Skip to main content Accessibility help

Nutritive value of tropical tree leaf meals in adult sows

  • P. Leterme (a1), M. Botero (a1), A. M. Londoño (a1), J. Bindelle (a2) and A. Buldgen (a2)...

Tree leaf meals (TLM) are increasingly used in the tropics to feed pigs. The nutritive value of the TLM of cocoyam (Xanthosoma saggitifolium), mulberry (Morus alba) and Trichanthera gigantea, their effect on the digestive tract and their fermentation rate in the large intestine, were determined in adult sows given diets containing 150 or 300 g TLM per kg. The TLM contained from 8·5 to 12·0 MJ digestible energy per kg dry matter (DM) and from 60 to 125 g digestible protein per kg DM. The digestibility was not affected ( P>0·05) by their rate of incorporation in the diet. The apparent ileal protein digestibility of the diets containing 300 g TLM per kg was also determined by the slaughtering method. It reached 80% for the basal diet and 54, 70 and 74% for the Trichanthera-, mulberry- and cocoyam-based diets, respectively. No diet effect ( P>0·05) was observed on the weight and length of the gastro-intestinal tract, with the exception of a heavier caecum in sows given the Trichanthera-based diet ( P<0·01). The pH of the gastric fluid of these sows was also higher ( P<0·001). The fermentation of the dietary fibre in the large intestine was evaluated by the gas technique using syringes. The cocoyam leaves presented the highest amount of total gas produced after fibre fermentation ( P<0·001). The ranking order of gas production was identical to that observed for the digestibility coefficients: Trichanthera <mulberry <cocoyam. In conclusion, TLM can represent up to 0·3 of a diet for sows. Their use in sow nutrition may be considered in tropical regions where protein sources are scarce.

Corresponding author
Corresponding author present address: Prairie Swine Centre, 2105 – 8th Street East, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7H 5N9, Canada. E-mail:
Hide All
An, L. V., Thu Hong, T. T. and Lindberg, J. E. 2004. Ileal and total tract digestibility in growing pigs fed cassava root meal diets with inclusion of fresh, dry and ensiled sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology 114: 127139.
Anugwa, F., Varel, V., Dickson, J., Pond, W. and Krook, L. 1989. Effects of dietary fiber and protein concentration on growth, feed efficiency, visceral organ weights and large intestine microbial populations of swine. Journal of Nutrition 119: 879886.
Boisen, S. and Fernandez, J. 1997. Prediction of the total tract digestibility of energy in feedstuffs and pig diets by in vitro analyses. Animal Feed Science and Technology 68: 277286.
Boudry, C., Buldgen, A., Anciaux, B., Ruiz Peña, M. and Leterme, P. 2004. Mise au point d'une méthode de détermination in vitro du taux de fermentation des fibres dans le gros intestin du porc. Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France 36: 219225.
Buck, L., Lassoie, J. and Fernandes, E. 1999. Agroforestry in sustainable agricultural systems. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Cummings, J. and Englyst, H. 1987. Fermentation in the human large intestine and the available substrates. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 45: 12431255.
Dung, X. N., Manh, L. and Udén, P. 2002. Tropical fibre sources for pigs: digestibility, digesta retention and estimation of fibre digestibility in vitro. Animal Feed Science and Technology 102: 109124.
France, J., Dhanoa, M. S., Theodorou, M. K., Lister, S. J., Davies, D. R. and Isac, D. 1993. A model to interpret gas accumulation profiles associated with in vitro degradation of ruminant feeds. Journal of Theoretical Biology 163: 99111.
Furukawa, A. and Tsukahara, H. 1966. On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromic oxide as an index substance in the study of digestibilibity of fish fed. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Scientific Fisheries 32: 502506.
Leakey, R. 1999. Potential for novel food products from agroforestry trees: a review. Food Chemistry 66: 114.
Le Goff, G. and Noblet, J. 2001. Comparative digestibility of dietary energy and nutrients in growing pigs and adult sows. Journal of Animal Science 79: 24182427.
Leterme, P., Buldgen, A., Estrada, F., Londoño, A. 2006. Mineral content of tropical fruits and unconventional foods of the Andes and the rain forest of Colombia. Food Chemistry 95: 644652.
Leterme, P., Garcia, M., Londoño, A., Rojas, M., Buldgen, A. and Souffrant, W. 2005a. Chemical composition and nutritional value of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in rats. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 85: 15051512.
Leterme, P., Londoño, A., Estrada, F., Souffrant, W. and Buldgen, A. 2005b. –1732.
Leterme, P., Rosales, A., Valencia, A., Mera, R., Souffrant, W., Londoño, A., Sarria, P. and Buldgen, A. 2003. Effect of intake of tree foliage and aquatic plant on the rate of ingestion and fecal and ileal digestibilities in pigs. In Proceedings of the ninth international symposium on the digestive physiology of the pig, University of Alberta, Edmonton, pp. 370372
Leterme, P. and Théwis, A. 2004. Effect of pig bodyweight on ileal amino acid endogenous losses after ingestion of a protein-free diet enriched in pea inner fibre isolates. Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 44: 407417.
Ly, J., Reyes, J., Macias, M., Martinez, V., Domínguez, P. and Ruiz, R. 1998. Ileal and total tract digestibility of leucaena meal in growing pigs. Animal Feed Science and Technology 70: 265273.
Menke, K. H. and Steingass, H. 1988. Estimation of the energetic feed valued obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro gas production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development 28: 755.
Noblet, J. and Van Milgen, J. 2004. Energy value of pig feeds: effect of pig body weight and energy evaluation system. Journal of Animal Science 82: 229238.
Ocampo, L., Leterme, P. and Buldgen, A. 2005. A survey of pig production systems in the rain forest of the Pacific coast of Colombia. Tropical Animal Health and Production 37: 315326.
Phuc, B., Ogle, B. and Lindberg, J. 2000. Effect of replacing soybean protein with cassava leaf protein in cassava root meal based diets for growing pigs on digestibility and N retention. Animal Feed Science and Technology 83: 223235.
Sauvant, D., Perez, J. -M. and Tran, G. 2002. Tables de composition et de valeur nutritive des matières premières destinées aux animaux d'élevage. INRA Publications, Versailles.
Shayo, C. Udén P. 1999. Nutritional uniformity of crude protein fractions in some tropical browse plants estimated by two in vitro methods. Animal Feed Science and Technology 78: 141151.
Statistical Analysis Systems Institute 1999. User's guide: statistics version 8.0. SAS Inc., Cary, NC.
Van Wieren, S. 2000. Digestibility and voluntary intake of roughages by wild boar and Meishan pigs. Animal Science 71: 149156.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Animal Science
  • ISSN: 1357-7298
  • EISSN: 1748-748X
  • URL: /core/journals/animal-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed