Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-59b7f5684b-vcb8f Total loading time: 0.411 Render date: 2022-10-05T15:29:36.099Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "displayNetworkTab": true, "displayNetworkMapGraph": true, "useSa": true } hasContentIssue true

Effects of dry sow housing conditions on muscle weight and bone strength

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 September 2010

J. N. Marchant
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES
D. M. Broom
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES
Get access

Abstract

Confinement has been shown to affect bone strenth in poultry but this weakness has not been documented in other species housed in confinement. The objectives of this experiment were to compare muscle weight and bone strength in non-pregnant sows, of similar age and parity, housed throughout eight or nine pregnancies in two different dry sow systems: (1) individually in stalls and (2) communally in a large group. Following slaughter, the left thoracic and pelvic limbs were dissected and 14 locomotor muscles removed and c. ???lied. A proportional muscle weight was then calculated by dividing individual muscle weight (g) by total body weight (kg). Where there were significant differences, stall-housed sows had lower absolute and proportional muscle weights than group-housed sows. The left humerus and femur were also removed. The bones were broken by a three-point bend test using an Instron Universal Tester. Both bones from stall-housed sows had breaking strengths that were about two-thirds those of group-housed sows. The results indicate that confinement of sows, with a consequent lack of exercise, results in reduction of muscle weight and considerable reduction of bone strength.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © British Society of Animal Science 1996

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Anderson, J. J. B., Millin, L. and Crackel, W. C. 1971. Effect of exercise on mineral and organic bone turnover in swine. Journal of Applied Physiology 30: 810813.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Arthur, S. R., Kornegay, E. T., Thomas, H. R., Veit, H. P., Notter, D. R., Webb, K. E. and Baker, J. L. 1983. Restricted energy intake and elevated calcium and phosphorus intake for gilts during growth. IV. Characterisation of metacarpal, metatarsal, femur, humerus and turbinate bones of sows during three parities. Journal of Animal Science 57: 12001214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bäckstrom, L. 1973. Environment and animal health in piglet production. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica suppl. 41, pp. 1240.Google Scholar
Baxter, M. R. and Schwaller, C. 1983. Space requirements for sows in confinement. In Farm animal housing and welfare. Current topics in veterinary medicine and animal science. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.Google Scholar
Bayley, H. S., Arthur, D., Bowman, G. H., Pos, J. and Thompson, R. G. 1975. Influence of dietary phosphorus level on growth and bone development in boars and gilts. Journal of Animal Science 40: 864870.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Broom, D. M. 1989. The assessment of sow welfare. Pig Veterinary Journal 22: 100111.Google Scholar
Broom, D. M., Mendl, M. T. and Zanella, A. J. 1995. A comparison of the welfare of sows in different housing conditions. Animal Science 61: 369386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Combs, N. R., Kornegay, E. T., Lindemann, M. D., Notter, D. R., Wilson, J. H. and Mason, J. P. 1991. Calcium and phosphorus requirement of swine from weaning to market weight. II Development of response curves for bone criteria and comparison of bending and shear bone testing. Journal of Animal Science 69: 682693.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cronin, G. M. 1985. The development and significance of abnormal stereotyped behaviours in tethered sows. Ph. D. thesis, University of Wageningen.Google Scholar
Currey, J. D. 1968. The effect of protection on the impact strength of rabbits' bones. Acta Anatomica 71: 8793.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Fraser, A. F. and Broom, D. M. 1990. Farm animal behaviour and welfare. Balliere Tindall, London.Google Scholar
Grandhi, R. R., Thornton-Trump, A. B. and Doige, C. E. 1986. Influence of dietary calcium-phosphorus levels on certain mechanical, physical and histological properties and chemical composition of bones in gilts and second litter sows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 66: 495503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, D. D., Cromwell, G. L. and Stahly, T. S. 1991. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus, calcium:phosphorus ratio and vitamin K on performance, bone strength and blood clotting status of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 69: 646655.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jongbloed, A. W. 1987. Phosphorus in the feeding of pigs. Ph. D. thesis, WVO, Lelystad.Google Scholar
Knowles, T. G. 1990. The welfare of hens in transit and related effects of housing system. Ph. D. thesis, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
Knowles, T. G. and Broom, D. M. 1990. Limb bone strength and movement in laying hens from different housing systems. Veterinary Record 126: 354356.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kornegay, E. T., Thomas, H. R. and Meacham, T. N. 1973. Evaluation of dietary calcium and phosphorus for reproducing sows housed in total confinement or in dirt lots. Journal of Animal Science 37: 493500.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Krohn, C. C. and Munksgaard, L. 1993. Behaviour of dairy cows kept in extensive (loose housing/pasture) or intensive (tie stall) environments. II. Lying and lying-down behaviour. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37: 116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lanyon, L. E. 1984. Functional strain as a determinant for bone remodelling. Calcified Tissue International 36: S56–S61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lanyon, L. E. 1987. Functional strain in bone tissue as an objective, and controlling stimulus for adaptive bone remodelling. Journal of Biomechanics 20:10831093.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Low, A. G. 1993. Role of dietary fibre in pig diets. In Recent developments in pig nutrition 2 (ed. Cole, D. J. A., Haresign, W. and Garnsworthy, P. C.). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham.Google Scholar
Marchant, J. N. and Rudd, A. R. 1993. Differences in heart rate response at feeding between stall-housed and group-housed sows. Animal Production 56: 423 (abstr.).Google Scholar
Marchant, J. N. and Broom, D. M. 1993. The effects of dry sow housing conditions on lying behaviour of sows. Proceedings of the international congress on applied ethology, (ed. Nichelmann, M., Wierenga, H. K. and Braun, S.), pp. 455458. KTBL, Darmstadt.Google Scholar
McLean, K. A., Baxter, M. R. and Michie, W. 1986. A comparison of the welfare of laying hens in battery cages and a perchery. Research Developments in Agriculture 3: 9398.Google Scholar
Mendl, M. T., Broom, D. M. and Zanella, A. J. 1993. The effects of three types of dry sow housing on sow welfare. In Livestock environment IV (ed. Collins, E. and Boon, C.), pp. 461467. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.Google Scholar
Merkley, J. W. and Wabeck, C. J. 1975. Cage density and frozen storage effect on bone strength of broilers. Poultry Science 54:16241627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Meyer, W. A. and Sunde, M. L. 1974. Bone breakage as affected by type of housing or an exercise machine for layers. Poultry Science 53: 878885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nimmo, R. D. 1980. Effect of varying levels of dietary calcium and phosphorus fed to gilts during growth, gestation and subsequent lactation. Ph. D. thesis, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.Google Scholar
Perrin, W. R. and Bowland, J. P. 1977. Effects of enforced exercise on the incidence of leg weakness in growing boars. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 57: 245251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinhart, G. A. and Mahan, D. C. 1986. Effect of various calcium: phosphorus ratios at low and high dietary phosphorus for starter, grower and finishing swine. Journal of Animal Science 63: 457466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reinhold, J. G., Farndji, B., Abadi, P. and Ismail-Beigi, F. 1976. Decreased absorption of calcium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus by humans due to increased fiber and protein consumption as wheat bread. Journal of Nutrition 106: 493499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rousseaux, C. G., Gill, I. and Payne-Crosten, A. 1981. Femoral fractures in pigs associated with calcium deficiency. Australian Veterinary Journal 57: 508510.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rowland, L. O., Fry, J. L., Christmas, R. B., O'Steen, A. W. and Harmes, R. H. 1972. Differences in tibia strength and bone ash amongst strains of layers. Poultry Science 51: 16121615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schnabel, E., Bolduan, G. and Giildenpenning, A. 1983. [Effect of a bran diet on the total transit rate and measurements of the gastrointestinal tract in weaning piglets.] Archivfur Tiererna'hrung 33: 371377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tillon, J. P. and Madec, F. 1984. Diseases affecting confined sows. Data from epidemiological observations. Annales de Recherche Veterinaire 15:195199.Google ScholarPubMed
Tokuriki, M. 1973a. Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. I. Walk. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 35: 433446.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tokuriki, M. 1973b. Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. II. Trot. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 35: 525533.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tokuriki, M. 1974. Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. III. Gallop. Japanese journal of Veterinary Science 36:121132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Whittemore, C. T. 1994. Causes and consequences of change in the mature size of the domestic pig. Outlook on Agriculture 23: 5559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wright, T. M. and Hayes, W. C. 1976. Tensile testing of bone over a wide range of strain rates. Effects of strain rate, microstructure and density. Medical and Biological Engineering 14: 671679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
52
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Effects of dry sow housing conditions on muscle weight and bone strength
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

Effects of dry sow housing conditions on muscle weight and bone strength
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

Effects of dry sow housing conditions on muscle weight and bone strength
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *