maldarelli F, Martin MA and Strebel K (1992). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces rapid degradation of CD4. Journal of Virology 66: 71937200.
Wolfs TF, Nara PL and Goudsmit J (1993). Genotypic and phenotypic variation of HIV-1: impact on AIDS pathogenesis and vaccination. Chemical Immunology 56: 133.
Wright SM, Mleczko A and Coats KS (2002). Bovine immunodeficiency virus expression in vitro is reduced in the presence of beta-chemokines, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and Rantes. Veterinary Research Communications 26: 239250.
Wu L, Paxton WA, Kassam N, Ruffing N, Rottman JB, Sullivan N, Choe H, Sodroski J, Newman W, Koup RA and Mackay CR (1997). CCR5 levels and expression pattern correlate with infectability by macrophage-tropic HIV-1, in vitro. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 16811691.
Yankulov K and Bentley D (1998). Transcriptional control: Tat cofactors and transcriptional elongation. Current Biology 8: 447449.
Ye X, Kumar RA and Patel DJ (1995). Molecular recognition in the bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat peptide-TAR RNA complex. Chemistry and Biology 12: 827840.
Zapp ML, Hope TJ, Parslow TG and Green MR (1991). Oligomerization and RNA binding domains of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein: a dual function for an arginine-rich binding motif. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88: 77347738.
Zhang MJ and Dayton AI (1998). Tolerance of diverse amino acid substitutions at conserved positions in the nuclear export signal (NES) of HIV-1 Rev. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 243: 113116.
Zhang S, Wood C, Xue W, Krukenberg SM, Chen Q and Minocha HC (1997a). Immune suppression in calves with bovine immunodeficiency virus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 4: 232235.
Zhang S, Troyer DL, Kapil S, Zheng L, Kennedy G, Weiss M, Xue W, Wood C and Minocha HC (1997b). Detection of proviral DNA of bovine immunodeficiency virus in bovine tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR in situ hybridization. Virology 236: 249257.
Zhang J, Tamilarasu N, Hwang S, Garber ME, Huq I, Jones KA and Rana TM (2000). HIV-1 TAR RNA enhances the interaction between Tat and cyclin T1. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 3431434319.
Zhou Q, Chen D, Pierstorff E and Luo K (1998). Transcription elongation factor P-TEFb mediates Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription at multiple stages. EMBO Journal 17: 36813691.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 25 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 701 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.