Agricultural Research Council. 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Slough.
Agyemang, K., Astatke, A., Anderson, F. M. and Mariam, W. W. 1991. Effects of work on reproductive and productive performance of crossbred dairy cows in the Ethiopian Highlands. Tropical Animal Health and Production 23: 241–249.
Agyemang, K., Little, D. A., Bath, M. L. and Dwinger, R. H. 1991. Effects of postpartum body weight changes on subsequent reproductive performance in N'Dama cattle maintained under traditional husbandry systems. Animal Reproduction Science 26: 51–59.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1980. Official methods of analysis. 13th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Australian Agricultural Council. 1990. Feeding standards for Australian livestock. Ruminants. Ruminant subcommittee, CSIRO, Australia.
Barton, D. 1991. The use of cows for draught in Bangladesh, ACIARA Draught animal bulletin, N 1, pp. 14–26. James Cook University of North Queensland, Australia.
British Standards Institution. 1989. Determination of fat content of milk and milk products (Gerber method). British Standard, BS 696: part 2.
Ffoulkes, D, Bamaulim, A. and Panggabean, T. 1987. Utilization Of fibrous feeds by working buffaloes. In Ruminant feeding systems utilizing fibrous agricultural residues (ed.Dixon, R. M), pp. 161–169. International Development Program of Australian Universities and Colleges, Canberra.
Gryseels, G. and Anderson, F. M. 1985. Use of crossbred dairy cows as draught animals: experiences from the Ethiopian highlands. In Research methodology for livestock on farm trials. Proceedings of a workshop, Aleppo, Syria, pp. 237–258. International Development Research Centre, Ottawa.
Gryseels, G. and Goe, M. R. 1984. Energy flows on smallholder farms in the Ethiopian highlands. 1LCA Bulletin 17: 2–9.
Lawrence, P. R. 1985. A review of the nutrient requirements of draught oxen. In Draught animal power for production (ed. Copland, I. W.), ACIAR proceedings no. 10, pp. 59–63. James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland.
Mathers, J. C, Pearson, R. A., Sneddon, C. J., Matthewman, R. W. and Smith, A. J. 1985. The use of draught cows in agricultural systems with particular reference to their nutritional needs. In Milk production in developing countries (ed. Smith, A. J.), pp. 476–496. University of Edinburgh Press, Edinburgh.
Matthewman, R. W. 1987. Role and potential of draught cows in tropical farming systems: a review. Tropical Animal Health and Production 19: 215–222.
Matthewman, R. W. 1990. Effect of sustained exercise on milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolite concentrations in Hereford × Friesian cattle.Ph.D. dissertation, Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh.
Matthewman, R. W., Dijkman, J. T. and Zerbini, E. 1994. The management and husbandry of male and female draught animals: research achievements and needs. In Research for development of animal traction (ed. Lawrence, P. R., Lawrence, K., Dijkman, J. T. and Starkey, P. H.), proceedings of the West African Animal Traction Network, Kano, 1990, pp. 125–136. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Department of Agriculture and Fisheries for Scotland and Department of Agriculture for Northern Ireland. 1984. Energy allowances and feeding systems for ruminants. Reference book no. 433. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
Nicholson, M. J. and Butterworth, M. H. 1986. A guide to condition scoring of Zebu cattle. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Pyne, G. T. 1932. The determination of milk proteins by formaldehyde titration. Biochemical journal 26: 1006–1014.
Shapiro, B., Zerbini, E. and Gemeda, T. 1994. The returns to investment in dual use of crossbred cows for milk production and draught work in the Ethiopian Highlands. First workshop of the Animal Traction Network for Ethiopia, Addis Ababa.
Sowe, J. M. and Reed, J. D. 1994. The extent of draught cow use in the North Bank Division of the Gambia. In Research for development of animal traction (ed. Lawrence, P. R., Lawrence, K., Dijkman, J. T. and Starkey, P. H.), proceedings of the West African Animal Traction Network, Kano, 1990, pp. 273–275. International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1989. SAS/STAT user's guide, version 6, 4th ed, vol. 2. Statistical Analysis Systems Institute, Cary, NC.
Teleni, E., Boniface, A. N., Sutherland, S. and Entwistle, K. W. 1989. The effect of depletion of body reserve nutrients on reproduction in Bos indicus cattle. Draught animal power project bulletin no. 8, pp. 1–10. James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.
Teleni, E. and Hogan, J. P. 1989. Nutrition of draught animals. In Draught animals in rural development. ACIAR proceedings no. 27, pp. 118–133. James Cook University, Townsville, Australia.
Van Soest, P. J. and Robertson, J. B. 1985. Analysis of forage and fibrous foods. Laboratory manual for animal science, Cornell University, no. 613.
Zerbini, E., Gemeda, T., Tegegne, A., Wold, A. G. and Franceschini, R. 1993a. Effects of work and diet on progesterone secretion, short luteal phases and ovulations without estrus in postpartum F1 crossbred dairy cows. Theriogenology 43: 571–584.
Zerbini, E., Gemeda, T., Franceschini, R., Sherington, J. and Wold, A. G. 1993b. Reproductive performance of F1 crossbred dairy cows. Effect of work and diet supplementation. Animal Production 57: 361–369.
Zerbini, E., Gemeda, T., Wold, A. G., Nokoe, S. and Demissie, D. 1995. Effect of draught work on performance and metabolism of crossbred cows. 2. Effect of work on roughage intake, digestion, digesta kinetics and plasma metabolites. Animal Science 60: 369–378.