Blecha, F. and Charley, B. 1990. Rationale for using immunpotentiators in domestic food animals. In Immunomodulation in domestic food animals (ed. Blecha, F. and Charley, B.), pp. 3–19. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.
Chen, H. L., Li, D. F., Chang, B. Y., Gong, L. M., Dai, J. G. and Yi, G. F. 2003. Effects of Chinese herbal polysaccharides on the immunity and growth performance of young broilers. Poultry Science 82: 364–370.
Dritz, S. S., Shi, J., Kielian, T. L., Goodband, R. D., Nelssen, J. L., Tokach, M. D., Chengappa, M. M., Smith, J. E. and Blecha, F. 1995. Influence of dietary beta-glucan on growth performance, nonspecific immunity, and resistance to streptococcus suis infection in weanling pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73: 3341–3350.
Duan, P. and Wang, Z. M. 2002. Clinical study on effect of Astragalus in efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing of chemotherapy in patients of malignant tumor. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine 22: 515–517.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K. A., Hamilton, J. K., Rebers, P. A. and Smith, F. 1956. Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry 28: 350–356.
Fang, J. N. 1988. Chemical structure of a glucan from Astragalus mongholicus. Acta Chimica Sinica 46: 1101–1104.
Fiorentino, D. F., Bond, M. W. and Mosmann, T. R. 1989. Two types of mouse T helper cell: IV. Th2 clones secrete a factor that inhibits cytokine production by Th1 clones. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 170: 2081–2095.
Fiorentino, D. F., Zlotnik, A., Mosmann, T. R., Howard, M. and O'Garra, A. 1991. IL-10 inhibits cytokine production by activated macrophages. Journal of Immunology 147: 3815–3822.
Hiss, S. and Sauerwein, H. 2003. Influence of dietary ß-glucan on growth performance, lymphocyte proliferation, specific immune response and haptoglobin plasma concentrations in pigs. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 87: 2–11.
Ji, F., Wu, G., Blanton, J. R. and Kim, S. W. 2005. Weight and compositional changes in pregnant gilts and its implication to nutrition. Journal of Animal Science 83: 366–375.
Kong, X., Hu, Y., Rui, R., Wang, D. and Li, X. 2004. Effects of Chinese herbal medicinal ingredients on peripheral lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer after vaccination in chicken. International Immunopharmacology 4: 975–982.
Kurashige, S., Akuzawa, Y. and Endo, F. 1999. Effects of astragali radix extract on carcinogenesis, cytokine production, and cytotoxicity in mice treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N'-butanolnitrosoamine. Cancer Investigation 17: 30–35.
Lai, C., Yin, J., Li, D., Zhao, L. and Chen, X. 2005. Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on performance and immune function of weaned pigs. Archives of Animal Nutrition 59: 41–45.
Lee, K. Y. and Jeon, Y. J. 2005. Macrophage activation by polysaccharide isolated from Astragalus membranaceus. International Immunopharmacology 5: 1225–1233.
Li, N., She, R. P., Han, L. J. and Wang, K. Z. 2004. Effect of Astragalus root extractions on chicken growth and immunological function. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology 34: 61–64.
McPherson, R. L., Ji, F., Wu, G. and Kim, S. W. 2004. Fetal growth and compositional changes of fetal tissues in the pigs. Journal of Animal Science 82: 2534–2540.
Mao, S. P., Cheng, K. L. and Zhou, Y. F. 2004. Modulatory effect of Astragalus membranaceus on Th1/Th2 cytokine in patients with herpes simplex keratitis. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine 24: 121–123.
Mao, X. F., Piao, X. S., Lai, C. H., Li, D. F., Xing, J. J. and Shi, B. L. 2005. Effects of β-glucan obtained from the Chinese herb Astragalus membranaceus and lipopolysaccharide challenge on performance, immunological, adrenal, and somatotropic responses of weaned pigs. Journal of Animal Science 83: 2775–2782.
Mosmann, T. 1983. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of Immunological Methods 65: 55–63.
Mosmann, T. R., Cherwinski, H., Bond, M. W., Giedlin, M. A. and Coffman, R. L. 1986. Two types of murine helper T cell clone. I. Definition according to profiles of lymphokine activities and secreted proteins. Journal of Immunology 136: 2348–2357.
National Research Council. 1998. Nutrient requirements of swine, 10th edition. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.
Parr, T. M., Kerr, B. J. and Baker, D. H. 2003. Isoleucine requirement of growing (25 to 45?kg) pigs. Journal of Animal Science 81: 745–752.
Raymond, C. R. and Wilkie, B. N. 2004. Th-1/Th-2 type cytokine profiles of pig T-cells cultured with antigen-treated monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Vaccine 22: 1016–1023.
Schley, P. D. and Field, C. J. 2002. The immune-enhancing effects of dietary fibres and prebiotics. British Journal of Nutrition 87: (Suppl.2) S221–S230.
Schoenherr, W. D., Pollmann, D. S. and Coalson, J. A. 1994. Titration of MacroGard-S on growth performance of nursery pigs. Journal of Animal Science 72: (suppl. 2) 57 (abstr.).
Shan, J. J., Wang, Y., Weng, Y. Q., Xie, C. Y., Liu, D. and Hu, Z. B. 2002. Comparing compositions and immunoactivities of polysaccharide in hair root of Astragalus membranaceus and cultivated A. membranaceus. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs 33: 1096–1099.
Shao, B. M., Xu, W., Dai, H., Tu, P., Li, Z. and Gao, X. M. 2004. A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 320: 1103–1111.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute. 1996. SAS user's guide: statistics, version 7.0 SAS Institute, Cary, NC.
Staub, A. M. 1965. Removal of protein—Sevag method. Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry 5: 5–6.
Szabo, S. J., Kim, S. T., Costa, G. L., Zhang, X., Fathman, C. G. and Glimcher, L. H. 2000. A novel transcription factor. Cell 100: 655–669.
Tang, X. M., Hu, Y. L. and Zhang, B. K. 1998. The effects of Astragalus polysaccharide on the peripheral T-lymphocyte proliferation of broilers. Chinese Journal of Veterinary Science 1: 54–58.
Wei, H., Sun, R., Xiao, W., Feng, J., Zhen, C., Xu, X. and Tian, Z. 2003. Traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus reverses predominance of Th2 cytokines and their up-stream transcript factors in lung cancer patients. Oncology Reports 10: 1507–1512.
Wu, G. 1996. Effects of concanavalin A and phorbol myristate acetate on glutamine metabolism and proliferation of porcine intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 114A: 363–368.
Zhao, K. S., Mancini, C. and Doria, G. 1990. Enhancement of the immune response in mice by Astragalus membranaceus extract. Immunopharmacology 20: 225–233.
Zhou, Y., Lin, G., Baarsch, M. J., Scamurra, R. W. and Murtaugh, M. P. 1994. Interleukin-4 suppresses inflammatory cytokine gene transcription in porcine macrophages. Journal of Leukocyte Biolology 56: 507–513.
Zuckermann, F. A., Husmann, R. J., Schwartz, R., Brandt, J., Mateu de Antonio, E. and Martin, S. 1998. Interleukin-12 enhances the virus-specific interferon gamma response of pigs to an inactivated pseudorabies virus vaccine. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 63: 57–67.