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L'archéologie de la construction: Une nouvelle approche de l'architecture romaine*

  • Hélène Dessales (a1)
Résumé
Résumé

Nouvelle orientation disciplinaire, l'archéologie de la construction se définit comme l’étude de toutes les traces matérielles qui informent sur la conception, la construction et la gestion d'un édifice. Elle permet d’élargir l'approche de l'architecture romaine, jusqu'alors envisagée principalement du point de vue des typologies monumentales et décoratives. L'objectif de cette contribution est d'en caractériser les différentes spécificités et les apports. Si l'archéologie de la construction entretient des liens méthodologiques évidents avec l'archéologie du bâti, notamment par la stratigraphie verticale des élévations, elle s'en distingue par son échelle d’étude, celle du chantier de construction, dont elle entend restituer le contexte de production et toute la dynamique. Sept composantes sont considérées, éclairées par des recherches archéologiques récentes : le projet initial de l’édifice, la préparation du site, la mise en place des infrastructures, la production des matériaux, leur transformation, leur mise en œuvre dans la construction, les opérations de finition et de décoration. Les données recueillies permettent d'associer l'archéologie des techniques et l'histoire socio-économique, en considérant le chantier de construction comme un système de production et d’échange, dans toutes ses interactions avec la société romaine.

Abstract

Representing a new disciplinary orientation, the archaeology of construction is defined as the study of all material traces furnishing information about the design, the construction, and the management of a building. It thus offers a way of broadening our approach to Roman architecture, until now considered mainly from the point of view of monumental and decorative typologies. This article aims to set out its various specificities and potential contributions. While the archaeology of construction has clear methodological links with the archaeology of standing structures, notably through the vertical stratigraphy of elevations, it is distinguished by its scale of study, which covers the entirety of the building site and seeks to restitute its context of production and its dynamics. Seven elements are considered, illustrated by recent archaeological research: the initial project of the building, the preparation of the site, the setting up of infrastructures, the production of materials, their transformation, their implementation in the construction, and finally the finishing and decorative operations. The data collected make it possible to combine an archaeology of techniques with socio-economic history, considering the building process in all its interactions with Roman society as a system of production and trade.

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Mes remerciements vont à Étienne Anheim, Sophie Binninger, Stéphane Bourdin, Xavier Lafon et Rita Volpe.

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Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales
  • ISSN: 0395-2649
  • EISSN: 1953-8146
  • URL: /core/journals/annales-histoire-sciences-sociales
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