Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The molecular biology of bovine immunodeficiency virus: a comparison with other lentiviruses

  • Marie-Claude St-Louis (a1), Mihaela Cojocariu (a1) and Denis Archambault (a1)
Abstract

Bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was first isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome. The virus isolated induced the formation of syncytia in cell cultures and was structurally similar to maedi-visna virus. Twenty years later, it was demonstrated that the bovine R-29 isolate was indeed a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus. Like other lentiviruses, BIV has a complex genomic structure characterized by the presence of several regulatory/accessory genes that encode proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and, more particularly, molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins, in comparison with those of other lentiviruses.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*University of Québec at Montréal, Department of Biological Sciences, P.O. Box 8888, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montréal, Québec, CanadaH3C 3P8 E-mail: archambault.denis@uqam.ca
References
Hide All
Abed, Y and Archambault, D (2000). A viral transmembrane recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection. Journal of Virological Methods 85: 109116.
Abed, Y, St-Laurent, G, Zhang, H, Jacobs, RM and Archambault, D (1999). Development of a Western blot assay for detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus using capsid and transmembrane envelope proteins expressed from recombinant baculovirus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 6: 168172.
Abelson, ML and Schoborg, RV (2003). Characterization of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) rev N-terminal elements required for efficient interaction with the RRE. Virus Research 92: 2335.
Agnarsdóttir, G, Thorsteinsdottir, H, Oskarsson, T, Matthiasdottir, S, St Haflidadottir, B, Andresson, OS and Andresdottir, V (2000). The long terminal repeat is a determinant of cell tropism of maedi-visna virus. Journal of General Virology 81: 19011905.
Albrecht, TR, Lund, LH and Garcia-Blanco, MA (2000). Canine cyclin T1 rescues equine infectious anemia virus tat trans-activation in human cells. Virology 268: 711.
Aldrovandi, GM, Gao, L, Bristol, G and Zack, JA (1998). Regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef required for function in vivo. Journal of Virology 72: 70327039.
Alkhatib, G, Combadiere, C, Broder, CC, Feng, Y, Kennedy, PE, Murphy, PM and Berger, EA (1996). CC CKR5: MIP1-α, MIP1-β receptor as a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1. Science 272: 19551958.
Anderson, S, Shugars, DC, Swanstrom, R and Garcia, JV (1993). Nef from primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 suppresses surface CD4 expression in human and mouse T cells. Journal of Virology 67: 49234931.
Atkinson, B, Liu, ZQ and Wood, C (1992). Use of bacterial trpE fusion vectors to express and characterize the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus core protein. Journal of Virological Methods 36: 3549.
Barboric, M, Taube, R, Nekrep, N, Fujinaga, K and Peterlin, BM (2000). Binding of Tat to TAR and recruitment of positive transcription elongation factor b occur independently in bovine immunodeficiency virus. Jounal of Virology 74: 60396044.
Baron, T, Malland, F, Polack, B, Bandemps, D and Belli, P (1995). The bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV) is transcriptionally active in experimentally infected calves. Archives of Virology 140: 14611467.
Baron, T, Bandemps, D, Malland, F, Cheynand, V, Levy, D and Belli, P (1998). Detection of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infection in experimentally infected calves. Archives of Virology 43: 181189.
Barre-Sinoussi, F, Chermann, JC, Rey, F, Nugeyre, MT, Chamarand, S, Gruest, J, Dauguet, C, Axler-Blin, C, Vezinand-Brun, F, Rouzioux, C, Rozenbaum, W and Montagnier, L (1983). Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science 220: 868871.
Battles, JK, Hu, MY, Rasmussen, L, Tobin, GJ and Gonda, MA (1992). Immunological characterization of the gag gene products of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Virology 66: 68686877.
Belshan, M, Harris, ME, Shoemaker, AE, Hope, TJ and Carpenter, S (1998). Biological characterization of Rev variation in equine infectious anemia virus. Journal of Virology 72: 44214426.
Belshan, M, Baccam, P, Oaks, JL, Sponseller, BA, Murphy, SC, Cornette, J and Carpenter, S (2001). Genetic and biological variation in equine infectious anemia virus Rev correlates with variable stages of clinical disease in an experimentally infected pony. Virology 279: 185200.
Benko, DM, Schartz, S, Pavlakis, GN and Felber, BK (1990). A novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protein, tev, share sequences with tat, env and rev proteins. Journal of Virology 64: 25052518.
Bieniasz, PD, Grdina, TA, Bogerd, HP and Cullen, BR (1998). Recruitment of a protein complex containing Tat and cyclin T1 to TAR governs the species specificity of HIV-1 Tat. EMBO Journal 17: 70567065.
Bogerd, HP, Wiegand, HL, Bieniasz, PD and Cullen, BR (2000). Functional differences between human and bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat transcription factors. Journal of Virology 74: 46664671.
Borman, AM, Quillent, C, Charneau, P, Dauguet, C and Clavel, F (1995). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif- mutant particles from restrictive cells: role of Vif in correct particle assembly and infectivity. Jounal of Virology 69: 20582067.
Bouillant, AM, Ruckerbauer, GM and Nielsen, KH (1989). Replication of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in diploid and aneuploid cells: permanent, latent and virus-productive infections in vitro. Research in Virology 140: 511529.
Boyer, PL, Ferris, AL and Hughes, SH (1992). Mutational analysis of the fingers domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase. Journal of Virology 66: 75337537.
Braun, MJ, Lahn, S, Boyd, AL, Kost, TA, Nagashima, K and Gonda, MA (1988). Molecular cloning of biologically active proviruses of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 167: 515523.
Brice, PC, Kelley, AC and Butler, PJ (1999). Sensitive in vitro analysis of HIV-1 Rev multimerization. Nucleic Acids Research 27: 20802085.
Burkala, EJ, Ellis, TM, Voigt, V and Wilcox, GE (1999). Serological evidence of an Australian bovine lentivirus. Veterinary Microbiology 68: 171177.
Burke, DS (1997). Recombination in HIV: an important viral evolutionary strategy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3: 253259.
Carpenter, S, Miller, LD, Alexandersen, S, Whetstone, CA, VanDerMaaten, MJ, Viuff, B, Wannemuehler, Y, Miller, JM and Roth, JA (1992). Characterization of early pathogenic effects after experimental infection of calves with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 66: 10741083.
Carpenter, S, Nadin-Davis, SA, Wannemuehler, Y and Roth, JA (1993). Identification of transactivation-response sequences in the long terminal repeat of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 67: 43994403.
Carpenter, CC, Fischl, MA, Hammer, SM, Hirsch, MS, Jacobsen, DM, Katzenstein, DA, Montaner, JS, Richman, DD, Saag, MS, Schooley, RT, Thompson, MA, Vella, S, Yeni, PG and Volberding, PA (1997). Antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection in 1997. Updated recommendations of the International AIDS Society-USA panel. Journal of the American Medical Association 277: 19621969.
Carpenter, S, Vaughn, EM, Yang, J, Baccamp, P, Roth, JA and Wannemulher, Y (2000). Antigenic and genetic stability of bovine immunodeficiency virus during long-term persistence in cattle experimentally infected with BIV (R29) isolate. Journal of General Virology 81: 14631472.
Carruth, LM, Morse, BA and Clements, JE (1996). The leucine domain of the visna virus Tat protein mediates targeting to an AP-1 site in the viral long terminal repeat. Journal of Virology 70: 43384344.
Cavirani, S, Donofrio, G, Chiocco, D, Foni, E, Martelli, P, Allegri, G, Cabassi, CS, De Iaco, B and Flammini, CF (1998). Seroprevalence to bovine immunodeficiency virus and lack of association with leukocyte counts in Italian dairy cattle. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 37: 147157.
Chadwick, BJ, Coelen, RJ, Wilcox, GE, Sammels, LM and Kertayadnya, G (1995). Nucleotide sequence analysis of Jembrana disease virus: a bovine lentivirus associated with an acute disease syndrome. Journal of General Virology 76: 16371650.
Chatterji, U, de Parseval, A and Elder, JH (2002). Feline immunodeficiency virus OrfA is distinct from other lentivirus transactivators. Journal of Virology 76: 96249634.
Chen, L and Frankel, AD (1994). An RNA-binding peptide from bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat protein recognizes an unusual RNA structure. Biochemistry 33: 27082715.
Chen, L and Frankel, AD (1995). A peptide interaction in the major groove of RNA resembles protein interactions in the minor groove of DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 50775081.
Chen, BK, Gandhi, RT and Baltimore, D (1996). CD4 down-modulation during infection of human T cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 involves independent activities of vpu, env and nef. Journal of Virology 70: 60446053.
Chen, D, Fong, Y and Zhou, Q (1999a). Specific interaction of Tat with the human but not rodent P-TEFb complex mediates the species-specific Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America 96: 27282733.
Chen, H, Wilcox, G, Kertayadnya, G and Wood, C (1999b). Characterization of the Jembrana disease virus tat gene and the cis-and trans-regulatory elements in its long terminal repeats. Journal of Virology 73: 658666.
Cheng, SM, Blume, M, Lee, SG, Hung, PP, Hirsch, VM and Johnson, PR (1990). Coexpression of biologically active simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Rev and Env in an SV40 system: the SIV rev gene regulates env expression. Virology 177: 816819.
Chirmule, N and Pahwa, S (1996). Envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: profound influences on immune functions. Microbiology Reviews 60: 386406.
Cho, KO, Meas, S, Park, NY, Kim, YH, Lim, YK, Endoh, D, Lee, SI, Ohashi, K, Sugimoto, C and Onuma, M (1999). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy and beef cattle herds in Korea. Journal of Veterinary Medical Sciences 61: 549551.
Clements, JE and Zink, MC (1996). Molecular biology and pathogenesis of animal lentivirus infections. Clinical Microbiology Review 9: 100117.
Cockerell, GL, Jensen, WA, Rovnak, J, Ennis, WH and Gonda, MA (1992). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus and bovine leukemia virus in a dairy cattle herd. Veterinary Microbiology 31: 109116.
Colvin, RA and Garcia-Blanco, MA (1992). Unusual structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activation response element. Journal of Virology 2: 930935.
Cook, KS, Fisk, GJ, Hauber, J, Usman, N, Daly, TJ and Rusche, JR (1991). Characterization of HIV-1 REV protein: binding stoichiometry and minimal RNA substrate. Nucleic Acids Research 19: 15771583.
Cooper, CR, Hanson, LA, Diehl, WJ, Pharr, GT and Coats, KS (1999). Natural selection of the Pol gene of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Virology 255: 294301.
Cujec, TP, Cho, H, Maldonado, E, Meyer, J, Reinberg, D and Peterlin, BM (1997a). The human immunodeficiency virus transactivator Tat interacts with the RNA polymerase II holoenzyme. Molecular and Cellular Biology 17: 18171823.
Cujec, TP, Okamoto, H, Fujinaga, K, Meyer, J, Chamberlin, H, Morgan, DO and Peterlin, BM (1997b). The HIV transactivator TAT binds to the CDK-activating kinase and activates the phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Genes and Development 11: 26452657.
Cullen, BR (1998). Retroviruses as model systems for the study of nuclear RNA export pathways. Virology 249: 203210.
Das, C, Edgcomb, SP, Peteranderl, R, Chen, L and Frankel, AD (2004). Evidence for conformational flexibility in the Tat-TAR recognition motif of cyclin T1. Virology 318: 306317.
De Parseval, A and Elder, JH (1999). Demonstration that orf2 encodes the feline immunodeficiency virus transactivating (Tat) protein and characterization of a unique gene product with partial rev activity. Journal of Virology 73: 608617.
Derse, D and Newbold, SH (1993). Mutagenesis of EIAV TAT reveals structural features essential for transcriptional activation and TAR element recognition. Virology 194: 530536.
Derse, D, Carvalho, M, Carroll, R and Peterlin, BM (1991). A minimal lentivirus Tat. Journal of Virology 65: 70127015.
Desrosiers, RC (2001). Nonhuman lentiviruses. In: Knipe, DM and Howley, , editors. Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 20952121.
Dillon, PJ, Nelbock, P, Perkins, A and Rosen, CA (1991). Structural and functional analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Rev protein. Journal of Virology 65: 445449.
Dorn, P, DaSilva, L, Martarano, L and Derse, D (1990). Equine infectious anemia virus tat: insights into the structure, function, and evolution of lentivirus trans-activator proteins. Journal of Virology 64: 16161624.
Efthymiadis, A, Briggs, LJ and Jans, DA (1998). The HIV-1 Tat nuclear localization sequence confers novel nuclear import properties. Journal of Biological Chemistry 273: 16231628.
Emerman, M and Malim, MH (1998). HIV-1 regulatory/accessory genes: keys to unraveling viral and host cell biology. Science 280: 18801884.
Felber, BK, Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, M, Cladaras, C, Copeland, T and Pavlakis, GN (1989). Rev protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 affects the stability and transport of the viral mRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 86: 14951499.
Feng, S and Holland, EC (1988). HIV-1 tat trans-activation requires the loop sequence within tar. Nature 334: 165168.
Fisher, AG, Ensoli, B, Ivanoff, L, Chamberlain, M, Petteway, S, Ratner, L, Gallo, RC and Wong-Staal, F (1987). The sor gene of HIV-1 is required for efficient virus transmission in vitro. Science 237: 888893.
Fong, SE, Pallansch, LA, Mikovits, JA, Lackman-Smith, CS, Ruscetti, FW and Gonda, MA (1995). Cis-acting regulatory elements in the bovine immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat. Virology 209: 604614.
Fong, SE, Greenwood, JD, Williamson, JC, Derse, D, Pallansch, LA, Copeland, T, Rasmussen, L, Mentzer, A, Nagashima, K, Tobin, G and Gonda, MA (1997). Bovine immunodeficiency virus tat gene: cloning of two distinct cDNAs and identification, characterization, and immunolocalization of the tat gene products. Virology 233: 339357.
Foster, JL, Anderson, SJ, Frazier, AL and Garcia, JV (1994). Specific suppression of human CD4 surface expression by Nef from the pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239open. Virology 9: 373379.
Fouchier, RA, Groenink, M, Kootstra, NA, Tersmette, M, Huisman, HG, Miedema, F and Schuitemaker, H (1992). Phenotype-associated sequence variation in the third variable domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 molecule. Journal of Virology 66: 31833187.
Fritz, CC and Green, MR (1996). HIV Rev uses a conserved cellular protein export pathway for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral RNAs. Current Biology 6: 848854.
Fujinaga, K, Cujec, TP, Peng, J, Garriga, J, Price, DH, Grana, X and Peterlin, BM (1998). The ability of positive transcription elongation factor B to transactivate human immunodeficiency virus transcription depends on a functional kinase domain, cyclin T1, and Tat. Journal of Virology 72: 71547159.
Gabuzda, DH, Lawrence, K, Langhoff, E, Terwilliger, E, Dorfman, T, Haseltine, WA and Sodroski, J (1992). Role of vif in replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Journal of Virology 66: 64896495.
Gaines, H, von Sydow, M, Sonnerborg, A, Albert, J, Czajkowski, J, Pehrson, PO, Chiodi, F, Moberg, L, Fenyo, EM and Asjo, B (1987). Antibody response in primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. Lancet 1: 12491253.
Garber, ME, Wei, P, KewalRamani, VN, Mayall, TP, Herrmann, CH, Rice, AP, Littman, DR and Jones, KA (1998). The interaction between HIV-1 Tat and human cyclin T1 requires zinc and a critical cysteine residue that is not conserved in the murine CycT1 protein. Genes and Development 12: 35123527.
Garber, ME, Mayall, TP, Suess, EM, Meisenhelder, J, Thompson, NE and Jones, KA (2000). CDK9 autophosphorylation regulates high-affinity binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat-P-TEFb complex to TAR RNA. Molecular and Cellular Biology 20: 69586969.
Garcia, JV and Miller, AD (1991). Serine phosphorylation-independent downregulation of cell-surface CD4 by nef. Nature 350: 508511.
Garcia-Martinez, LF, Mavankal, G, Neveu, JM, Lane, WS, Ivanov, D and Gaynor, RB (1997). Purification of a Tat-associated kinase reveals a TFIIH complex that modulates HIV-1 transcription. EMBO Jounal 16: 28362850.
Garvey, KJ, Oberste, MS, Elser, JE, Braun, MJ and Gonda, MA (1990). Nucleotide sequence and genome organization of biologically active proviruses of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 175: 391409.
Gdovin, SL and Clements, JE (1992). Molecular mechanisms of visna virus Tat: identification of the targets for transcriptional activation and evidence for a post-transcriptional effect. Virology 188: 438450.
Geleziunas, R, Bour, S and Wainberg, MA (1994). Cell surface down-modulation of CD4 after infection by HIV-1. FASEB Journal 8: 593600.
Gemeniano, MC, Sawai, ET, Leutenegger, CM and Sparger, EE (2003). Feline immunodeficiency virus ORF-Ais required for virus particle formation and virus infectivity. Journal of Virology 77: 88198830.
Geng, Y, Kashanchi, F and Wood, C (1992). Activation of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus expression by bovine herpesvirus type 1. Virology 187: 832836.
Goff, SP (2001) Retroviridae: The Retroviruses and their replication. In: Knipe, DM and Howley, , editors. Fields Virology. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 843911.
Gold, MO, Yang, X, Herrmann, CH and Rice, AP (1998). PITALRE, The catalytic subunit of TAK, is required for human immunodeficiency virus Tat transactivation in vivo. Journal of Virology 72: 44484453.
Golub, EI, Li, GG and Volsky, DJ (1990). Differences in the basal activity of the long terminal repeat determine different replicative capacities of two closely related human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates. Journal of Virology 64: 36543660.
Gonda, MA, Braun, MJ, Carter, SG, Kost, TA, Bess, JW, Arthur, LO and Van Der Maaten, MJ (1987). Characterization and molecular cloning of a bovine lentivirus related to the human immunodeficiency virus. Nature 330: 388391.
Gonda, MA, Oberste, MS, Garvey, KJ, Pallansch, LA, Battles, JK, Pifat, DY, Bess, JW Jr and Nagashima, K (1990). Development of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus as a model of lentivirus disease. Developments in Biological Standardization 72: 97110.
Gonda, MA, Luther, DG, Fong, SE and Tobin, GJ (1994). Bovine immunodeficiency virus: molecular biology and virus-host interactions. Virus Research 32: 155181.
Gradil, CM, Watson, RE, Renshaw, RW, Gilbert, RO and Dubovi, EJ (1999). Detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus DNA in the blood and semen of experimentally infected bulls. Veterinary Microbiology 70: 2131.
Greenbaum, NL (1996). How Tat targets TAR: structure of the BIV peptide-RNA complex. Structure 4: 59.
Gunnery, S, Green, SR and Mathews, MB (1992). Tat-responsive region RNA of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 stimulates protein synthesis in vivo and in vitro: relationship between structure and function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 23: 1155711561.
Guo, X, Hu, J, Whitney, JB, Russell, RS and Liang, C (2004). Important role for the CA-NC spacer region in the assembly of bovine immunodeficiency virus Gag protein. Journal of Virology 8: 5160.
Guy, B, Kieny, MP, Riviere, Y, Le Peuch, C, Dott, K, Girard, M, Montagnier, L and Lecocq, JP (1987). HIV F/3' orf encodes a phosphorylated GTP-binding protein resembling an oncogene product. Nature 330: 266269.
Harmache, A, Vitu, C, Russo, P, Bouyac, M, Hieblot, C, Peveri, P, Vigne, R and Suzan, M (1995). The caprine arthritis encephalitis virus tat gene is dispensable for efficient viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Virology 69: 445454.
Henderson, BR and Percipalle, P (1997). Interactions between HIV Rev and nuclear import and export factors: the Rev nuclear localisation signal mediates specific binding to human importin-beta. Journal of Molecular Biology 274: 693707.
Herrmann, CH and Rice, AP (1995). Lentivirus Tat proteins specifically associate with a cellular protein kinase, TAK, that hyperphosphorylates the carboxyl-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II: candidate for a Tat cofactor. Journal of Virology 69: 16121620.
Hiebenthal-Millow, K, Greenough, TC, Bretttler, DB, Schindler, M, Wildum, S, Sullivan, JL and Kirchhoff, F (2003). Alterations in HIV-1 LTR promoter activity during AIDS progression. Virology 317: 109118.
Hindmarsh, P and Leis, J (1999). Retroviral DNA integration. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 63: 836843.
Hirai, N, Kabeya, H, Ohashi, K, Sugimoto, C and Onuma, M (1996a). Immunomodulative effects of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV)-infection and mixed infection of BIV and bovine leukemia virus on sheep. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research 44: 153163.
Hirai, N, Kabeya, H, Ohashi, K, Sugimoto, C and Onuma, M (1996b) Detection of antibodies against bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in daily cattle in Hokkaido. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 58: 455457.
Hoffman, DW and White, SW (1995). NMR analysis of the trans-activation response (TAR) RNA element of equine infectious anemia virus. Nucleic Acids Research 23: 40584065.
Hope, TJ (1999). The ins and outs of HIV Rev. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 365: 186191.
Hsiou, Y, Ding, J, Das, K, Clark, AD Jr, Boyer, PL, Lewi, P, Janssen, PA, Kleim, JP, Rosner, M, Hughes, Sh and Arnold, E (2001). The Lys103Asn mutation of HIV-1 RT: a novel mechanism of drug resistance. Journal of Molecular Biology 309: 437445.
Hua, J, Caffrey, JJ and Cullen, BR (1996). Functional consequences of natural sequence variation in the activation domain of HIV-1 Rev. Virology 222: 423429.
Ippolito, JA and Steitz, TA (2000). The structure of the HIV-1 RRE high affinity rev binding site at 1.6 A resolution. Journal of Molecular Biology 295: 711717.
Isaacson, JA, Roth, JA, Wood, C and Carpenter, S (1995). Loss of Gag-specific antibody reactivity in cattle experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Viral Immunology 8: 2736.
Isel, C and Karn, J (1999). Direct evidence that HIV-1 Tat stimulates RNA polymerase II carboxyl-terminal domain hyperphosphorylation during transcriptional elongation. Journal of Molecular Biology 90: 929941.
Jackson, MK, Knowles, DP, Stem, TA, Harwood, WG, Robinson, MM and Cheevers, WP (1991). Genetic structure of the pol-env region of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis lentivirus genome. Virology 180: 389394.
Jacobs, RM, Smith, HE, Whestone, CA, Suarez, DL and Jefferson, B and Valli, VF (1994). Haematological and lymphocyte subset analyses in sheep inoculated with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Veterinary Research Communications 18: 471482.
Jacobs, RM, Pollari, FL, McNab, WB and Jefferson, B (1995). A serological survey of bovine syncytial virus in Ontario: associations with bovine leukemia and immunodeficiency-like viruses, production records, and management practices. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 59: 271278.
Jeang, KT, Xiao, H and Rich, EA (1999). Multifaceted activities of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription, Tat. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 88378840.
Jeong, KS, Nam, YS and Venkatesan, S (2000). Deletions near the N-terminus of HIV-1 Rev reduce RNA binding affinity and dominantly interfere with Rev function irrespective of the RNA target. Archives of Virology 145: 24432467.
Kalinski, H, Mashiah, P, Rotem, D, Orzech, Y, Sherman, L, Miki, T, Yaniv, A, Gazit, A and Tronick, SR (1994). Characterization of cDNAs species encoding the Tat protein of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus. Virology 204: 828834.
Kalvatchev, Z, Walder, R, Barrios, M and Garzaro, D (1995). Acquired immune dysfunction in rabbits experimentally infected with an infectious molecular clone of the bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV127). Viral Immunology 8: 5964.
Kalvatchev, Z, Walder, R, Perez, F, Garzaro, D and Barrios, M (1998). Infection of rabbits with R29 strain of bovine immunodeficiency virus: virulence, immunosuppression, and progressive mesenteric lymphadenopathy. Viral Immunology 11: 5966.
Kalvatchev, Z, Walder, R, Garzaro, D and Barrios, M (2000). Detection of genetic diversity among bovine immunodeficiency virus population by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Viral Immunology 13: 373381.
Kan, NC, Franchini, G, Wong-Staal, F, DuBois, GC, Robey, WG, Lautenberger, JA and Papas, TS (1986). Identification of HTLV-III/LAV sor gene product and detection of antibodies in human sera. Science 231: 15531555.
Kao, S, Akari, H, Khan, MA, Dettenhofer, M, Yu, XF and Strebel, K (2003). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif is efficiently packaged into virions during productive but not chronic infection. Journal of Virology 77: 11311140.
Karn, J (1999). Tackling Tat. Journal of Molecular Biology 293: 235254.
Kashanchi, F, Liu, ZQ, Atkinson, B and Wood, C (1991). Comparative evaluation of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infection by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods 31: 197209.
Kawaguchi, Y, Maeda, K, Pecoraro, MR, Inoshima, Y, Jang, HK, Kohmoto, M, Iwatsuki, K, Ikeda, Y, Shimojima, M and Tohya, Y (1995). The feline herpesvirus type 1 ICP4 down-regulates feline immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed gene expression via the C/EBP site in the LTR. Jounal of Veterinary Medical Science 57: 11291131.
Kempster, S, Collins, ME and Brownlie, J (2002). Tat protein expression in MDBK cells does not confer susceptibility to bovine immunodeficiency virus. Archives of Virology 147: 643649.
Krebs, FC, Mehrens, D, Pomeroy, S, Goodenow, MM and Wigdahl, B (1998). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeat quasispecies differ in basal transcription and nuclear factor recruitment in human glial cells and lymphocytes. Journal of Biomedical Science 5: 3144.
Kristbjornsdottir, HB, Andresdottir, V, Svansson, V, Torsteinsdottir, S and Matthiasdottir, S, Andresson, OS (2004). The vif gene of maedi-visna virus is essential for infectivity in vivo and in vitro. Virology 318: 350359.
Kwak, YT, Ivanov, D, Guo, J, Nee, E and Gaynor, RB (1999). Role of the human and murine cyclin T proteins in regulating HIV-1 tat-activation. Journal of Molecular Biology 288: 5769.
Lavallee, C, Yao, XJ, Ladha, A, Gottlinger, H, Haseltine, WA and Cohen, EA (1994). Requirement of the Pr55gag precursor for incorporation of the Vpr product into human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral particles. Journal of Virology 68: 19261934.
Lechner, F, Machado, J, Bertoni, G, Seow, HF, Dobbelaere, DA and Peterhans, E (1997). Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus dysregulates the expression of cytokines in macrophages. Journal of Virology 71: 74887497.
Lee, TH, Coligan, JE, Allan, JS, McLane, MF, Groopman, JE and Essex, M (1986). A new HTLV-III/LAV protein encoded by a gene found in cytopathic retroviruses. Science 231: 15461549.
Lim, AC and Barton, JK (1997). Targeting the Tat-binding site of bovine immunodeficiency virus TAR RNA with a shape-selective rhodium complex. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 5: 11311136.
Liu, ZQ, Sheridan, D and Wood, C (1992). Identification and characterization of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus tat gene. Journal of Virology 66: 51375140.
Love, DC, Sweitzer, TD and Hanover, JA (1998). Reconstitution of HIV-1 rev nuclear export: independent requirements for nuclear import and export. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95: 1060810613.
Lu, YL, Spearman, P and Ratner, L (1993). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral protein R localization in infected cells and virions. Journal of Virology 67: 65426550.
Lu, M, Zheng, L, Mitchell, K, Kapil, S, Wood, C and Minocha, H (2002). Unique epitope of bovine immunodeficiency virus gag protein spans the cleavage site between p16 (MA) and p2L. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 9: 12771281.
Lustig, B, Bahar, I and Jernigan, RL (1998). RNA bulge entropies in the unbound state correlate with peptide binding strengths for HIV-1 and BIV TAR RNA because of improved conformational access. Nucleic Acids Research 26: 52125217.
Malmquist, WA, Van der Maaten, MJ and Boothe, AD (1969). Isolation, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy of a syncytial virus of lymphosarcomatous and apparently normal cattle. Cancer Research 29: 188200.
Mancebo, HS, Lee, G, Flygare, J, Tomassini, J, Luu, P, Zhu, Y, Peng, J, Blau, C, Hazuda, D, Price, D and Flores, O (1997). P-TEFb kinase is required for HIV Tat transcriptional activation in vivo and in vitro. Genes and Development 20: 26332644.
Mansky, LM (1998). Retrovirus mutation rates and their role in genetic variation. Journal of General Virology 79: 13371345.
Martin, SJ, O'Neill, TP, Bilello, JA and Eiseman, JL (1991). Lymphocyte transformation abnormalities in bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infected calves. Immunology Letters 27: 8184.
Martins, LP, Chenciner, N, Asjo, B, Meyerhans, A and Wain-Hobson, S (1991). Independent fluctuation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rev and gp41 quasispecies in vivo. Journal of Virology 65: 45024507.
McNab, WB, Jacobs, RM and Smith, HE (1994). A serological survey for bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in Ontario dairy cattle and association between test results, production records and management practices. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 58: 3641.
Meas, S, Kabeya, H, Yoshihara, S, Ohashi, K, Matsuki, S, Mikami, Y, Sugimoto, C and Onuma, M (1998). Seroprevalence and field isolation of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 60: 11951202.
Meas, S, Ohashi, K, Tum, S, Chhin, M, Te, K, Miura, K, Sugimoto, C and Onuma, M (2000a). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 779781.
Meas, S, Sando, J, Sugimoto, C, Bakhsh, M, Riaz, M, Sato, T, Naeem, K, Ohashi, K and Onuma, M (2000b). Infection of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in water buffalo and cattle populations in Pakistan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 62: 329339.
Meas, S, Ohashi, K, Sugimoto, C and Onuma, M (2001). Phylogenetic relationships of bovine immunodeficiency virus in cattle and buffaloes based on surface envelope gene sequences. Archives of Virology 146: 10371045.
Meas, S, Usui, T, Ohashi, K, Sugimoto, C and Onuma, M (2002). Vertical transmission of bovine leukemia virus and bovine immunodeficiency virus in dairy cattle herds. Veterinary Microbiology 84: 275282.
Mhashilkar, AM, Bagley, J, Chen, SY, Szilvay, AM, Helland, DG and Marasco, WA (1997). Inhibition of HIV-1 Tat-mediated LTR transactivation and HIV-1 infection by anti-Tat single chain intrabodies. EMBO Journal 14: 15421551.
Mikaelian, I, Krieg, M, Gait, MJ and Karn, J (1996). Interactions of INS (CRS) elements and the splicing machinery regulate the production of Rev-responsive mRNAs. Journal of Molecular Biology 257: 246264.
Milich, L, Margolin, B and Swanstrom, R (1993). V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Env protein: interpreting sequence variability. Journal of Virology 67: 5623–3634.
Molina, RP, Matukonis, M, Paszkiet, B, Zhang, J, Kaleko, M and Luo, T (2002). Mapping of the bovine immunodeficiency virus packaging signal and RRE and incorporation into a minimal gene transfer vector. Virology 304: 1023.
Moody, CA, Pharr, GT, Murphey, J, Hughlett, MB, Weaver, CC, Nelson, PD and Coats, KS (2002). Confirmation of vertical transmission of bovine immunodeficiency virus in naturally infected dairy cattle using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 14: 113119.
Moore, EC, Keil, D and Coats, KS (1996). Thermal inactivation of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 42804283.
Moras, D and Poterszman, A (1996). Getting into the major groove. Protein-RNA interactions. Current Biology 6: 530532.
Morse, BA, Carruth, LM and Clements, JE (1999). Targeting of the visna virus tat protein to AP-1 sites: interactions with the bZIP domains of fos and jun in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Virology 73: 3745.
Muluneh, A (1994). Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency-virus (BIV) antibodies in the cattle population in Germany. Zentralblattfür Veterinarmedizin 41: 679684.
Munro, R, Lysons, R, Venables, C, Horigan, M, Jeffrey, M and Dawson, M (1998). Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112). Journal of Comparative Pathology 119: 121134.
Nagashunmugam, T, Velpandi, A, Otsuka, T, Cartas, M and Srinivasan, A (1992). Analysis of the viral determinants underlying replication kinetics and cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus. Pathobiology 60: 234245.
Najera, I, Holguin, A, Quinones-Mateu, ME, Munoz-Fernandez, MA, Najera, R, Lopez-Galindez, C and Domingo, E (1995). Pol gene quasispecies of human immunodeficiency virus: mutations associated with drug resistance in virus from patients undergoing no drug therapy. Journal of Virology 69: 2331.
Nam, YS, Petrovic, A, Jeong, KS and Venkatesan, S (2001). Exchange of the basic domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev for a polyarginine stretch expands the RNA binding specificity, and a minimal arginine cluster is required for optimal RRE RNA binding affinity, nuclear accumulation, and trans-activation. Journal of Virology 75: 29572971.
Nash, JW, Hanson, LA and St Cyr Coats, K (1995a). Bovine immunodeficiency virus in stud bull semen. American Journal of Veterinary Research 6: 760763.
Nash, JW, Hanson, LA and St Cyr Coats, K (1995b). Detection of bovine immunodeficiency virus in blood and milk-derived leukocytes by use of polymerase chain reaction. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 445449.
Oberste, MS, Greenwood, JD and Gonda, MA (1991). Analysis of the transcription pattern and mapping of the putative rev and env splice junctions of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 65: 39323937.
Oberste, MS, Williamson, JC, Greenwood, JD, Nagashima, K, Copeland, TD and Gonda, MA (1993). Characterization of bovine immunodeficiency virus rev cDNAs and identification and subcellular localization of the Rev protein. Journal of Virology 67: 63956405.
Okamoto, H, Sheline, CT, Corden, JL, Jones, KA and Peterlin, BM (1996). Trans-activation by human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 93: 1157511579.
Okamoto, M, Okamoto, T and Baba, M (1999). Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by combination of transcription inhibitor K-12 and other antiretroviral agents in acutely and chronically infected cells. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 6: 492497.
Onuma, M, Koomoto, E, Furuyama, H, Yasutomi, Y, Taniyama, H, Iwai, H and Kawakami, Y (1992). Infection and dysfunction of monocytes induced by experimental inoculation of calves with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 5: 10091015.
Pallansch, LA, Lackman-Smith, CS and Gonda, MA (1992). Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus encodes factors which trans activate the long terminal repeat. Journal of Virology 66: 26472652.
Pancio, HA, Vander Heyden, N and Ratner, L (2000). The C-terminal proline-rich tail of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 Vpx is necessary for nuclear localization of the viral preintegration complex in nondividing cells. Journal of Virology 74: 61626167.
Paxton, WG, Runge, M, Horaist, C, Cohen, C, Alexander, RW and Bernstein, KE (1993). Immunohistochemical localization of rat angiotensin II AT1 receptor. American Journal of Physiology 264: 989995.
Peloponese, JM Jr, Collette, Y, Gregoire, C, Bailly, C, Campese, D, Meurs, EF, Olive, D and Loret, EP (1999). Full peptide synthesis, purification, and characterization of six Tat variants. Differences observed between HIV-1 isolates from Africa and other continents. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 1147311478.
Phillips, TR, Lamont, C, Konings, DA, Shacklett, BL, Hamson, CA, Luciw, PA and Elder, JH (1992). Identification of the Rev transactivation and Rev-responsive elements of feline immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Virology 66: 54645471.
Pieniazek, D, Rayfield, M, Hu, DJ, Nkengasong, J, Wiktor, SZ, Downing, R, Biryahwaho, B, Mastro, T, Tanuri, A, Soriano, V, Lal, R and Dondero, T (2000). Protease sequences from HIV-1 group M subtypes A-H reveal distinct amino acid mutation patterns associated with protease resistance in protease inhibitor-naive individuals worldwide. HIV Variant Working Group. AIDS 14: 14891495.
Pifat, DY, Ennis, WH, Ward, JM, Oberste, MS and Gonda, M (1992). Persistent infection of rabbits with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Virology 66: 45184524.
Piguet, V and Trono, D (1999). The Nef protein of primate lentiviruses. Reviews in Medical Virology 9: 111120.
Ping, YH and Rana, TM (1999). Tat-associated kinase (p-TEFb): a component of transcription preinitiation and elongation complexes. Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 73997404.
Polack, B, Schwartz, I, Berthelemy, M, Belloc, C, Manand, G, Vuillaume, A, Baron, T, Gonda, MA and Levy, D (1996). Serologic evidence for bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in France. Veterinary Microbiology 48: 165173.
Puglisi, JD, Chen, L, Blanchard, S and Frankel, AD (1995). Solution structure of a bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat-TAR peptide-RNA complex. Science 270: 12001203.
Rabson, AB, Hamagishi, Y, Steele, PE, Tykocinski, M and Martin, MA (1985). Characterization of human endogenous retroviral envelope RNA transcripts. Journal of Virology 56: 176182.
Rasmussen, L, Battles, JK, Ennis, WH, Nagashima, K and Gonda, MA (1990). Characterization of virus-like particles produced by a recombinant baculovirus containing the gag gene of the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Virology 178: 435451.
Rasmussen, L, Greenwood, J and Gonda, MA (1992). Expression of bovine immunodeficiency virus. Virology 186: 551561.
Ruben, S, Perkins, A, Purcell, R, Joung, K, Sia, R, Burghoff, R, Haseltine, WA and Rosen, CA (1989). Structural and functional characterization of human immunodeficiency virus tat protein. Journal of Virology 63: 18.
Rubio, A, Leal, M, Pineda, JA, Caruz, A, Luque, F, Rey, C, Sanchez-Quijano, A and Lissen, E (1997). Increase in the frequency of mutation at codon 215 associated with zidovudine resistance in HIV-1-infected antiviral-naive patients from 1989 to 1996. AIDS 11: 11841186.
Salfeld, J, Gottlinger, HG, Sia, RA, Park, RE, Sodroski, JG and Haseltine, WA (1990). A tripartite HIV-1 tat-env-rev fusion protein. EMBO Journal 9: 965970.
Saltarelli, MJ, Schoborg, R, Gdovin, SL and Clements, JE (1993). The CAEV tat gene trans-activates the viral LTR and is necessary for efficient viral replication. Virology 197: 3544.
Sanfridson, A, Cullen, BR and Doyle, C (1994). The simian immunodeficiency virus Nef protein promotes degradation of CD4 in human T cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry 269: 917920.
Schoborg, RV and Clements, JE (1996). Definition of the RRE binding and activation domains of the caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Rev protein. Virology 226: 113121.
Schoborg, RV, Saltarelli, MJ and Clements, JE (1994). A Rev protein is expressed in caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-infected cells and is required for efficient viral replication. Virology 202: 115.
Scobie, L, Venables, C, Sayers, AR, Weightman, S and Jarrett, O (2001). Prevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in cattle in Great Britain. Veterinary Record 149: 459460.
Smith, HE and Jacobs, RM (1993). Serological evidence of bovine immunodeficiency-like virus infection in a sheep. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 57: 305306.
Smith, HE, Jacobs, RM and Mallard, B (1994). Cell-mediated and humoral immunity in sheep exposed to bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 17: 2939.
Snider, TG, Hoyt, PG, Jenny, BF, Coats, KS, Luther, DG, Storts, RW, Battles, JK and Gonda, MA (1997). Natural and experimental bovine immunodeficiency virus infection in cattle. Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 13: 151176.
Sodroski, J, Goh, WC, Rosen, C, Campbell, K and Haseltine, WA (1986). Role of the HTLV-III/LAV envelope in syncytium formation and cytopathicity. Nature 322: 470474.
Sommerfelt, MA (1999). Retrovirus receptors. Journal of General Virology 80: 30493064.
Southgate, CD and Green, MR (1995). Delineating minimal protein domains and promoter elements for transcriptional activation by lentivirus tat proteins. Journal of Virology 69: 26052610.
StCyr Coats, K, Pruett, SB, Nash, JW and Cooper, CR (1994). Bovine immunodeficiency virus: incidence of infection in Mississippi dairy cattle. Veterinary Microbiology 42: 181189.
Strebel, K, Daugherty, D, Clouse, K, Cohen, D, Folks, T and Martin, MA (1987). The HIV ‘A’ (sor) gene product is essential for virus infectivity. Nature 328: 728738.
Suarez, DL and Whetstone, CA (1995). Identification of hypervariable and conserved regions in the surface envelope gene in the bovine lentivirus. Virology 212: 728733.
Suarez, DL and Whetstone, CA (1997). Size variation within the second hypervariable region of the surface envelope gene of the bovine lentivirus BIV in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. Journal of Virology 71: 24822486.
Suarez, DL, Van Der Maaten, MJ, Wood, C and Whetstone, CA (1993). Isolation and characterization of new wild-type isolates of bovine lentivirus Journal of Virology 67: 50515055.
Suarez, DL, Van der Maaten, MJ and Whetstone, CA (1995). Improved early and long-term detection of bovine lentivirus by a nested polymerase chain reaction test in experimentally infected calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 56: 579586.
Subbramanian, RA and Cohen, EA (1994). Molecular biology of the human immunodeficiency virus accessory proteins. Journal of Virology 68: 68316835.
Sune, C, Goldstrohm, AC, Peng, J, Price, DH and Garcia-Blanco, MA (2000). An in vitro transcription system that recapitulates equine infectious anemia virus tat-mediated inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat activity demonstrates a role for positive transcription elongation factor b and associated proteins in the mechanism of Tat activation. Virology 274: 356366.
Taube, R, Fujinaga, K, Wimmer, J, Barboric, M and Peterlin, M (1999). Tat transactivation: A model for the regulation of eucaryotic transcriptional elongation. Virology 264: 245253.
Taube, R, Fujinaga, K, Irwin, D, Wimmer, J, Geyer, M and Peterlin, BM (2000). Interactions between equine cyclin T1, Tat, and TAR are disrupted by a leucine-to-valine substitution found in human cyclin T1. Journal of Virology 74: 892899.
Thomas, SL, Oft, M, Jaksche, H, Casari, G, Heger, P, Dobrovnik, M, Bevec, D and Hauber, J (1998). Functional analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein oligomerization interface. Journal of Virology 72: 29352944.
Tiley, LS, Brown, PH, Le, SY, Maizel, JV, Clements, JE and Cullen, BR (1990). Visna virus encodes a post-transcriptional regulator of viral structural gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 87: 74977501.
Tiley, LS, Malim, MH and Cullen, BR (1991). Conserved functional organization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and visna virus Rev proteins. Journal of Virology 65: 3877–81.
Tiley, LS, Malim, MH, Tewary, HK, Stockley, PG and Cullen, BR (1992). Identification of a high-affinity RNA-binding site for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Rev protein. Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences of the United States of America 89: 758762.
Tobin, GJ, Sowder, RC, Fabris, D, Hu, MY, Battles, JK, Fenselau, C, Henderson, LE and Gonda, MA (1994). Amino acid sequence analysis of the proteolytic cleavage products of the bovine immunodeficiency virus Gag precursor polypeptide. Journal of Virology 11: 76207627.
Truyen, U, Parrish, CR, Harder, TC and Kaaden, OR (1995). There is nothing permanent except change. The emergence of new virus diseases. Veterinary Microbiology 43: 103122.
Turelli, P, Guiguen, F, Mornex, JF, Vigne, R and Querat, G (1997). dUTPase-minus caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus is attenuated for pathogenesis and accumulates G-to-A substitutions. Journal of Virology 71: 45224530.
Van Der Maaten, MJ, Boothe, AD and Seger, CL (1972). Isolation of a virus from cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 49: 16491657.
Van Der Maaten, MJ and Whetstone, CA (1992). Infection of rabbits with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Veterinary Microbiology 30: 125135.
Venables, C, Lysons, R, Horigan, M, Stagg, D and Dawson, M (1997). Bovine immunodeficiency-like virus: inactivation in milk by pasteurisation. Veterinary Record 140: 275277.
Vergne, L, Peeters, M, Mpoudi-Ngole, E, Bourgeois, A, Liegeois, F, Toure-Kane, C, Mboup, S, Mulanga-Kabeya, C, Saman, E, Jourdan, J, Reynes, J and Delaporte, E (2000). Genetic diversity of protease and reverse transcriptase sequences in non-subtype-B human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains: evidence of many minor drug resistance mutations in treatment-naive patients. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 38: 39193925.
Von Schwedler, U, Song, J, Aiken, C and Trono, D (1993). Vif is crucial for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proviral DNA synthesis in infected cells. Journal of Virology 67: 49454955.
Walder, R, Kalvatchev, Z, Tobin, GJ, Barrios, MN, Garzaro, DJ and Gonda, MA (1995). Possible role of bovine immunodeficiency virus in bovine paraplegic syndrome: evidence from immunochemical, virological and seroprevalence studies. Research in Virology 46: 313323.
Walder, R, Kalvatchev, L, Perez, F, Garzaro, D and Barrios, M (2001). Bovine immunodeficiency virus in experimentally infected rabbit: tropism for lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Comparative Immunology Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 24: 120.
Wareing, S, Hartaningsih, N, Wilcox, GE and Penhale, WJ (1999). Evidence for immunosuppression associated with Jembrana disease virus infection of cattle. Veterinary Microbiology. 68: 179185.
Whetstone, CA, Van Der Maaten, MJ and Black, JW (1990). Humoral immune response to the bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in experimentally and naturally infected cattle. Journal of Virology 64: 35573561.
Whetstone, CA, Van Der Maaten, MJ and Miller, JM (1991). A western blot assay for the detection of antibodies to bovine immunodeficiency-like virus in experimentally inoculated cattle, sheep, and goats. Archives of Virology 116: 119131.
Whetstone, CA, Sayre, KR, Dock, NL, Van Der Maaten, MJ, Miller, JM, Lillehoj, E and Alexander, SS (1992). Examination of whether persistently indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Western immunoblot reactions are due to serological reactivity with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 30: 764770.
Wilcox, GE, Chadwick, BJ and Kertayadnya, G (1995). Recent advances in the understanding of Jembrana disease. Veterinary Microbiology 46: 249255.
Willbold, D, Kruger, U, Frank, R, Rosin-Arbesfeld, R, Gazit, A, Yaniv, A and Rosch, P (1993). Sequence-specific resonance assignments of the 1H-NMR spectra of a synthetic, biologically active EIAV Tat protein. Biochemistry 32: 84398445.
Willbold, D, Rosin-Arbesfeld, R, Sticht, H, Frank, R and Rosch, P (1994). Structure of the equine infectious anemia virus Tat protein. Science 264: 15841587.
Willbold, D, Metzger, AU, Sticht, H, Gallert, KC, Voit, R, Dank, N, Bayer, P, Krauss, G, Goody, RS and Rosch, P (1998). Equine infectious anemia virus transactivator is a homeodomain-type protein. Journal of Molecular Biology 277: 749755.
Willey, RL, Maldarelli, F, Martin, MA and Strebel, K (1992). Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpu protein induces rapid degradation of CD4. Journal of Virology 66: 71937200.
Wolfs, TF, Nara, PL and Goudsmit, J (1993). Genotypic and phenotypic variation of HIV-1: impact on AIDS pathogenesis and vaccination. Chemical Immunology 56: 133.
Wright, SM, Mleczko, A and Coats, KS (2002). Bovine immunodeficiency virus expression in vitro is reduced in the presence of beta-chemokines, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and Rantes. Veterinary Research Communications 26: 239250.
Wu, L, Paxton, WA, Kassam, N, Ruffing, N, Rottman, JB, Sullivan, N, Choe, H, Sodroski, J, Newman, W, Koup, RA and Mackay, CR (1997). CCR5 levels and expression pattern correlate with infectability by macrophage-tropic HIV-1, in vitro. Journal of Experimental Medicine 185: 16811691.
Yankulov, K and Bentley, D (1998). Transcriptional control: Tat cofactors and transcriptional elongation. Current Biology 8: 447449.
Ye, X, Kumar, RA and Patel, DJ (1995). Molecular recognition in the bovine immunodeficiency virus Tat peptide-TAR RNA complex. Chemistry and Biology 12: 827840.
Zapp, ML, Hope, TJ, Parslow, TG and Green, MR (1991). Oligomerization and RNA binding domains of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus Rev protein: a dual function for an arginine-rich binding motif. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 88: 77347738.
Zhang, MJ and Dayton, AI (1998). Tolerance of diverse amino acid substitutions at conserved positions in the nuclear export signal (NES) of HIV-1 Rev. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 243: 113116.
Zhang, S, Wood, C, Xue, W, Krukenberg, SM, Chen, Q and Minocha, HC (1997a). Immune suppression in calves with bovine immunodeficiency virus. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 4: 232235.
Zhang, S, Troyer, DL, Kapil, S, Zheng, L, Kennedy, G, Weiss, M, Xue, W, Wood, C and Minocha, HC (1997b). Detection of proviral DNA of bovine immunodeficiency virus in bovine tissues by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR in situ hybridization. Virology 236: 249257.
Zhang, J, Tamilarasu, N, Hwang, S, Garber, ME, Huq, I, Jones, KA and Rana, TM (2000). HIV-1 TAR RNA enhances the interaction between Tat and cyclin T1. Journal of Biological Chemistry 275: 3431434319.
Zhou, Q, Chen, D, Pierstorff, E and Luo, K (1998). Transcription elongation factor P-TEFb mediates Tat activation of HIV-1 transcription at multiple stages. EMBO Journal 17: 36813691.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed