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The syntypes of the endemic Southern Ocean octopodid Pareledone polymorpha (Robson, 1930) were re-examined and measurements, counts and indices are presented. The two forms described by Robson, namely oblonga and affinis, are determined to have no taxonomic validity. The species polymorpha shows morphological similarities with Pareledone adelieana (Berry, 1917) but differs in relative arm lengths, sucker counts, external colouration and size at maturity. Both species are transferred to the new genus Adelieledone, which is separated from the genus Pareledone s.s. by the transverse ridges in the ligula groove of the hectocotylus, the sharp tip of the lower beak, the enlarged posterior salivary glands, the absence of stylets and by skin sculpture, especially by the presence of two longitudinal integumentary ridges on the dorsal mantle. A new species, Adelieledone piatkowski, is described from the Antarctic Peninsula. Beak morphology can discriminate the genera in predator studies.
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