Hostname: page-component-5d59c44645-jqctd Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-02-22T14:38:03.900Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Horse welfare: A joint assessment of four categories of behavioural indicators using the AWIN protocol, scan sampling and surveys

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  01 January 2023

A Ruet*
Affiliation:
INRAe, UMR 85 PRC, CNRS, UMR 7247, IFCE, University of Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France
C Arnould
Affiliation:
INRAe, UMR 85 PRC, CNRS, UMR 7247, IFCE, University of Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France
J Lemarchand
Affiliation:
INRAe, UMR 85 PRC, CNRS, UMR 7247, IFCE, University of Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France
C Parias
Affiliation:
INRAe, UMR 85 PRC, CNRS, UMR 7247, IFCE, University of Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France
N Mach
Affiliation:
INRAe, UMR 1313 GABI, AgroParisTech, University of Paris-Saclay, 78352, Jouy-en-Josas, France
M-P Moisan
Affiliation:
University of Bordeaux, INRAe, Bordeaux INP, NutriNeuro, UMR 1286, 33076 Bordeaux, France
A Foury
Affiliation:
University of Bordeaux, INRAe, Bordeaux INP, NutriNeuro, UMR 1286, 33076 Bordeaux, France
C Briant
Affiliation:
INRAe, UMR 85 PRC, CNRS, UMR 7247, IFCE, University of Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France
L Lansade
Affiliation:
INRAe, UMR 85 PRC, CNRS, UMR 7247, IFCE, University of Tours, 37380, Nouzilly, France
*
* Contact for correspondence: alice.ruet@ifce.fr
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

Domesticated horses (Equus caballus) can be exposed to a compromised welfare state and detecting a deterioration in welfare is essential to modify the animals’ living conditions appropriately. This study focused on four categories of behavioural indicators, as markers of poor welfare: stereotypies, aggressiveness towards humans, unresponsiveness to the environment and hypervigilance. In the scientific literature, at least three assessment methods can be used to evaluate them: the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) protocol, behavioural observations using scans and surveys. The question remains as to whether all these three methods allow an effective assessment of the four categories of behavioural indicators. To address this issue, the repeatability at a three-month interval and convergent validity of each measure (correlations between methods) were investigated on 202 horses housed in loose boxes. Overall, the repeatability and convergent validity were limited, highlighting the difficulty in assessing these indicators in horses. However, stereotypies and aggressiveness measures showed higher repeatability and convergent validity than those of unresponsiveness to the environment and hypervigilance. Behavioural observations using scans enabled the four categories of behavioural indicators to be detected more effectively. Suggestions of improvements are proposed for one-off measures such as those performed with the AWIN protocol. Regardless of the assessment method, very limited correlations were observed between the four categories of behavioural indicators, suggesting that they should all be included in a set of indicators used to assess the welfare state of horses, in conjunction with physiological and health measures.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
© 2022 Universities Federation for Animal Welfare

References

Alberghina, D, De Pasquale, A, Piccione, G, Vitale, F and Panzera, M 2015 Gene expression profile of cytokines in leukocytes from stereotypic horses. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 10: 556560. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2015.08.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Altmann, J 1974 Observational study of behavior: Sampling methods. Behaviour 49: 227267CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Austin, NP and Rogers, LJ 2014 Lateralization of agonistic and vigilance responses in Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 151: 4350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2013.11.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
AWIN 2015 AWIN welfare assessment protocol for horses. https://doi.org/10.13130/AWIN_HORSES_2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bachmann, I, Audigé, L and Stauffacher, M 2003 Risk factors associated with behavioural disorders of crib-biting, weaving and box-walking in Swiss horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 35: 158163. https://doi.org/10.2746/042516403776114216CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bachmann, I and Stauffacher, M 2002 Prävalenz von verhaltensstörungen in der Schweizer pferdepopulation. Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde 144: 356368. https://doi.org/10.1024/0036-7281.144.7.356. [Title translation: Prevalence of behavioural disorders in the Swiss horse population]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baragli, P, Barbara, P and Telatin, A 2015 The role of associative and non-associative learning in the training of horses and implications for the welfare. Ann Ist Super Sanità 51: 4051. https://doi.org/10.4415/ANNGoogle ScholarPubMed
Botreau, R, Veissier, I, Butterworth, A, Bracke, MBM and Keeling, LJ 2007 Definition of criteria for overall assessment of animal welfare. Animal Welfare 16: 225228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Christie, JL, Hewson, CJ, Riley, CB, McNiven, MA, Dohoo, IR and Bate, LA 2006 Management factors affecting stereotypies and body condition score in nonracing horses in Prince Edward Island. Canadian Veterinary Journal 47: 136143Google ScholarPubMed
Curtis, L, Burford, JH, England, GCW and Freeman, SL 2019 Risk factors for acute abdominal pain (colic) in the adult horse: A scoping review of risk factors, and a systematic review of the effect of management-related changes. PLoS ONE 14: 132. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0219307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Czycholl, I, Büttner, K, Klingbeil, P and Krieter, J 2021 Evaluation of consistency over time of the use of the Animal Welfare Indicators protocol for horses. Animal Welfare 30: 8190. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.30.1.081CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Czycholl, I, Klingbeil, P and Krieter, J 2017 Suitability of animal-based indicators for the detection of animal welfare in horses. TIERAERZTLICHE UMSCHAU 72: 209217Google Scholar
Czycholl, I, Kniese, C, Büttner, K, Grosse Beilage, E, Schrader, L and Krieter, J 2016 Test-retest reliability of the Welfare Quality® animal welfare assessment protocol for growing pigs. Animal Welfare 25: 447459. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.25.4.447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalla Costa, E, Dai, F, Murray, LAM, Guazzetti, S, Canali, E and Minero, M 2015 A study on validity and reliability of on-farm tests to measure human-animal relationship in horses and donkeys. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 163: 110121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.12.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dalla Costa, E, Murray, L, Dai, F, Canali, E and Minero, M 2014 Equine on-farm welfare assessment: A review of animal-based indicators. Animal Welfare 23: 323341. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.23.3.323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawkins, MS 1990 From an animal's point of view: Motivation, fitness, and animal welfare. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13: 19. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00077104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dawkins, MS 2003 Behaviour as a tool in the assessment of animal welfare. Zoology 106: 383387. https://doi.org/10.1078/0944-2006-00122CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dellmeier, GR 1989 Motivation in relation to the welfare of enclosed livestock. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 22: 129138. https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(89)90049-XCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fureix, C, Beaulieu, C, Argaud, S, Rochais, C, Quinton, M, Henry, S, Hausberger, M and Mason, G 2015 Investigating anhedonia in a non-conventional species: Do some riding horses Equus caballus display symptoms of depression? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 162: 2636. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.11.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fureix, C, Gorecka-Bruzda, A, Gautier, E and Hausberger, M 2011 Cooccurrence of Yawning and stereotypic behaviour in horses (Equus caballus). ISRN Zoology 2011: 110. https://doi.org/10.5402/2011/271209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fureix, C, Jego, P, Henry, S, Lansade, L and Hausberger, M 2012 Towards an ethological animal model of depression? A study on horses. PLoS ONE 7: e39280. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0039280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fureix, C, Menguy, H and Hausberger, M 2010 Partners with bad temper: Reject or cure? A study of chronic pain and aggression in horses. PLoS ONE 5: e12434. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012434CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hao, Y, Ge, H, Sun, M and Gao, Y 2019 Selecting an appropriate animal model of depression. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20: 116. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194827CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, PA 1999 Review of equine feeding and stable management practices in the UK concentrating on the last decade of the 20th century. Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement: 46–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1999.tb05156.xGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harro, J 2018 Animals, anxiety, and anxiety disorders: How to measure anxiety in rodents and why. Behavioural Brain Research 352: 8193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2017.10.016CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hausberger, M, Roche, H, Henry, S and Visser, EK 2008 A review of the human-horse relationship. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 109: 124. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2007.04.015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Heleski, CR, Shelle, AC, Nielsen, BD and Zanella, AJ 2002 Influence of housing on weanling horse behavior and subsequent welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 78: 291302. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00108-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Henry, S, Fureix, C, Rowberry, R, Bateson, M and Hausberger, M 2017 Do horses with poor welfare show ‘pessimistic’ cognitive biases? The Science of Nature 104: 8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00114-016-1429-1CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hinkle, DE, Wiersma, W and Jurs, SG 2003 Applied Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Fifth Edition pp 756. Houghton Mifflin: Boston, MA, USAGoogle Scholar
Hockenhull, J and Creighton, E 2014 Pre-feeding behaviour in UK leisure horses and associated feeding routine risk factors. Animal Welfare 23: 297308. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.23.3.297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hockenhull, J and Creighton, E 2015 The day-to-day management of UK leisure horses and the prevalence of owner-reported stable-related and handling behaviour problems. Animal Welfare 24: 2936. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.24.1.029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hötzel, MJ, Vieira, MC and Leme, DP 2019 Exploring horse owners’ and caretakers’ perceptions of emotions and associated behaviors in horses. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 29: 1824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2018.10.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Houpt, K, Houpt, TR, Johnson, JL, Erb, HN and Yeon, SC 2001 The effect of exercise deprivation on the behaviour and physiology of straight stall confined pregnant mares. Animal Welfare 10: 257267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hughes, BO 1976 Behaviour as index of welfare. 5th European Poultry Conference pp 10051018. 5–11 September 1976, MaltaGoogle Scholar
Kwiatkowska-Stenzel, A, Sowińska, J and Witkowska, D 2016 The effect of different bedding materials used in stable on horses behavior. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 42: 5766. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2016.03.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lansade, L, Bouissou, MF and Erhard, HW 2008 Fearfulness in horses: A temperament trait stable across time and situations. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 115: 182200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2008.06.011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lansade, L, Valenchon, M, Foury, A, Neveux, C, Cole, SW, Layé, S, Cardinaud, B, Lévy, F and Moisan, M-P 2014 Behavioral and transcriptomic fingerprints of an enriched environment in horses (Equus caballus). PLoS ONE 9: e114384. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114384CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lesimple, C and Hausberger, M 2014 How accurate are we at assessing others’ well-being? The example of welfare assessment in horses. Frontiers in Psychology 5: 16. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00021CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mason, GJ 1991 Stereotypies: a critical review. Animal Behaviour 41: 10151037. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80640-2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mason, GJ and Latham, NR 2004 Can't stop, won't stop: Is stereotypy a reliable animal welfare indicator? Animal Welfare 13: 5769. https://doi.org/10.2307/4493573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McBride, S and Hemmings, A 2009 A neurologic perspective of equine stereotypy. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 29: 1016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2008.11.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McGreevy, PD 2004 Equine Behavior: A Guide for Veterinarians and Equine Scientists pp 366. Saunders: USAGoogle Scholar
McGreevy, PD, Cripps, PJ, French, NP, Green, LE and Nicol, CJ 1995 Management factors associated with stereotypic and redirected behaviour in the Thoroughbred horse. Equine Veterinary Journal 27: 8691. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1995.tb03041.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McHugh, ML 2012 Interrater reliability: the kappa statistic. Biochemia Medica 22: 276282CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Meagher, RK 2009 Observer ratings: Validity and value as a tool for animal welfare research. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 119: 114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2009.02.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mellor, DJ 2016 Updating animal welfare thinking: Moving beyond the ‘Five Freedoms’ towards ‘A life worth living.’ Animals 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani6030021CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Mills, DS and Davenport, K 2002 The effect of a neighbouring conspecific versus the use of a mirror for the control of stereotypic weaving behaviour in the stabled horse. Animal Science 74: 95101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minero, M, Dalla Costa, E, Dai, F, Canali, E, Barbieri, S, Zanella, A, Pascuzzo, R and Wemelsfelder, F 2018 Using qualitative behaviour assessment (QBA) to explore the emotional state of horses and its association with human-animal relationship. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 204: 5359. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2018.04.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Minero, M, Dalla Costa, E, Dai, F, Murray, LAM, Canali, E and Wemelsfelder, F 2016 Use of Qualitative Behaviour Assessment as an indicator of welfare in donkeys. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 174: 147153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2015.10.010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ninomiya, S, Sato, S and Sugawara, K 2007 Weaving in stabled horses and its relationship to other behavioural traits. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 106: 134143. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2006.06.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Normando, S, Canali, E, Ferrante, V and Verga, M 2002 Behavioral problems in Italian saddle horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 22: 117120. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0737-0806(02)70123-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Normando, S, Meers, L, Samuels, WE, Faustini, M and Ödberg, FO 2011 Variables affecting the prevalence of behavioural problems in horses. Can riding style and other management factors be significant? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 133: 186198. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2011.06.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ödberg, FO 1987 Chronic stress in riding horses. Equine Veterinary Journal 19: 268269. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-3306.1987.tb01402.xCrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ohl, F, Arndt, SS and van der Staay, FJ 2008 Pathological anxiety in animals. Veterinary Journal 175: 1826. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2006.12.013CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Omidi, A, Jafari, R, Nazifi, S and Parker, MO 2018 Potential role for selenium in the pathophysiology of crib-biting behavior in horses. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research 23: 1014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2017.10.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Otten, ND, Rousing, T and Forkman, B 2017 Influence of professional affiliation on expert's view on welfare measures. Animals 7: 110. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani7110085Google Scholar
Pessoa, GO, Trigo, P, Mesquita Neto, FD, Lacreta Junior, ACC, Sousa, TM, Muniz, JA and Moura, RS 2016 Comparative well-being of horses kept under total or partial confinement prior to employment for mounted patrols. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 184: 5158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2016.08.014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Popescu, S and Diugan, EA 2013 The relationship between behavioral and other welfare indicators of working horses. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 33: 112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2012.04.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Post, RJ and Warden, MR 2018 Melancholy, anhedonia, apathy: the search for separable behaviors and neural circuits in depression. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 49: 19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.02.018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pritchard, JC, Lindberg, AC, Main, DCJ and Whay, HR 2005 Assessment of the welfare of working horses, mules and donkeys, using health and behaviour parameters. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 69: 265283. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.02.002CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
R Core Team 2020 R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing: Vienna, Austria. https://www.R-project.org/Google Scholar
Ribeiro, LB, Matzkeit, TV, Nicolau JT de, S, Castilha, LD, de Oliveira, FCL and Bankuti, FI 2019 Determinants of undesirable behaviors in American quarter horses housed in box stalls. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science 80: 6975. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2019.07.005CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Richards, HJ, Benson, V, Donnelly, N and Hadwin, JA 2014 Exploring the function of selective attention and hypervigilance for threat in anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review 34: 113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2013.10.006CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Rochais, C, Henry, S, Fureix, C and Hausberger, M 2016 Investigating attentional processes in depressive-like domestic horses (Equus caballus). Behavioural Processes 124: 9396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2015.12.010CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruet, A, Lemarchand, J, Parias, C, Mach, N, Moisan, M, Foury, A, Briant, C and Lansade, L 2019 Housing horses in individual boxes is a challenge with regard to welfare. Animals 9: 621. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090621CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Salomons, AR, Arndt, SS and Ohl, F 2009 Anxiety in relation to animal environment and welfare. Scandinavian Journal of Laboratory Animal Science 36: 3745Google Scholar
Šárová, R, Stěhulová, I, Kratinová, P, Firla, P and Špinka, M 2011 Farm managers underestimate lameness prevalence in Czech dairy herds. Animal Welfare 20: 201204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sarrafchi, A and Blokhuis, HJ 2013 Equine stereotypic behaviors: Causation, occurrence, and prevention. Journal of Veterinary Behavior 8: 386394 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jveb.2013.04.068CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Serpell, JA 2019 How happy is your pet? The problem of subjectivity in the assessment of companion animal welfare. Animal Welfare 28: 5766. https://doi.org/10.7120/09627286.28.1.057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Søndergaard, E, Jensen, MB and Nicol, CJ 2011 Motivation for social contact in horses measured by operant conditioning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 132: 131137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2011.04.007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Statton, R, Cogger, N, Beausoleil, N, Waran, N, Stafford, K and Stewart, M 2014 Indicators of good welfare in horses. Final report. Ministry for primary industries technical paper No: 2014/44. https://www.mpi.govt.nz/resources-and-forms/publications/Google Scholar
Sylvers, P, Lilienfeld, SO and LaPrairie, JL 2011 Differences between trait fear and trait anxiety: Implications for psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review 31: 122137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.08.004CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tadich, T, Smulders, JP, Araya, O and Nicol, CJ 2012 Husbandry practices associated with the presentation of abnormal behaviours in Chilean Creole horses. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 44: 279284. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2012000300011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Temple, D, Manteca, X, Dalmau, A and Velarde, A 2013 Assessment of test-retest reliability of animal-based measures on growing pig farms. Livestock Science 151: 3545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2012.10.012CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, KE, Annest, JL, Gilchrist, J and Bixby-Hammett, DM 2006 Non-fatal horse related injuries treated in emergency departments in the United States. British Journal of Sports Medicine 40: 619626. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2006.025858CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Veissier, I and Boissy, A 2007 Stress and welfare: Two complementary concepts that are intrinsically related to the animal's point of view. Physiology and Behavior 92: 429433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2006.11.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Walker, SE, Papilloud, A, Huzard, D and Sandi, C 2018 The link between aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity during development and the emergence of aggression: Animal studies. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 91: 138152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2016.10.008CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Waters, AJ, Nicol, CJ and French, NP 2002 Factors influencing the development of stereotypic and redirected behaviours in young horses: findings of a four year prospective epidemiological study. Equine Veterinary Journal 34: 572579. https://doi.org/10.2746/042516402776180241CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wathan, J and McComb, K 2014 The eyes and ears are visual indicators of attention in domestic horses. Current Biology 24: R677R679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.023CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Webster, J 2005 Animal Welfare: Limping Towards Eden, First Edition. John Wiley & Sons Ltd: London, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wemelsfelder, F 2007 How animals communicate quality of life: The Qualitative Assessment of Behaviour. Animal Welfare 16: 2531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wermes, R, Lincoln, TM and Helbig-Lang, S 2018 Anxious and alert? Hypervigilance in social anxiety disorder. Psychiatry Research 269: 740745. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.08.086CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wickens, CL and Heleski, CR 2010 Crib-biting behavior in horses: A review. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 128: 19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2010.07.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yim, VWT, Yeung, JHH, Mak, PSK, Graham, CA, Lai, PBS and Rainer, TH 2007 Five year analysis of Jockey Club horse-related injuries presenting to a trauma centre in Hong Kong. Injury 38: 98103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2006.08.026CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Young, T, Creighton, E, Smith, T and Hosie, C 2012 A novel scale of behavioural indicators of stress for use with domestic horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 140: 3343. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2012.05.008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Ruet et al. supplementary material
Download undefined(File)
File 134 KB
Supplementary material: File

Ruet et al. supplementary material
Download undefined(File)
File 161 KB