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Le keynésianisme international se débat: Sens de l'acceptable et tournant néolibéral à l'Ocde

  • Vincent Gayon (a1)
Résumé
Résumé

Publié en 1977 par l'Ocde dans une situation de stagflation généralisée, le rapport McCracken est devenu emblématique du «tournant néolibéral» de la coopération économique internationale. Cette enquête ébranle le pacte de lecture téléologique en revenant au sens de l'acceptable des acteurs mobilisés dans son écriture et à l'incertitude structurelle dans laquelle ils étaient plongés pour anticiper le devenir économique et politique. Plutôt qu'une victoire sans conteste du néolibéralisme, la sociogénétique de cet écrit bureaucratique redécouvre les stratégies d'adaptation du «keynésianisme international» hérité de Bretton Woods et les structures de plausibilité de cet espace situé à la confluence de champs politiques, bureaucratiques et universitaires. La dynamique de production s'analyse comme une logique de situation à travers laquelle le secrétariat de l'Ocde se voit exposé à des logiques et à des ressources externes polymorphes qui s'entrechoquent et se jaugent. La forme du rapport rend possible la confrontation de capitaux informationnels, bureaucratiques et politiques ; elle en objective, en quelque sorte, la valeur différentielle ou le taux de change pour les participants. Les anticipations socialement structurées de ce qui est jouable, coûteux ou risqué sont pistées dans la composition collective autour de quatre temps forts : la commande, le cadrage, la constitution du groupe et la cristallisation du rapport. L'article propose ainsi une autre manière d'enquêter sur les «tournants».

Abstract

Published in 1977 by the OECD in a context of widespread stagflation, the McCracken report has become emblematic of the “neoliberal turn” in international economic cooperation. This study undermines this shared teleological interpretation by revisiting the sense of what was acceptable among the actors mobilized in its writing and the structural uncertainty into which they were plunged by their attempt to anticipate the economic and political future. Rather than an uncontested victory of neoliberalism, the sociogenetics of this bureaucratic text uncover the coping strategies of the “international Keynesianism” inherited from Bretton Woods and the plausibility structures of this space situated at the confluence of the political, bureaucratic, and academic domains. The dynamic of production is analyzed as a situational logic through which the secretariat of the OECD was exposed to polymorphic external rationales and resources that collided with and gauged one another. The form of the report makes it possible to confront informational, bureaucratic, and political capitals, effectively rendering tangible their differential value or exchange rate for the participants. The socially structured expectations of the feasible, the expensive, and the risky are traced throughout the collective process of composition based on four key moments: the commission, the establishment of a framework, the constitution of the group, and the crystallization of the report. The article thus proposes another way of investigating the nature of “turns.”

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Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales
  • ISSN: 0395-2649
  • EISSN: 1953-8146
  • URL: /core/journals/annales-histoire-sciences-sociales
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