Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 54
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Belgrave, Rodney L. 2015. Robinson's Current Therapy in Equine Medicine.


    Johnson, Matthew G. Adams, Jaymes McDonald-Hamm, Christie Wendelboe, Aaron and Bradley, Kristy K. 2015. Seasonality and survival associated with three outbreak seasons of West Nile virus disease in Oklahoma-2003, 2007, and 2012. Journal of Medical Virology, Vol. 87, Issue. 10, p. 1633.


    Kulkarni, Manisha A Berrang-Ford, Lea Buck, Peter A Drebot, Michael A Lindsay, L Robbin and Ogden, Nicholas H 2015. Major emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases of public health importance in Canada. Emerging Microbes & Infections, Vol. 4, Issue. 6, p. e33.


    Lohitharajah, Janarthani Malavige, Gathsaurie Neelika Chua, Anthony Jin Shun Ng, Mah Lee Arambepola, Carukshi and Chang, Thashi 2015. Emergence of human West Nile Virus infection in Sri Lanka. BMC Infectious Diseases, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,


    Del Amo, Javier Llorente, Francisco Figuerola, Jordi Soriguer, Ramón C Moreno, Ana M Cordioli, Paolo Weissenböck, Herbert and Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel 2014. Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with West Nile virus isolates of Euro-Mediterranean and North American origins. Veterinary Research, Vol. 45, Issue. 1, p. 33.


    Egizi, Andrea M. Farajollahi, Ary and Fonseca, Dina M. 2014. Diverse Host Feeding on Nesting Birds May Limit Early-Season West Nile Virus Amplification. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue. 6, p. 447.


    Go, Yun Young Balasuriya, Udeni B. R. and Lee, Chong-kyo 2014. Zoonotic encephalitides caused by arboviruses: transmission and epidemiology of alphaviruses and flaviviruses. Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research, Vol. 3, Issue. 1, p. 58.


    Huang, Yan-Jang Higgs, Stephen Horne, Kate and Vanlandingham, Dana 2014. Flavivirus-Mosquito Interactions. Viruses, Vol. 6, Issue. 11, p. 4703.


    Ishikawa, Tomohiro Yamanaka, Atsushi and Konishi, Eiji 2014. A review of successful flavivirus vaccines and the problems with those flaviviruses for which vaccines are not yet available. Vaccine, Vol. 32, Issue. 12, p. 1326.


    Ludu (Oslobanu), Elena Luanda Mihu-Pintilie, Alin Anită, Dragos Anita, Adriana Lecollinet, Sylvie and Savuta, Gheorghe 2014. West Nile Virus Reemergence in Romania: A Serologic Survey in Host Species. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, Vol. 14, Issue. 5, p. 330.


    Mulatti, Paolo Ferguson, Heather M Bonfanti, Lebana Montarsi, Fabrizio Capelli, Gioia and Marangon, Stefano 2014. Determinants of the population growth of the West Nile virus mosquito vector Culex pipiens in a repeatedly affected area in Italy. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 26.


    Quaglia, Agustin I. Diaz, Luis A. Argibay, Hernan Contigiani, Marta S. and Saggese, Miguel D. 2014. West Nile and St. Louis Encephalitis Viruses Antibodies Surveillance in Captive and Free-Ranging Birds of Prey from Argentina. EcoHealth, Vol. 11, Issue. 4, p. 603.


    Beck, Cécile Jimenez-Clavero, Miguel Leblond, Agnès Durand, Benoît Nowotny, Norbert Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle Zientara, Stéphan Jourdain, Elsa and Lecollinet, Sylvie 2013. Flaviviruses in Europe: Complex Circulation Patterns and Their Consequences for the Diagnosis and Control of West Nile Disease. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 10, Issue. 11, p. 6049.


    Belinato, Thiago Affonso Martins, Ademir Jesus Lima, José Bento Pereira and Valle, Denise 2013. Effect of triflumuron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, on Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 6, Issue. 1, p. 83.


    Boseret, Geraldine Losson, Bertrand Mainil, Jacques G Thiry, Etienne and Saegerman, Claude 2013. Zoonoses in pet birds: review and perspectives. Veterinary Research, Vol. 44, Issue. 1, p. 36.


    Cortés-Guzmán, Antonio J. Sánchez-Casas, Rosa María Ibarra-Juárez, Luis A. Ortega-Morales, Aldo I. Garcia-Rejón, Julián E. Contreras-Cordero, Juan F. Mis-Ávila, Pedro Domínguez-Galera, Marco A. Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo E. Garza, Carlos E. Medina De la and Fernández-Salas, Ildefonso 2013. West Nile Virus Survey of Birds, Horses, and Mosquitoes of the Pacific Coast, Southern Mexico. Southwestern Entomologist, Vol. 38, Issue. 2, p. 231.


    Donadieu, Emilie Bahuon, Céline Lowenski, Steeve Zientara, Stéphan Coulpier, Muriel and Lecollinet, Sylvie 2013. Differential Virulence and Pathogenesis of West Nile Viruses. Viruses, Vol. 5, Issue. 11, p. 2856.


    Greenberg, Jacob A. Lujan, Daniel A. DiMenna, Mark A. Wearing, Helen J. and Hofkin, Bruce V. 2013. Identification of Blood Meal Sources inAedes vexansandCulex quinquefasciatusin Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Journal of Insect Science, Vol. 13, Issue. 75, p. 1.


    Hernández-Jover, Marta Roche, Sharon and Ward, Michael P. 2013. The human and animal health impacts of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of West Nile virus in Australia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Vol. 109, Issue. 3-4, p. 186.


    Jeffrey Root, J. 2013. West Nile virus associations in wild mammals: a synthesis. Archives of Virology, Vol. 158, Issue. 4, p. 735.


    ×

Transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology of West Nile virus

  • Bradley J. Blitvich (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466252307001430
  • Published online: 01 March 2008
Abstract
Abstract

West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that is maintained in a bird–mosquito transmission cycle. Humans, horses and other non-avian vertebrates are usually incidental hosts, but evidence is accumulating that this might not always be the case. Historically, WNV has been associated with asymptomatic infections and sporadic disease outbreaks in humans and horses in Africa, Europe, Asia and Australia. However, since 1994, the virus has caused frequent outbreaks of severe neuroinvasive disease in humans and horses in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. In 1999, WNV underwent a dramatic expansion of its geographic range, and was reported for the first time in the Western Hemisphere during an outbreak of human and equine encephalitis in New York City. The outbreak was accompanied by extensive and unprecedented avian mortality. Since then, WNV has dispersed across the Western Hemisphere and is now found throughout the USA, Canada, Mexico and the Caribbean, and parts of Central and South America. WNV has been responsible for >27,000 human cases, >25,000 equine cases and hundreds of thousands of avian deaths in the USA but, surprisingly, there have been only sparse reports of WNV disease in vertebrates in the Caribbean and Latin America. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNV with particular emphasis on its transmission dynamics and changing epidemiology.

Copyright
Corresponding author
E-mail: blitvich@iastate.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

JF Anderson , TG Andreadis , CR Vossbrinck , S Tirrell , EM Wakem , RA French , AE Garmendia and HJ Van Kruiningen (1999). Isolation of West Nile virus from mosquitoes, crows, and a Cooper's hawk in Connecticut. Science 286: 23312333.

JF Anderson , CR Vossbrinck , TG Andreadis , A Iton , WH Beckwith III and DR Mayo (2001). A phylogenetic approach to following West Nile virus in Connecticut. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 98: 1288512889.

JF Anderson , AJ Main , TG Andreadis , SK Wikel and CR Vossbrinck (2003). Transstadial transfer of West Nile virus by three species of ixodid ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 40: 528533.

TG Andreadis , JF Anderson and CR Vossbrinck (2001). Mosquito surveillance for West Nile virus in Connecticut, 2000: isolation from Culex pipiens, Cx. restuans, Cx. salinarius, and Culiseta melanura. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 670674.

CS Apperson , BA Harrison , TR Unnasch , HK Hassan , WS Irby , HM Savage , SE Aspen , DW Watson , LM Rueda , BR Engber and RS Nasci (2002). Host-feeding habits of Culex and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Borough of Queens in New York City, with characters and techniques for identification of Culex mosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology 39: 777785.

CS Apperson , HK Hassan , BA Harrison , HM Savage , SE Aspen , A Farajollahi , W Crans , TJ Daniels , RC Falco , M Benedict , M Anderson , L McMillen and TR Unnasch (2004). Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 4: 7182.

LE Austgen , RA Bowen , ML Bunning , BS Davis , CJ Mitchell and GJ Chang (2004). Experimental infection of cats and dogs with West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 8286.

GL Autorino , A Battisti , V Deubel , G Ferrari , R Forletta , A Giovannini , R Lelli , S Murri and MT Scicluna (2002). West Nile virus epidemic in horses, Tuscany region, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 13721378.

T Bakonyi , Z Hubalek , I Rudolf and N Nowotny (2005). Novel flavivirus or new lineage of West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 225231.

T Bakonyi , E Ivanics , K Erdelyi , K Ursu , E Ferenczi , H Weissenbock and N Nowotny (2006). Lineage 1 and 2 strains of encephalitic West Nile virus, central Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 618623.

DW Beasley (2005). Recent advances in the molecular biology of West Nile virus. Current Molecular Medicine 5: 835850.

DW Beasley , CT Davis , J Estrada-Franco , R Navarro-Lopez , A Campomanes-Cortes , RB Tesh , SC Weaver and ADT Barrett (2004b). Genome sequence and attenuating mutations in West Nile virus isolate from Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 22212224.

KA Bernard , JG Maffei , SA Jones , EB Kauffman , G Ebel , AP Dupuis II, KA Ngo , DC Nicholas , DM Young , PY Shi , VL Kulasekera , M Eidson , DJ White , WB Stone and LD Kramer (2001). West Nile virus infection in birds and mosquitoes, New York State, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 679685.

H Bernkopf , S Levine and R Nerson (1953). Isolation of West Nile virus in Israel. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 93: 207218.

FX Berthet , HG Zeller , MT Drouet , J Rauzier , JP Digoutte and V Deubel (1997). Extensive nucleotide changes and deletions within the envelope glycoprotein gene of Euro-African West Nile viruses. Journal of General Virology 78: 22932297.

BJ Blitvich , I Fernandez-Salas , JF Contreras-Cordero , NL Marlenee , JI Gonzalez-Rojas , N Komar , DJ Gubler , CH Calisher and BJ Beaty (2003). Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in horses, Coahuila State, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 853856.

BG Bolling , CG Moore , SL Anderson , CD Blair and BJ Beaty (2007). Entomological studies along the colorado front range during a period of intense West Nile virus activity. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23: 3746.

VP Bondre , RS Jadi , AC Mishra , PN Yergolkar and VA Arankalle (2007). West Nile virus isolates from India: evidence for a distinct genetic lineage. Journal of General Virology 88: 875884.

AC Brault , SA Langevin , RA Bowen , NA Panella , BJ Biggerstaff , BR Miller and N Komar (2004). Differential virulence of West Nile strains for American crows. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 21612168.

AC Brault , CY Huang , SA Langevin , RM Kinney , RA Bowen , WN Ramey , NA Panella , EC Holmes , AM Powers and BR Miller (2007). A single positively selected West Nile viral mutation confers increased virogenesis in American crows. Nature Genetics 39: 11621166.

T Briese , WG Glass and WI Lipkin (2000). Detection of West Nile virus sequences in cerebrospinal fluid. Lancet 355: 16141615.

MA Brinton (2002). The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the Western Hemisphere. Annual Review of Microbiology 56: 371402.

ML Bunning , RA Bowen , CB Cropp , KG Sullivan , BS Davis , N Komar , MS Godsey , D Baker , DL Hettler , DA Holmes , BJ Biggerstaff and CJ Mitchell (2002). Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 380386.

ML Bunning , PE Fox , RA Bowen , N Komar , GJ Chang , TJ Speaker , MR Stephens , N Nemeth , NA Panella , SA Langevin , P Gordy , M Teehee , PR Bright and MJ Turell (2007). DNA vaccination of the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) provides partial protection against lethal challenge with West Nile virus. Avian Disiseases 51: 573577.

AB Cannon , JA Luff , AC Brault , NJ MacLachlan , JB Case , EN Green and JE Sykes (2006). Acute encephalitis, polyarthritis, and myocarditis associated with West Nile virus infection in a dog. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 20: 12191223.

C Cantile , F Del Piero , G Di Guardo and M Arispici (2001). Pathologic and immunohistochemical findings in naturally occuring West Nile virus infection in horses. Veterinary Pathology 38: 414421.

J Castillo-Olivares and J Wood (2004). West Nile virus infection of horses. Veterinary Research 35: 467483.

RL Corrigan , C Waldner , T Epp , J Wright , SM Whitehead , H Bangura , E Young and HG Townsend (2006). Prediction of human cases of West Nile virus by equine cases, Saskatchewan, Canada, 2003. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 76: 263272.

CT Davis , GD Ebel , RS Lanciotti , AC Brault , H Guzman , M Siirin , A Lambert , RE Parsons , DW Beasley , RJ Novak , D Elizondo-Quiroga , EN Green , DS Young , LM Stark , MA Drebot , H Artsob , RB Tesh , LD Kramer and AD Barrett (2005). Phylogenetic analysis of North American West Nile virus isolates, 2001–2004: evidence for the emergence of a dominant genotype. Virology 342: 252265.

CT Davis , L Li , FJ May , R Bueno Jr, JA Dennett , AA Bala , H Guzman , D Quiroga-Elizondo , RB Tesh and AD Barrett (2007). Genetic stasis of dominant West Nile virus genotype, Houston, Texas. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13: 601604.

LE Davis , R DeBiasi , DE Goade , KY Haaland , JA Harrington , JB Harnar , SA Pergam , MK King , BK DeMasters and KL Tyler (2006). West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Annals of Neurology 60: 286300.

E Deardorff , JG Estrada-Franco , AC Brault , R Navarro-Lopez , A Campomanes-Cortes , P Paz-Ramirez , M Solis-Hernandez , WN Ramey , CT Davis , DWC Beasley , RB Tesh , ADT Barrett and SC Weaver (2006). Introduction of West Nile Virus Strains to Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 314318.

DJ Dohm , ML O'Guinn and MJ Turell (2002). Effect of environmental temperature on the ability of Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 39: 221225.

AP Dupuis II, PP Marra and LD Kramer (2003). Serologic evidence of West Nile virus transmission, Jamaica, West Indies. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 860863.

B Durand , V Chevalier , R Pouillot , J Labie , I Marendat , B Murgue , H Zeller and S Zientara (2002). West Nile virus outbreak in horses, southern France, 2000: results of a serosurvey. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 777782.

GD Ebel , AP Dupuis II, K Ngo , D Nicholas , E Kauffman , SA Jones , D Young , J Maffei , PY Shi , K Bernard and LD Kramer (2001). Partial genetic characterization of West Nile virus strains, New York State, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 650653.

M Eidson , N Komar , F Sorhage , R Nelson , T Talbot , F Mostashari and R McLean (2001a). Crow deaths as a sentinel surveillance system for West Nile virus in the northeastern United States, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 615620.

M Eidson , L Kramer , W Stone , Y Hagiwara and K Schmit (2001b). Dead bird surveillance as an early warning system for West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 631635.

D Elizondo-Quiroga , CT Davis , I Fernandez-Salas , R Escobar-Lopez , DV Olmos , LCS Gastalum , MA Acosta , A Elizondo-Quiroga , JI Gonzalez-Rojas , JF Contreras Cordero , H Guzman , A Travassos da Rosa , BJ Blitvich , ADT Barreto , BJ Beaty and RB Tesh (2005). West Nile virus isolation in human and mosquitoes, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 14491452.

PR Epstein (2001). West Nile virus and the climate. Journal of Urban Health 78: 367371.

K Erdelyi , K Ursu , E Ferenczi , L Szeredi , F Ratz , J Skare and T Bakonyi (2007). Clinical and pathologic features of lineage 2 West Nile virus infections in birds of prey in Hungary. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7: 181188.

JG Estrada-Franco , R Navarro-Lopez , DW Beasley , L Coffey , AS Carrara , A Travassos da Rosa , T Clements , E Wang , GV Ludwig , AC Cortes , PP Ramirez , RB Tesh , AD Barrett and SC Weaver (2003). West Nile virus in Mexico: evidence of widespread circulation since July 2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 16041607.

A Farajollahi , WJ Crans , D Nickerson , P Bryant , B Wolf , A Glaser and TG Andreadis (2005). Detection of West Nile virus RNA from the louse fly Icosta americana (Diptera: Hippoboscidae). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 21: 474476.

JA Farfan-Ale , BJ Blitvich , MA Lorono-Pino , NL Marlenee , EP Rosado-Paredes , JE Garcia-Rejon , LF Flores-Flores , L Chulim-Perera , M Lopez-Uribe , G Perez-Mendoza , I Sanchez-Herrera , W Santamaria , J Moo-Huchim , DJ Gubler , BC Cropp , CH Calisher and BJ Beaty (2004). Longitudinal studies of West Nile virus infection in avians, Yucatan State, Mexico. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 4: 314.

I Fernandez-Salas , JF Contreras-Cordero , BJ Blitvich , JI Gonzalez-Rojas , A Cavazos-Alvarez , NL Marlenee , A Elizondo-Quiroga , MA Lorono-Pino , DJ Gubler , BC Cropp , CH Calisher and BJ Beaty (2003). Serologic evidence of West Nile Virus infection in birds, Tamaulipas State, Mexico. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 3: 209213.

SD Fitzgerald , JS Patterson , M Kiupel , HA Simmons , SD Grimes , CF Sarver , RM Fulton , BA Steficek , TM Cooley , JP Massey and JG Sikarskie (2003). Clinical and pathologic features of West Nile virus infection in native North American owls (Family Strigidae). Avian Diseases 47: 602610.

IM Foppa and A Spielman (2007). Does reservoir host mortality enhance transmission of West Nile virus? Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling 4: 1725.

SE Gibbs , AE Ellis , DG Mead , AB Allison , JK Moulton , EW Howerth and DE Stallknecht (2005). West Nile virus detection in the organs of naturally infected blue jays (Cyanocitta cristata). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41: 354362.

LB Goddard , AE Roth , WK Reisen and TW Scott (2002). Vector competence of California mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 13851391.

J Guarner , WJ Shieh , S Hunter , CD Paddock , T Morken , GL Campbell , AA Marfin and SR Zaki (2004). Clinicopathologic study and laboratory diagnosis of 23 cases with West Nile virus encephalomyelitis. Human Pathology 35: 983990.

DJ Gubler , GL Campbell , R Nasci , N Komar , L Petersen and JT Roehrig (2000). West Nile virus in the United States: guidelines for detection, prevention, and control. Viral Immunology 13: 469475.

RA Hall (2000). The emergence of West Nile virus: the Australian connection. Viral Immunology 13: 447461.

LL Han , F Popovici , JP Alexander Jr, V Laurentia , LA Tengelsen , C Cernescu , HE Gary Jr, N Ion-Nedelcu , GL Campbell and TF Tsai (1999). Risk factors for West Nile virus infection and meningoencephalitis, Romania, 1996. Journal of Infectious Diseases 179: 230233.

CG Hayes (2001). West Nile virus: Uganda, 1937, to New York City, 1999. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951: 2537.

EB Hayes and DJ Gubler (2005). West Nile Virus: epidemiology and clinical features of an emerging epidemic in the United States. Annual Review of Medicine 57: 181194.

EB Hayes , N Komar , RS Nasci , SP Montgomery , DR O'Leary and GL Campbell (2005a). Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of West Nile virus disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 11671173.

EB Hayes , JJ Sejvar , SR Zaki , RS Lanciotti , AV Bode and GL Campbell (2005b). Virology, pathology, and clinical manifestations of West Nile virus disease. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 11741179.

KM Heinz-Taheny , JJ Andrews , MJ Kinsel , AP Pessier , ME Pinkerton , KY Lemberger , RJ Novak , GJ Dizikes , E Edwards and N Komar (2004). West Nile virus infection in free-ranging squirrels in Illinois. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 16: 186190.

Z Hubalek and J Halouzka (1999). West Nile fever – a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5: 643650.

HJ Hutcheson , CH Gorham , C Machain-Williams , MA Lorono-Pino , AM James , NL Marlenee , B Winn , BJ Beaty and CD Blair (2005). Experimental transmission of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae: Flavivirus) by Carios capensis ticks from North America. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 5: 293295.

ICTV (2005). In: CM Fauquet , MA Mayo , J Maniloff , U Desselberger and LA Ball (eds) Virus Taxonomy: Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. London: Elsevier Academic Press.

M Iwamoto , DB Jernigan , A Guasch , MJ Trepka , CG Blackmore , WC Hellinger , SM Pham , S Zaki , RS Lanciotti , SE Lance-Parker , CA DiazGranados , AG Winquist , CA Perlino , S Wiersma , KL Hillyer , JL Goodman , AA Marfin , ME Chamberland and LR Petersen (2003). Transmission of West Nile virus from an organ donor to four transplant recipients. The New England Journal of Medicine 348: 21962203.

ER Jacobson , PE Ginn , JM Troutman , L Farina , L Stark , K Klenk , KL Burkhalter and N Komar (2005). West Nile virus infection in farmed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41: 96106.

XY Jia , T Briese , I Jordan , A Rambaut , HC Chi , JS Mackenzie , RA Hall , J Scherret and WI Lipkin (1999). Genetic analysis of West Nile New York 1999 encephalitis virus. Lancet 354: 19711972.

PG Jupp (2001). The ecology of West Nile virus in South Africa and the occurrence of outbreaks in humans. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951: 143152.

AM Kilpatrick , LD Kramer , SR Campbell , EO Alleyne , AP Dobson and P Daszak (2005). West Nile virus risk assessment and the bridge vector paradigm. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 425429.

AM Kilpatrick , LD Kramer , MJ Jones , PP Marra and P Daszak (2006). West Nile virus epidemics in North America are driven by shifts in mosquito feeding behavior. PLoS Biology 4: 606610.

BK Kleinschmidt-DeMasters , BA Marder , ME Levi , SP Laird , JT McNutt , EJ Escott , GT Everson and KL Tyler (2004). Naturally acquired West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in transplant recipients: clinical, laboratory, diagnostic, and neuropathological features. Archives of Neurology 61: 12101220.

K Klenk , J Snow , K Morgan , R Bowen , M Stephens , F Foster , P Gordy , S Beckett , N Komar , D Gubler and M Bunning (2004). Alligators as West Nile virus amplifiers. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 21502155.

N Komar (2003). West Nile virus: epidemiology and ecology in North America. Advances in Virus Research 61: 185234.

N Komar and GG Clark (2006). West Nile virus activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública 19: 112117.

N Komar , NA Panella , JE Burns , SW Dusza , TM Mascarenhas and TO Talbot (2001). Serologic evidence for West Nile virus infection in birds in the New York City vicinity during an outbreak in 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 621625.

N Komar , S Langevin , S Hinten , N Nemeth , E Edwards , D Hettler , B Davis , R Bowen and M Bunning (2003a). Experimental infection of North American birds with the New York 1999 strain of West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 311322.

O Komar , MB Robbins , K Klenk , BJ Blitvich , NL Marlenee , KL Burkhalter , DJ Gubler , G Gonzalvez , CJ Pena , AT Peterson and N Komar (2003b). West Nile virus transmission in resident birds, Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 12991302.

LD Kramer and KA Bernard (2001). West Nile virus infection in birds and mammals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951: 8493.

LD Kramer , LM Styer and GD Ebel (2007). A global perspective on the epidemiology of West Nile virus. Annual Review of Entomology 53: 6181.

SL LaDeau , AM Kilpatrick and PP Marra (2007). West Nile virus emergence and large-scale declines of North American bird populations. Nature 447: 710713.

RS Lanciotti , JT Roehrig , V Deubel , J Smith , M Parker , K Steele , B Crise , KE Volpe , MB Crabtree , JH Scherret , RA Hall , JS MacKenzie , CB Cropp , B Panigrahy , E Ostlund , B Schmitt , M Malkinson , C Banet , J Weissman , N Komar , HM Savage , W Stone , T McNamara and DJ Gubler (1999). Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science 286: 23332337.

RS Lanciotti , GD Ebel , V Deubel , AJ Kerst , S Murri , R Meyer , M Bowen , N McKinney , WE Morrill , MB Crabtree , LD Kramer and JT Roehrig (2002). Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology 298: 96105.

WJ Landesman , BF Allan , RB Langerhans , TM Knight and JM Chase (2007). Inter-annual associations between precipitation and human incidence of West Nile virus in the United States. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7: 337343.

CH Lawrie , NY Uzcategui , EA Gould and PA Nuttall (2004). Ixodid and argasid tick species and West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 653657.

B Le Guenno , A Bougermouh , T Azzam and R Bouakaz (1996). West Nile: a deadly virus? Lancet 348: 1315.

CA Lichtensteiger , K Heinz-Taheny , TS Osborne , RJ Novak , BA Lewis and ML Firth (2003). West Nile virus encephalitis and myocarditis in wolf and dog. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 13031306.

MA Lorono-Pino , BJ Blitvich , JA Farfan-Ale , FI Puerto , JM Blanco , NL Marlenee , EP Rosado-Paredes , JE Garcia-Rejon , DJ Gubler , CH Calisher and BJ Beaty (2003). Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in horses, Yucatan State, Mexico. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 857859.

M Malkinson , C Banet , Y Weisman , S Pokamunski , R King , MT Drouet and V Deubel (2002). Introduction of West Nile virus in the Middle East by migrating white storks. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 392397.

AA Marfin , LR Petersen , M Eidson , J Miller , J Hadler , C Farello , B Werner , GL Campbell , M Layton , P Smith , E Bresnitz , M Cartter , J Scaletta , G Obiri , M Bunning , RC Craven , JT Roehrig , KG Julian , SR Hinten and DJ Gubler (2001). Widespread West Nile virus activity, eastern United States, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 730735.

NL Marlenee , MA Lorono-Pino , BJ Beaty , BJ Blitvich , I Fernandez Salas , JF Contreras Cordero and JI Gonzalez Rojas (2004). Detection of antibodies to West Nile and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in horses. Salud Pública de México 46: 373375.

T Mather , T Takeda , J Tassello , A Ohagen , D Serebryanik , E Kramer , F Brown , R Tesh , B Alford , J Chapman and A Lazo (2003). West Nile virus in blood: stability, distribution, and susceptibility to PEN110 inactivation. Transfusion 43: 10291037.

S Mattar , E Edwards , J Laguado , M Gonzalez , J Alvarez and N Komar (2005). West Nile virus antibodies in Colombian horses. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11: 14971498.

RG McLean , SR Ubico , DE Docherty , WR Hansen , L Sileo and TS McNamara (2001). West Nile virus transmission and ecology in birds. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951: 5457.

DL Miller , MJ Mauel , C Baldwin , G Burtle , D Ingram , ME Hines II and KS Frazier (2003). West Nile virus in farmed alligators. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 794799.

G Molaei , TG Andreadis , PM Armstrong , JF Anderson and CR Vossbrinck (2006). Host feeding patterns of Culex mosquitoes and West Nile virus transmission, Northeastern United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 468474.

ME Morales-Betoulle , H Morales , BJ Blitvich , AM Powers , EA Davis , R Klein and C Cordon-Rosales (2006). West Nile virus in horses, Guatemala. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 10381039.

MA Morales , M Barrandeguy , C Fabbri , JB Garcia , A Vissani , K Trono , G Gutierrez , S Pigretti , H Menchaca , N Garrido , N Taylor , F Fernandez , S Levis and D Enria (2006). West Nile virus isolation from equines in Argentina, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 15591561.

S Mukhopadhyay , BS Kim , PR Chipman , MG Rossmann and RJ Kuhn (2003). Structure of West Nile virus. Science 302: 248.

KY Mumcuoglu , C Banet-Noach , M Malkinson , U Shalom and R Galun (2005). Argasid ticks as possible vectors of West Nile virus in Israel. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 5: 6571.

B Murgue , S Murri , S Zientara , B Durand , JP Durand and H Zeller (2001). West Nile outbreak in horses in southern France, 2000: the return after 35 years. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 692696.

RS Nasci , HM Savage , DJ White , JR Miller , BC Cropp , MS Godsey , AJ Kerst , P Bennett , K Gottfried and RS Lanciotti (2001). West Nile virus in overwintering Culex mosquitoes, New York City, 2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 742744.

D Nash , F Mostashari , A Fine , J Miller , D O'Leary , K Murray , A Huang , A Rosenberg , A Greenberg , M Sherman , S Wong and M Layton (2001). The outbreak of West Nile virus infection in the New York City area in 1999. The New England Journal of Medicine 344: 18071814.

DR O'Leary , AA Marfin , SP Montgomery , AM Kipp , JA Lehman , BJ Biggerstaff , VL Elko , PD Collins , JE Jones and GL Campbell (2004). The epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States, 2002. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 4: 6170.

EN Ostlund , RL Crom , DD Pedersen , DJ Johnson , WO Williams and BJ Schmitt (2001). Equine West Nile encephalitis, United States. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 665669.

NA Panella , AJ Kerst , RS Lanciotti , P Bryant , B Wolf and N Komar (2001). Comparative West Nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 754755.

LR Petersen and JT Roehrig (2001). West Nile virus: a reemerging global pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 611614.

AT Peterson , DA Vieglais and JK Andreasen (2003). Migratory birds modeled as critical transport agents for West Nile virus in North America. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 3: 2737.

AE Platonov , GA Shipulin , OY Shipulina , EN Tyutyunnik , TI Frolochkina , RS Lanciotti , S Yazyshina , OV Platonova , IL Obukhov , AN Zhukov , YY Vengerov and VI Pokrovskii (2001). Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 128132.

KB Platt , BJ Tucker , PG Halbur , S Tiawsirisup , BJ Blitvich , FG Fabiosa , LC Bartholomay and WA Rowley (2007). West Nile virus viremia in eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) sufficient for infecting different mosquitoes. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13: 831837.

R Quirin , M Salas , S Zientara , H Zeller , J Labie , S Murri , T Lefrancois , M Petitclerc and D Martinez (2004). West Nile virus, Guadeloupe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 10: 706708.

JH Rappole , BW Compton , P Leimgruber , J Robertson , DI King and SC Renner (2006). Modeling movement of West Nile virus in the Western Hemisphere. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 6: 128139.

RW Read , DB Rodriguez and BA Summers (2005). West Nile virus encephalitis in a dog. Veterinary Pathology 42: 219222.

WK Reisen , Y Fang and VM Martinez (2005). Avian host and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) vector competence determine the efficiency of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis virus transmission. Journal of Medical Entomology 42: 367375.

WK Reisen , Y Fang and VM Martinez (2006). Effects of temperature on the transmission of West Nile virus by Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 43: 309317.

P Salazar , JL Traub-Dargatz , PS Morley , DD Wilmot , DJ Steffen , WE Cunningham and MD Salman (2004). Outcome of equids with clinical signs of West Nile virus infection and factors associated with death. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 225: 267274.

MA Samuel and MS Diamond (2006). Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion. Journal of Virology 80: 93499360.

MR Sardelis , MJ Turell , DJ Dohm and ML O'Guinn (2001). Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 10181022.

HM Savage , D Aggarwal , CS Apperson , CR Katholi , E Gordon , HK Hassan , M Anderson , D Charnetzky , L McMillen , EA Unnasch and TR Unnasch (2007). Host choice and West Nile virus infection rates in blood-fed mosquitoes, including members of the Culex pipiens complex, from Memphis and Shelby County, Tennessee, 2002–2003. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7: 365386.

JH Scherret , M Poidinger , JS Mackenzie , AK Broom , V Deubel , WI Lipkin , T Briese , EA Gould and RA Hall (2001). The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 697705.

JJ Sejvar and AA Marfin (2006). Manifestations of West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Reviews in Medical Virology 16: 209224.

J Shaman , JF Day and M Stieglitz (2002). Drought-induced amplification of Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Florida. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 575580.

J Shaman , JF Day and M Stieglitz (2003). St. Louis encephalitis virus in wild birds during the 1990 south Florida epidemic: the importance of drought, wetting conditions, and the emergence of Culex nigripalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) to arboviral amplification and transmission. Journal of Medical Entomology 40: 547554.

J Shaman , JF Day and M Stieglitz (2005). Drought-induced amplification and epidemic transmission of West Nile virus in southern Florida. Journal of Medical Entomology 42: 134141.

PY Shi , EB Kauffman , P Ren , A Felton , JH Tai , AP Dupuis II, SA Jones , KA Ngo , DC Nicholas , J Maffei , GD Ebel , KA Bernard and LD Kramer (2001). High-throughput detection of West Nile virus RNA. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39: 12641271.

KW Snapinn , EC Holmes , DS Young , KA Bernard , LD Kramer and GD Ebel (2007). Declining growth rate of West Nile virus in North America. Journal of Virology 81: 25312534.

KE Steele , MJ Linn , RJ Schoepp , N Komar , TW Geisbert , RM Manduca , PP Calle , BL Raphael , TL Clippinger , T Larsen , J Smith , RS Lanciotti , NA Panella and TS McNamara (2000). Pathology of fatal West Nile virus infections in native and exotic birds during the 1999 outbreak in New York City, New York. Veterinary Pathology 37: 208224.

A Steinman , C Banet-Noach , S Tal , O Levi , L Simanov , S Perk , M Malkinson and N Shpigel (2003). West Nile virus infection in crocodiles. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9: 887889.

ML Teehee , ML Bunning , S Stevens and RA Bowen (2005). Experimental infection of pigs with West Nile virus. Archives of Virology 150: 12491256.

RB Tesh , AP Travassos da Rosa , H Guzman , TP Araujo and SY Xiao (2002). Immunization with heterologous flaviviruses protective against fatal West Nile encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 8: 245251.

RB Tesh , M Siirin , H Guzman , AP Travassos da Rosa , X Wu , T Duan , H Lei , MR Nunes and SY Xiao (2005). Persistent West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster: studies on its mechanism and possible implications for other flavivirus infections. Journal of Infectious Diseases 192: 287295.

SJ Thomas , D Strickman and DW Vaughn (2003). Dengue epidemiology: virus epidemiology, ecology, and emergence. Advances in Virus Research 61: 235289.

S Tiawsirisup , KB Platt , BJ Tucker and WA Rowley (2005). Eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 5: 342350.

TF Tsai , F Popovici , C Cernescu , GL Campbell and NI Nedelcu (1998). West Nile encephalitis epidemic in southeastern Romania. Lancet 352: 767771.

MJ Turell , MR Sardelis , DJ Dohm and ML O'Guinn (2001). Potential North American vectors of West Nile virus. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 951: 317324.

MJ Turell , ML O'Guinn , DJ Dohm , JP Webb Jr and MR Sardelis (2002). Vector competence of Culex tarsalis from Orange County, California, for West Nile virus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 2: 193196.

MJ Turell , DJ Dohm , MR Sardelis , ML Oguinn , TG Andreadis and JA Blow (2005a). An update on the potential of north American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 42: 5762.

MJ Turell , ML O'Guinn , JW Jones , MR Sardelis , DJ Dohm , DM Watts , R Fernandez , A Travassos da Rosa , H Guzman , R Tesh , CA Rossi , V Ludwig , JA Mangiafico , J Kondig , LP Wasieloski Jr, J Pecor , M Zyzak , G Schoeler , CN Mores , C Calampa , JS Lee and TA Klein (2005b). Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru. Journal of Medical Entomology 42: 891898.

KM van der Meulen , MB Pensaert and HJ Nauwynck (2005). West Nile virus in the vertebrate world. Archives of Virology 150: 637657.

MP Ward , M Levy , HL Thacker , M Ash , SK Norman , GE Moore and PW Webb (2004). Investigation of an outbreak of encephalomyelitis caused by West Nile virus in 136 horses. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 225: 8489.

MP Ward , JA Schuermann , LD Highfield and KO Murray (2006). Characteristics of an outbreak of West Nile virus encephalomyelitis in a previously uninfected population of horses. Veterinary Microbiology 118: 255259.

DJ White , LD Kramer , PB Backenson , G Lukacik , G Johnson , JA Oliver , JJ Howard , RG Means , M Eidson , I Gotham , V Kulasekera and S Campbell (2001). Mosquito surveillance and polymerase chain reaction detection of West Nile virus, New York State. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 643649.

BR Wilcox , MJ Yabsley , AE Ellis , DE Stallknecht and SE Gibbs (2007). West Nile virus antibody prevalence in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) and fish crows (Corvus ossifragus) in Georgia, USA. Avian Diseases 51: 125128.

SY Xiao , H Guzman , H Zhang , AP Travassos da Rosa and RB Tesh (2001). West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a model for West Nile encephalitis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 7: 714721.

HG Zeller and I Schuffenecker (2004). West Nile virus: an overview of its spread in Europe and the Mediterranean basin in contrast to its spread in the Americas. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 23: 147156.

M Zinser , F Ramberg and E Willott (2004). Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) as a potential West Nile virus vector in Tucson, Arizona: blood meal analysis indicates feeding on both humans and birds. Journal of Insect Science 4: 2022.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Health Research Reviews
  • ISSN: 1466-2523
  • EISSN: 1475-2654
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-health-research-reviews
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: