Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Effect of diatomaceous earth as an anthelmintic treatment on internal parasites and feedlot performance of beef steers

  • M. I. Fernandez (a1), B. W. Woodward (a1) and B. E. Stromberg (a2)
Abstract
Abstract

Thirty crossbreed steer calves were randomly assigned to one of three feedlot treatment groups to evaluate the effectiveness of diatomaceous earth (DE) as an anthelmintic treatment and its effect on subsequent growth performance. Steers were adapted to a cereal-based diet for 15 days on the farm of origin and given an additional 21 days to adjust to the feedlot diet. Calves had not been dewormed prior to starting the study. On day 0 (2 January 1996) the positive control group of steers (CONV; no. = 11) was given 10 mg/kg of albendazole, a second group began receiving (on day 2) 0·3 kg of diatomaceous earth (DE; no. = 9) mixed daily with their food for 46 days and the negative control group (CTRL, no. = 9) received no anthelmintic treatment. Rectal faecal samples were collected upon arrival at the feedlot and the resulting egg counts showed that all steers were positive for nematodes and coccidia. Faecal samples were collected on days 0, 15, 28 and every 28 days thereafter to determine faecal egg counts. The last sample was taken on the day of slaughter. On day 0, the average count for all calves was over 70 eggs per g faeces (epg) for trichostrongyle type eggs; counts for Nematodirus sp., Strongyloides sp., Trichuris sp. and Capillaria sp. were negligible. CTRL and DE steers had higher parasite levels than CONV steers during the 1st (P < 0·01) and 2nd months (P < 0·05) after treatment. Egg counts for CTRL and DE groups decreased in March and none of the groups differed (P > 0·05) significantly for the remainder of the study. Coccidia levels decreased over time similarly for all groups. Offering 20 g DE per kg food intake for 46 days to beef steers on a high cereal -based diet had no effect (P > 0·05) on body weight, average daily gain, dry-matter intake, food conversion or days on food compared with the untreated control steers. Cumulative food conversion during the first 2 months was better for CONV than for DE and CTRL steers (P < 0·01) but did not differ between the latter two groups (P > 0·05). Cumulative food conversion for the rest of the study remained the same for all groups (P > 0·05). CONV calves required fewer days on food than DE calves (P < 0·05) but about the same number as CTRL calves (P > 0·10). Steers in the DE group required a similar number of days on food (230·22 ± 7·86 days) to reach target end points as CTRL steers (218·75 ± 8·34 days; P > 0·05) but more days than CONV calves (201·64 ± 7·11 days; P > 0·05).

Copyright
References
Hide All
Animal and Plant Inspection Service. 1995. Cattle on feed evaluation, Feedlot management practices. Parts I and II. Animal and Plant Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture.
Anonymous. 1987. Diatomaceous earth. In Biobulletin. Newsletter of Necessary Trading Company, New Castle, VA.
Barger I. A., Steel J. W. and Rodden B. R. 1993. Effects of a controlled-release albendazole capsule on parasitism and production from grazing Merino ewes and lambs. Australian Veterinary Journal 70: 4148.
Certified Organic. 1989. Clippings: on worms and face flies. Organic Exchange 1: 6.
Chick B. F. 1980. Economic significance of Fasciola hepatica infestation of beef cattle — a definition study based on field trial and grazier questionnaire. Proceedings of the second international symposium on veterinary epidemiology and economics, 7–11 May 1979, Canberra, Australia, pp. 377382.
Cockrell J. K. 1993. Diatomaceous earth. Natural Food and Farming, July–August, pp. 2326.
Cody R. P. and Smith J. K. 1991. Applied statistics and the SAS programming language, third edition. Prentice Hall Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
Courtney C. H. and Sundlof S. F. 1991. Veterinary antiparasitic drugs. In Comprehensive compendium of FDA approved antiparasitic drugs. University of Florida.
Cox D. D. and Todd A. C. 1962. Survey of gastrointestinal parasitism in Wisconsin dairy cattle, journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 141: 706709.
Deutschlander D. 1993. Evaluating diatomaceous earth as a wormer for sheep and cattle. In Greenbook '93, p. 37. Energy and Sustainable Agriculture Program, Minnesota Department of Agriculture, St Paul.
Duncan I. M. and Forbes A. B. 1992. Comparison of productivity and economic benefits of strategic anthelmintic use in young beef cattle in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 23: 9399.
Gasbarre L. C., Leighton E. A. and Davies C. J. 1990. Genetic control of immunity to gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. Veterinary Parasitology 37: 257272.
Gasbarre L. C. and Stromberg B. E. 1994. How helminthic parasitism suppresses bovine immunity, and the implications for deworming and vaccination. Topics in Veterinary Medicine 5: 416.
Genicot B., Mouligneau F. and Leceux P. 1991. Economic and production consequences of liver fluke disease in double-muscled fattening cattle. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, Series B 38: 203208.
Jordan R. M. 1987. Diatomaceous earth in lamb diets. Proceedings of the 62nd annual sheep and lamb feeder's day report, S–282, p. 14. Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St Paul.
Khallaayoune K. and Stromberg B. 1992. Effect of an anthelmintic treatment programme on sheep productivity in the Middle Atlas, Morocco. Tropical Animal Health and Production 24: 129134.
Kloosterman A. and Henken A. M. 1987. The effect of gastrointestinal nematodes on metabolism in calves. In Energy metabolism in farm animals (ed. Verstegen M. W. A. and Henken A. M.), pp. 352371. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Lotze R. 1989. Utersuchungen zur Wirksamkeit eines Albendazol-bolus gegen Magen-Darm-Wurminfektiones bei erstsommrigen Weiderindern. Tierärztliche Hochschule, Hannover.
Macher R. 1992. Diatomaceous earth. Organic Farmer 2: 41.
Sharabok K. 1991. The many uses of diatomaceous earth. Countryside and Small Stock Journal 75: 20.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1992. SAS/STAT user's guide, version 6, fourth edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.
Stromberg B. E., Vatthauer R. J., Schlotthauer J. C., Myers G. H., Haggard D. L., King V. L. and Hanke H. 1997. Production responses following strategic parasite control in a beef cow/calf herd. Veterinary Parasitology 68: 315322.
Vassilev G. D. 1993. Activity of ivermectin and albendazole in the control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites and growth performance of two-year-old beef cattle. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal 24: 121148.
Vercruysse J., Hilderson H., Claerebout E. and Roelants B. 1995. Control of gastrointestinal nematodes in first-season grazing calves by two strategic treatments with doramectin. Veterinary Parasitology 58: 2734.
Weehler P. A. 1986. Diatomaceous earth. Natural Food and Farming 33: 58.
xiao L. and Gibbs H. C. 1992 Nutritional and pathophysiologic effects of clinically apparent and subclinical infections of Ostertagia ostertagi in calves. American Journal of Veterinary Research 53: 20132018.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Science
  • ISSN: 1357-7298
  • EISSN: 1748-748X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 16 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1506 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.