Skip to main content

Antarctic climate change and the environment

  • P. Convey (a1), R. Bindschadler (a2), G. di Prisco (a3), E. Fahrbach (a4), J. Gutt (a4), D.A. Hodgson (a1), P.A. Mayewski (a5), C.P. Summerhayes (a6), J. Turner (a1) and the ACCE Consortium...

The Antarctic climate system varies on timescales from orbital, through millennial to sub-annual, and is closely coupled to other parts of the global climate system. We review these variations from the perspective of the geological and glaciological records and the recent historical period from which we have instrumental data (∼the last 50 years). We consider their consequences for the biosphere, and show how the latest numerical models project changes into the future, taking into account human actions in the form of the release of greenhouse gases and chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. In doing so, we provide an essential Southern Hemisphere companion to the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Antarctic climate change and the environment
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Antarctic climate change and the environment
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Antarctic climate change and the environment
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Hide All

see Appendix 1

Hide All
Ackley S.F., Wadhams P., Comiso J.Worby A. 2003. Decadal decrease of Antarctic sea ice extent inferred from whaling records revisited on the basis of historical and modern sea ice records. Polar Research, 22, 1925.
Arblaster J.Meehl G.A. 2006. Contributions of external forcings to Southern Annular Mode trends. Journal of Climate, 19, 28962905.
Arctic Council 2005. Arctic climate impact assessment - scientific report. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1046 pp (available at
Arzel O., Fichefet T.Goosse H. 2006. Sea ice evolution over the 20th and 21st centuries as simulated by current AOGCMs. Ocean Modelling, 12, 401415.
Atkinson A., Siegel V., Pakhomov E.Rothery P. 2004. Long-term decline in krill stock and increase in salps within the Southern Ocean. Nature, 432, 100103.
Barnes D.K.A.Peck L.S. 2008. Vulnerability of Antarctic shelf biodiversity to predicted climate change. Climate Research, 37, 149163.
Barnes D.K.A., Hodgson D.A., Convey P., Allen C.Clarke A. 2006. Incursion and excursion of Antarctic biota: past, present and future. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 15, 121142.
Bates M.L., England M.H.Sijp W.P. 2005. On the multi-century Southern Hemisphere response to changes in atmospheric CO2-concentration in a global climate model. Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, 89, 1736.
Bentley M.J., Hodgson D.A., Smith J.A., Ó Cofaigh C., Domack E.W., Larter R.D., Roberts S.J., Brachfeld S., Leventer A., Hjort C., Hillenbrand C.-D.Evans J. 2009. Mechanisms of Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the Antarctic Peninsula region. The Holocene, 19, 5169.
Berger A.Loutre M.F. 2003. Climate 400,000 years ago, a key to the future? Geophysical Monograph, 137, 1726.
Bitz C.M., Gent P.R., Woodgate R.A., Holland M.M.Lindsay R. 2006. The influence of sea ice on ocean heat uptake in response to increasing CO2. Journal of Climate, 19, 24372450.
Bodeker G.E., Shiona H.Eskes H. 2005. Antarctic ozone depletion indicators. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 5, 38113845.
Böning C.W., Dispert A., Visbeck M., Rintoul S.Schwarzkopf F.U. 2008. The response of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to recent climate change. Nature Geoscience, 1, 864869.
Bracegirdle T.J., Connolley W.M.Turner J. 2008. Antarctic climate change over the twenty first century. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, 10.1029/2007JD008933.
Brandt A. 1991. Zur Besiedlungsgeschichte des antarktischen Schelfes am Beispiel der Isopoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca). Berichte zur Polarforschung, 98, 1240.
Bryan F.O., Danabasoglu G., Gent P.R.Lindsay K. 2006. Changes in ocean ventilation during the 21st century in the CCSM3. Ocean Modelling, 15, 141156.
Budd G.M. 2000. Changes in Heard Island glaciers, king penguins and fur seals since 1947. Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 133, 4760.
Cazenave A., Dominh K., Guinehut S., Berthier E., Llovel W., Ramillien G., Ablain M.Larnicol G. 2009. Sea level budget over 2003–2008: a reevaluation from GRACE space gravimetry, satellite altimetry and Argo. Global and Planetary Change, 65, 8388.
IIIChapin F.S., Berman M., Callaghan T.V., Convey P., Crepin A.-S., Danell K., Ducklow H., Forbes B., Kofinas G., McGuire A.D., Nuttall M., Virginia R., Young O., Zimov S., Christensen T., Godduhn A., Murphy E.J., Wall D.Zockler C. 2005. Polar systems. In Millennium ecosystem assessment: conditions and trends, chapter 25. Washington, DC: Island Press.
Clark P.U.Mix A.C. 2000. Global change - ice sheets by volume. Nature, 406, 689690.
Clarke A.Crame J.A. 1997. Diversity, latitude and time: patterns in shallow seas. In Ormand, R.F.G., Gage, J.D. & Angel, M.V., eds. Marine biodiversity: patterns and processes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 122147.
Clarke A.Johnston N.M. 2003. Antarctic marine benthic diversity. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 41, 47114.
Clarke A., Griffiths H.J., Barnes D.K.A., Meredith M.P.Grant S.M. 2009. Spatial variation in seabed temperature in the Southern Ocean: implications for benthic ecology and biogeography. Journal of Geophysical Research, 114, 10.1029/2008JG000886.
Clarke A., Murphy E.J., Meredith M.P., King J.C., Peck L.S., Barnes D.K.A.Smith R.C. 2006. Climate change and the marine ecosystem of the western Antarctic Peninsula. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B362, 149166.
Conil S.Menéndez C.G. 2006. Climate fluctuations of the Weddell Sea and its surroundings in a transient climate change scenario. Climate Dynamics, 27, 8399.
Convey P. 2006. Antarctic climate change and its influences on terrestrial ecosystems. In Bergstrom, D.M., Convey, P. & Huiskes, A.H.L.,eds. Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems: Antarctica as a global indicator. Dordrecht: Springer, 253272.
Convey P., Gibson J., Hillenbrand C.-D., Hodgson D.A., Pugh P.J.A., Smellie J.L.Stevens M.I. 2008. Antarctic terrestrial life - challenging the history of the frozen continent? Biological Reviews, 83, 103117.
Convey P., Stevens M.I., Hodgson D.A., Smellie J.L., Hillenbrand C.-D., Barnes D.K.A., Clarke A., Pugh P.J.A., Linse K.Cary S.C. 2009. Exploring biological constraints on the glacial history of Antarctica. Quaternary Science Reviews, 10.1016/j.quascirev.2009.08.015.
Cook A.J., Fox A.J., Vaughan D.G.Ferrigno J.G. 2005. Retreating glacier fronts on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past half-century. Science, 308, 541544.
Cook A.J., Poncet S., Cooper A.P.R., Herbert D.J.Christie D. In press. Glacier retreat on South Georgia and implications for the spread of rats. Antarctic Science.
Davis C.H.Li Y.H. 2004. Decadal mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet and its contribution to global sea level rise. IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium. Anchorage, AK: IEEE, 1152–1155.
Dayton P.K. 1989. Interdecadal variation in an Antarctic sponge and its predators from oceanographic climate shifts. Science, 245, 14841486.
De Angelis H.Skvarca P. 2003. Glacier surge after ice shelf collapse. Science, 299, 15601562.
DeConto R.M.Pollard D. 2003. Rapid Cenozoic glaciation of Antarctica induced by declining atmospheric CO2. Nature, 421, 245249.
DeVries A.L.Cheng C.-H.C. 2005. Antifreeze proteins and organismal freezing avoidance in polar fishes. In Farrell, A.P. & Steffenson, J.F., eds. The physiology of polar fishes, vol. 22. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press, 155201.
Dixon D., Mayewski P.A., Kaspari S., Sneed S.Handley M. 2004. A 200 year sub annual record of the primary sources of sulfate in West Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology, 39, 545556.
Dixon D.A., Mayewski P.A., Freeman R., Goodwin I., Maasch K.A.Sneed S.B. In review. Long term behavior of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies. Geophysical Research Letters.
Doran P.T., Priscu J.C., Lyons W.B., Walsh J.E., Fountain A.G., McKnight D.M., Moorhead D.L., Virginia R.A., Wall D.H., Clow G.D., Fritsen C.H., McKay C.P.Parsons A.N. 2002. Antarctic climate cooling and terrestrial ecosystem response. Nature, 415, 517520.
Ducklow H.W., Baker K., Martinson D.G., Quetin L.B., Ross R.M., Smith R.C., Stammerjohn S.E., Vernet M.Fraser W. 2007. Marine ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B362, 6794.
Eastman J.T. 2000. Antarctic notothenioid fishes as subjects for research in evolutionary biology. Antarctic Science, 12, 276287.
Emslie S.D.Woehler E.J. 2005. A 9000-year record of Adélie penguin occupation and diet in the Windmill Islands, East Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 17, 5766.
EPICA Community Members 2004. Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature, 429, 623628.
EPICA Community Members 2006. One-to-one coupling of glacial climate variability in Greenland and Antarctica. Nature, 444, 195198.
Fahrbach E., Hoppema M., Rohardt G., Schröder M.Wisotzki A. 2004. Decadal-scale variations of water mass properties in the deep Weddell Sea. Ocean Dynamics, 54, 7791.
Farman J.C., Gardiner B.G.Shanklin J.D. 1985. Large losses of total ozone in Antarctica reveal seasonal ClOx/Nox interaction. Nature, 315, 207210.
Flower B.P.Kennett J.P. 1994. The middle Miocene climatic transition: East Antarctic ice sheet development, deep ocean circulation and global carbon cycling. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 108, 537555.
Foster T.D.Carmack E.C. 1976. Frontal zone mixing and Antarctic Bottom Water formation in the southern Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Research, 23, 301317.
Fowbert J.A.Smith R.I.L. 1994. Rapid population increase in native vascular plants in the Argentine Islands, Antarctic Peninsula. Arctic and Alpine Research, 26, 290296.
Frenot Y., Chown S.L., Whinam J., Selkirk P., Convey P., Skotnicki M.Bergstrom D. 2005. Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications. Biological Reviews, 80, 4572.
Fyfe J.C. 2006. Southern Ocean warming due to human influence. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, 10.1029/2006GL027247.
Gersonde R., Crosta X., Abelmann A.Armand L. 2005. Sea-surface temperature and sea ice distribution of the Southern Ocean at the EPILOG Last Glacial Maximum - a circum-Antarctic view based on siliceous microfossil records. Quaternary Science Reviews, 24, 869896.
Gill A.E. 1973. Circulation and bottom water production in the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Research, 20, 111140.
Gille S.T. 2002. Warming of the Southern Ocean since the 1950s. Science, 295, 12751277.
Gille S.T. 2008. Decadal-scale temperature trends in the Southern Hemisphere Ocean. Journal of Climate, 16, 47494765.
Goosse H., Lefebvre W., De Montety A., Crespin E.Orsi A. 2009. Consistent past half-century trends in the atmosphere, the sea ice and the ocean at high southern latitudes. Climate Dynamics, 10.1007/s00382-008-0500-9.
Gordon A.L. 1998. Western Weddell Sea thermohaline stratification. Antarctic Research Series, 75, 215240.
Gregg W.W.Conkright M.E. 2002. Decadal changes in global ocean chlorophyll. Geophysical Research Letters, 29, 2124.
Guglielmin M. 2006. Ground surface temperature (GST), active layer and permafrost monitoring in continental Antarctica. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 17, 133143.
Guglielmin M., Ellis-Evans C.J.Cannone N. 2008. Active layer thermal regime under different vegetation conditions in permafrost areas: a case study at Signy Island (maritime Antarctica). Geoderma, 144, 7375.
Gutt J. 2006. Coexistence of macro-zoobenthic species on the Antarctic shelf: an attempt to link ecological theory and results. Deep-Sea Research II, 53, 10091028.
Gutt J. 2007. Antarctic macro-zoobenthic communities: a review and a classification. Antarctic Science, 19, 165182.
Gutt J.Piepenburg D. 2003. Scale-dependent impact on diversity of Antarctic benthos caused by grounding of icebergs. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 253, 7783.
Hall B.L., Hoelzel A.R., Baroni C., Denton G.H., Le Boeuf B.J., Overturf B.Topf A.L. 2006. Holocene elephant seal distribution implies warmer-than-present climate in the Ross Sea. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103, 1021310217.
Hellmer H.H., Kauker F.Timmermann R. 2009. Weddell Sea anomalies: excitation, propagation, and possible consequences. Geophysical Research Letters, 36, 1029/2009GL038407.
Hirst A.C. 1999. The Southern Ocean response to a global warming in the CSIRO coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Environmental Modeling and Software, 14, 227241.
Hodgson D.A.Smol J.P. 2008. High latitude paleolimnology. In Vincent, W.F. & Laybourn-Parry, J., eds. Polar Lakes and Rivers - Limnology of Arctic and Antarctic Aquatic Ecosystems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 4364.
Hodgson D.A., Bentley M.J., Roberts S.J., Smith J.A., Sugden D.E.Domack E.W. 2006b. Examining Holocene stability of Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves. Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 87, 305312.
Hodgson D.A., Roberts D., McMinn A., Verleyen E., Terry B., Corbett C.Vyverman W. 2006a. Recent rapid salinity rise in three East Antarctic lakes. Journal of Paleolimnology, 36, 385406.
Hogg A.M., Meredith M.P., Blundell J.R.Wilson C. 2008. Eddy heat flux in the Southern Ocean: response to variable wind forcing. Journal of Climate, 21, 608620.
Hughes C., Chuck A.L., Rossetti H., Mann P.J., Turner S.M., Clarke A., Chance R.Liss P.S. 2009. Seasonal cycle of seawater bromoform and dibromomethane concentrations in a coastal bay on the western Antarctic Peninsula. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, 10.1029/2008GB003268.
Jacobs S.S., Giulivi C.F.Mele P.A. 2002. Freshening of the Ross Sea during the late 20th century. Science, 297, 386389.
Jansen E.J., Overpeck K.R., Briffa J.-C., Duplessy F., Joos V., Masson-Delmotte D., Olago B., Otto-Bliesner W.R., Peltier S., Rahmstorf R., Ramesh D., Raynaud D., Rind O., Solomina R., Villalba R.Zhang D. 2007. Palaeoclimate. In Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor. M. & Miller, H.L., eds. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 433497.
Johnson G.C., Purkey S.G.Toole J.M. 2008. Reduced Antarctic meridional overturning circulation reaches the North Atlantic Ocean. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 10.1029/2008GL035619.
Joughin I., Rignot E., Rosanova C.E., Lucchitta B.K.Bohlander J. 2003. Timing of recent accelerations of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, Art. no. 1706.
Lachlan-Cope T.A., Connolley W.M., Turner J., Roscoe H.K., Marshall G.J., Colwell S.R., Hopfner M.Ingram W.J. In press. Antarctic winter tropospheric warming - the potential role of polar stratospheric clouds, a sensitivity study. Atmospheric Science Letters.
Leaper R., Bannister J.L., Branch T.A., Clapham P., Donovan G., Reilly S.Zerbini A.N. 2008. A review of abundance, trends and foraging parameters of baleen whales in the Southern Hemisphere. Paper SC/60/EM3 presented to the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, June 2008, 51 pp.
Leaper R., Cooke J., Trathan P., Reid K., Rowntree V.Payne R. 2006. Global climate drives southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) population dynamics. Biology Letters, 2, 289292.
Lefebvre W.Goosse H. 2008. Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century. Climate Dynamics, 30, 5976.
Lefebvre W., Goosse H., Timmermann R.Fichefet T. 2004. Influence of the Southern Annular Mode on the sea ice-ocean system. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109, 10.1029/2004JC002403.
Legrand M., Feniet-Saigne C., Saltzman E.S., Germain C., Barkov N.I.Petrov V.N. 1991. Ice-core record of oceanic emissions of dimethylsulphide during the last climatic cycle. Nature, 350, 144146.
Le Quéré C., Rödenbeck C., Buitenhuis E.T., Conway T.J., Langenfelds R., Gomez A., Labuschagne C., Ramonet M., Nakazawa T., Metzl N., Gillett N.Heimann M. 2007. Saturation of the Southern Ocean CO2 sink due to recent climate change. Science, 316, 17351738.
Lyons W.B., Laybourn-Parry J., Welch K.A.Priscu J.C. 2006. Antarctic lake systems and climate change. In Bergstrom, D.M., Convey, P. & Huiskes, A.H.L., eds. Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems: Antarctica as a global indicator. Dordrecht: Springer, 273295.
Manabe S., Stouffer R.J., Spelman M.J.Bryan K. 1991. Transient responses of a coupled atmosphere-ocean model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2. I. Annual mean response. Journal of Climate, 4, 785818.
Manabe S.Stouffer R.J. 1993. Century-scale effects of increased atmospheric CO2 on the ocean-atmosphere system. Nature, 364, 215218.
Marshall G.J. 2003. Trends in the Southern Annular Mode from observations and reanalyses. Journal of Climate, 16, 41344143.
Masson V., Vimeux F., Jouzel J., Morgan V., Delmotte M., Ciais P., Hammer C., Johnsen S., Lipenkov V.Y., Mosley-Thompson E., Petit J.R., Steig E.J., Stievenard M.Vaikmae R. 2000. Holocene climate variability in Antarctica based on 11 ice-core isotope records. Quaternary Research, 54, 348358.
Mayewski P.A.Maasch K. 2006. Recent warming inconsistent with natural association between temperature and atmospheric circulation over the last 2000 years. Climate of the Past (Discussions), on line:
Mayewski P.A., Maasch K.A., White J.W.C., Meyerson E., Goodwin I., Morgan V.I., van Ommen T., Curran M.A.J., Souney J.Kreutz K. 2005. A 700 year record of Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical climate variability. Annals of Glaciology, 39, 127132.
Mayewski P.A., Rohling E., Stager C., Karlén K., Maasch K., Meeker L.D., Meyerson E., Gasse F., van Kreveld S., Holmgren K., Lee-Thorp J., Rosqvist G., Rack F., Staubwasser M.Schneider R. 2004. Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research, 62, 243255.
Mayewski P.A., Meredith M.P., Summerhayes C.P., Turner J., Worby A., Barrett P.J., Casassa G., Bertler N.A.N., Bracegirdle T., Naveira Garabato A.C., Bromwich D., Campbell H., Hamilton G.S., Lyons W.B., Maasch K.A., Aoki S., Xiao C.van Ommen T. 2009. State of the Antarctic and Southern Ocean climate system. Reviews of Geophysics, 47, 10.1029/2007RG000231.
Meehl G.A., Stocker T.F., Collins W.D., Friedlingstein P., Gaye A.T., Gregory J.M., Kitoh A., Knutti R., Murphy J.M., Noda A., Raper S.C.B., Watterson I.G., Weaver A.J.Zhao Z.-C. 2007. Global Climate Projections. In Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor. M. & Miller, H.L., eds. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 747845.
Meredith M.P.Hogg A.M. 2006. Circumpolar response of Southern Ocean eddy activity to changes in the Southern Annular Mode. Geophysical Research Letters, 33, 10.1029/2006GL026499.
Meredith M.P.King J.C. 2005. Rapid climate change in the ocean west of the Antarctic Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, 10.1029/2005GL024042.
Metzl N. 2009. Decadal increase of oceanic carbon dioxide in Southern Indian Ocean surface waters (1991–2007). Deep Sea Research II, 56, 607619.
Meyerson E.A., Mayewski P.A., Whitlow S.I., Meeker L.D., Kreutz K.J.Twickler M.S. 2002. The extratropical expression of ENSO recorded in a South Pole glaciochemical time series. Annals of Glaciology, 35, 430436.
Moline M.A., Karnovsky N.J., Brown Z., Divoky G.J., Frazer T.K., Jacoby C.A., Torres J.J.Fraser W.R. 2008. High latitude changes in ice dynamics and their impact on polar marine ecosystems. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1134, 267319.
Monaghan A.J., Bromwich D.H.Schneider D.P. 2008. Twentieth century Antarctic air temperature and snowfall simulations by IPCC climate models. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 10.1029/2007GL032630.
Monaghan A.J., Bromwich D.H., Fogt R.L., Wang S.-H., Mayewski P.A., Dixon D.A., Ekaykin A., Frezzotti M., Goodwin I., Isaksson E., Kaspari S.D., Morgan V.I., Oerter H., van Ommen T.D., van der Veen C.J.Wen J. 2006. Insignificant change in Antarctic snowfall since the International Geophysical Year. Science, 313, 827831.
Montes-Hugo M., Doney S.C., Ducklow H.W., Fraser W., Martinson D., Stammerjohn S.E.Schofield O. 2009. Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Science, 323, 14701473.
Moy A., Howard W., Bray S.Trull T. 2009. Reduced calcification in modern Southern Ocean planktonic Foraminifera. Nature Geoscience, 2, 276280.
Nicholls K.W., Osterhus S., Makinson K., Gammelsrod T.Fahrbach E. 2009. Ice-ocean processes over the continental shelf of the southern Weddell Sea, Antarctica: a review. Reviews of Geophysics, 10.1029/2007RG000250.
Orr J.C., Fabry V.J., Aumont O., Bopp L., Doney S.C., Feely R.A., Gnanadesikan A., Gruber N., Ishida A., Joos F., Key R.M., Lindsay K., Maier-Reimer E., Matear R., Monfray P., Mouchet A., Najjar R.G., Plattner G.-K., Rodgers K.B., Sabine C.L., Sarmiento J.L., Schlitzer R., Slater R.D., Totterdell I.J., Weirig M.-F., Yamanaka Y.Yool A. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature, 437, 681686.
Pagani M., Zachos J., Freeman K.H., Tipple B.Boharty S.M. 2005. Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the Paleogene. Science, 309, 600603.
Parkinson C.L., Vinnikov K.Y.Cavalieri D.J. 2006. Evaluation of the simulation of the annual cycle of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice coverages by 11 major global climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, 10.1029/2005JC003408.
Parnikoza I., Convey P., Dykyy I., Trakhimets V., Milinevsky G., Tyschenko O., Inozemtseva D.Kozeretska I. 2009. Current status of the Antarctic herb tundra formation in the central Argentine Islands. Global Change Biology, 15, 16851693.
Payne A.J., Holland P.R., Shepard A.P., Rutt I.C., Jenkins A.Joughin I. 2007. Numerical modeling of ocean-ice interactions under Pine Island Bay’s ice shelf. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, 10.1029/2006JC003733.
Pearson P.N.Palmer M.R. 2000. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature, 406, 695699.
Peck L.S., Convey P.Barnes D.K.A. 2006. Environmental constraints on life histories in Antarctic ecosystems: tempos, timings and predictability. Biological Reviews, 81, 75109.
Pfeffer W.T., Harper J.T.O’Neel S. 2008. Kinematic constraints on glacial contributions to 21st century sea-level rise. Science, 321, 13401343.
Pollard D.DeConto R.M. 2009. Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years. Nature, 458, 329332.
Pritchard H.D.Vaughan D.G. 2007. Widespread acceleration of tidewater glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Journal of Geophyical Research, 112, F03S29.
Pugh P.J.A.Convey P. 2008. Surviving out in the cold: Antarctic endemic invertebrates and their refugia. Journal of Biogeography, 35, 21762186.
Quayle W.C., Convey P., Peck L.S., Ellis-Evans J.C., Butler H.G.Peat H.J. 2003. Ecological responses of maritime Antarctic lakes to regional climate change. Antarctic Research Series, 79, 159170.
Quesada A., Vincent W.F., Kaup E., Hobbie J.E., Laurion I., Pienitz R., López-Martínez J.Durán J.J. 2006. Landscape control of high latitude lakes in a changing climate. In Bergstrom, D.M., Convey, P. & Huiskes, A.H.L., eds. Trends in Antarctic terrestrial and limnetic ecosystems: Antarctica as a global indicator. Dordrecht: Springer, 221252.
Rahmstorf S. 2007. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science, 315, 368370.
Randall D.A., Wood R.A., Bony S., Colman R., Fichefet T., Fyfe J., Kattsov V., Pitman A., Shukla J., Srinivasan J., Stouffer R.J., Sumi A.Taylor K.E. 2007. Climate models and their evaluation. In Solomon, S., Qin, D., Manning, M., Chen, Z., Marquis, M., Averyt, K.B., Tignor, M. & Miller, H.L. eds. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 589662.
Rignot E. 2008. Changes in West Antarctic ice stream dynamics observed with ALOS PALSAR data. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 10.1029/2008GL033365
Rignot E., Bamber J.L., van den Broeke M.R., Davis C., Yonghong L., van de Berg W.J.van Meijgaard E. 2008. Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modeling. Nature Geoscience, 10.1038/ngeo102.
Rintoul R.R., Hughes C.W.Olbers D. 2001. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current System. In Siedler, G., Church, J. & Gould, J., eds. Ocean circulation and climate. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 271302.
Rintoul S.R. 2007. Rapid freshening of Antarctic Bottom Water formed in the Indian and Pacific oceans. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, 10.1029/2006GL028550.
Rohling E.J., Grant K., Hemleben C., Siddall M., Hoogakker B.A.A., Bolshaw M.Kucera M. 2008. High rates of sea-level rise during the last interglacial period. Nature Geoscience, 1, 3842.
Royer D.L. 2006. CO2-forced climate thresholds during the Phanerozoic. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 56655675.
Russell J.L., Stouffer R.J.Dixon K.W. 2006a. Intercomparison of the Southern Ocean circulation in IPCC coupled model control simulations. Journal of Climate, 19, 63826390.
Russell J.L., Dixon K.W., Gnanadesikan A., Stouffer R.J.Toggweiler J.R. 2006b. The Southern hemisphere westerlies in a warming world: propping open the door to the deep ocean. Journal of Climate, 19, 45604575.
Sabine C.L., Feely R.A., Gruber N., Key R.M., Lee K., Bullister J.L., Wanninkhof R., Wong C.S., Wallace D.W.R., Tilbrook B., Millero F.J., Peng T.H., Kozyr A., Ono T.Rios A.F. 2004. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2. Science, 305, 367371.
Scambos T., Bohlander J., Shuman C.Skvarca P. 2004. Glacier acceleration and thinning after ice shelf collapse in the Larsen B embayment, Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 31, L18401.
Severinghaus J.P., Sowers T., Brook E.J., Alley R.B.Bender M.L. 1998. Timing of abrupt climate change at the end of the Younger Dryas interval from thermally fractionated polar ice. Nature, 391, 141146.
Sidell B.D.O’Brien K.M. 2006. When bad thing happen to good fish: the loss of hemoglobin and myoglobin expression in Antarctic icefishes. Journal of Experimental Biology, 209, 17911802.
Simmonds I., Keay K.Lim E.P. 2003. Synoptic activity in the seas around Antarctica. Monthly Weather Review, 131, 272288.
Smetacek V.Nicol S. 2005. Polar ocean ecosystems in a changing world. Nature, 437, 362368.
Smith R.I.L. 1990. Signy Island as a paradigm of biological and environmental change in Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems. In Kerry, K.R. & Hempel, G., eds. Antarctic ecosystems, ecological change and conservation. Berlin: Springer, 3250.
Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M., Miller H.L.Chen Z.eds. 2007. Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 940 pp.
Steig E.J., Schneider D.P., Rutherford S.D., Mann M.E., Comiso J.C.Shindell D.T. 2009. Warming of the Antarctic ice-sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature, 457, 459462.
Thoma M., Jenkins A., Holland D.Jacobs S. 2008. Modelling Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions on the Amundsen Sea continental shelf, Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 10.1029/2008GL034939.
Thomas R., Rignot E., Casassa G., Kanagaratnam P., Acuña C., Akins T., Brecher H., Frederick E., Gogineni P., Krabill W., Manizade S., Ramamoorthy H., Rivera A., Russell R., Sonntag J., Swift R., Yungel J.Zwally J. 2004. Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica. Science, 306, 255258.
Tin T., Fleming Z., Hughes K.A., Ainley D., Convey P., Moreno C., Pfeiffer S., Scott J.Snape I. 2009. Impacts of local human activities on the Antarctic environment: a review. Antarctic Science, 21, 333.
Trathan P.N., Murphy E.J., Forcada J., Croxall J.P., Reid K.Thorpe S. 2006. Physical forcing in the southwest Atlantic: ecosystem control. In Boyd, I.L., Wanless, S. & Camphuysen, C.J., eds. Top predators in marine ecosystems: their role in monitoring and management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2845.
Turner J. 2004. The El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Antarctica. International Journal of Climatology, 24, 131.
Turner J.Overland J.E. 2009. Contrasting climate change in the two polar regions. Polar Research, 28, 146164.
Turner J., Lachlan-Cope T.A., Colwell S.R., Marshall G.J.Connolley W.M. 2006. Significant warming of the Antarctic winter troposphere. Science, 311, 19141917.
Turner J., Bindschadler R., Convey P., di Prisco G., Fahrbach E., Gutt J., Hodgson D.A., Mayewski P.A.Summerhayes C.P.eds. 2009a. Antarctic climate change and the environment. Cambridge: Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research, 554 pp.
Turner J., Colwell S.R., Marshall G.J., Lachlan-Cope T.A., Carleton A.M., Jones P.D., Lagun V., Reid P.A.Iagovkina S. 2005. Antarctic climate change during the last 50 years. International Journal of Climatology, 25, 279294.
Turner J., Comiso J.C., Marshall G.J., Lachlan-Cope T.A., Bracegirdle T.J., Maksym T., Meredith M.P., Wang Z.Orr A. 2009b. Non-annular atmospheric circulation change induced by stratospheric ozone depletion and its role in the recent increase of Antarctic sea ice extent. Geophysics Research Letters, 10.1029/2009GL037524.
Turner J., Anderson P.S., Lachlan-Cope T.A., Colwell S.R., Phillips T., Kirchgaessner A., Marshall G.J., King J.C., Bracegirdle T.J., Vaughan D.G.Lagun V. In press. The record low surface air temperature at Vostok station, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres.
Vaughan D.G.Doake C.S.M. 1996. Recent atmospheric warming and retreat of ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula. Nature, 379, 328331.
Vaughan D.G.Spouge J.R. 2002. Risk estimation of collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Climatic Change, 52, 6591.
Vincent W.F., MacIntyre S., Spigel R.H.Laurion E. 2008. The physical limnology of high-latitude lakes. In Vincent, W.F. & J. Laybourn-Parry, J., eds. Polar lakes and rivers - limnology of arctic and antarctic aquatic ecosystems. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 6581.
Wang Z.Meredith M.P. 2008. Density-driven Southern Hemisphere subpolar gyres in coupled climate models. Geophysical Research Letters, 35, 10.1029/2008GL034344
Whitehouse M.J., Meredith M.P., Rothery P., Atkinson A., Ward P.Korb R.E. 2008. Rapid warming of the ocean at South Georgia, Southern Ocean during the 20th century: forcings, characteristics and implications for lower trophic levels. Deep-Sea Research I, 55, 12181228.
Zenk W.Morozov E. 2007. Decadal warming of the coldest Antarctic Bottom Water flowing through the Vema Channel. Geophysical Research Letters, 34, 10.1029/2007/GLR030340
Zwally H.J., Giovenetto M.B., Li J., Cornejo H.G., Beckley M.A., Brenner A.C., Saba J.L.Yi D. 2006. Mass changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and shelves and contributions to sea level rise: 1992–2002. Journal of Glaciology, 51, 509527.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antarctic Science
  • ISSN: 0954-1020
  • EISSN: 1365-2079
  • URL: /core/journals/antarctic-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 40
Total number of PDF views: 349 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 602 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.