Skip to main content Accessibility help

Diacyclops (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in Continental Antarctica, including three new species

  • Tomislav Karanovic (a1) (a2), John A.E. Gibson (a2), Ian Hawes (a3), Dale T. Andersen (a4) and Mark I. Stevens (a5) (a6)...


Contrary to earlier beliefs, crustaceans are present in ice-covered lakes of Antarctica. Interpretation of the significance of this has been hampered by the absence of robust identification of taxa present. We examine cyclopoid copepods from three widely separated lakes. All belong to the michaelseni group of the genus Diacyclops, which is widespread across Continental Antarctica, but do not fit into any existing species. Two new species were identified from eastern Antarctica, D. walkeri from Pineapple Lake (Vestfold Hills) and D. kaupi from Transkriptsii Gulf (Bunger Hills). Most significant was a dense population of a new epibenthic species (D. joycei) associated with microbial mats in Lake Joyce, one of the smaller McMurdo Dry Valleys lakes. This represents the first record of adult cyclopoid copepods from the ice-covered lakes of the Transantarctic Mountains. Continental Antarctica is the centre of diversity for this group of crustaceans and we argue that this is better explained by persistence through past glacial advances rather than by recent post-glacial colonization. The existence of a species endemic to Lake Joyce but apparently absent from other Dry Valleys lakes is discussed in relation to our understanding of the history of the McMurdo Dry Valleys lakes and their faunas.


Corresponding author


Hide All
Bayly, I.A.E., Gibson, J.A.E., Wagner, B. Swadling, K.M. 2003. Taxonomy, ecology and zoogeography of two East Antarctic freshwater calanoid copepod species: Boeckella poppei and Gladioferens antarcticus . Antarctic Science, 15, 439448.
Bockheim, J.G., Campbell, I.B. McLeod, M. 2008. Use of soil chronosequences for testing the existence of high-water-level lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. CATENA, 74, 144152.
Borutzky, E.V. 1962. Novye dannye ob Acanthocyclops mirnyi Borutskii et M. Vinogradov iz Antarktidy. [New data on the copepod Acanthocyclops mirnyi Borutsky & M. Vinogradov from the Antarctic region.]. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 41, 11061107.
Borutzky, E.V. Vinogradov, M.E. 1957. Nakhozhdenie Cyclopidae (Acanthocyclops mirnyi, sp. n.) na materike Antarktidy. [Occurrence of Cyclopidae (Acanthocyclops mirnyi, sp. n.) on the Antarctic continent.] Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 36, 199203.
Brandt, A., Gooday, A.J. Brandao, S.N., et al. 2007. First insights into the biodiversity and biogeography of the Southern Ocean deep sea. Nature, 447, 307311.
Burnett, L., Moorhead, D., Hawes, I. Howard-Williams, C. 2006. Environmental factors associated with deep chlorophyll maxima in Dry Valley lakes, south Victoria Land, Antarctica. Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research, 38, 179189.
Cathey, D.D., Parker, B.C., Simmons, G.M., Yongue, W.H. van Brunt, M.A. 1981. The microfauna of algal mats and artificial substrates in southern Victoria Land lakes of Antarctica. Hydrobiologia, 85, 315.
Convey, P., Gibson, J.A.E., Hillenbrand, C.-D., Hodgson, D.A., Pugh, P.J.A., Smellie, J.L. Stevens, M.I. 2008. Antarctic terrestrial life – challenging the history of the frozen continent? Biological Reviews, 83, 103117.
Convey, P., Stevens, M.I., Hodgson, D.A., Smellie, J.L., Hillenbrand, C.-D., Barnes, D.K.A., Clarke, A., Pugh, P.J.A., Linse, K. Cary, S.C. 2009. Exploring biological constraints on the glacial history of Antarctica. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 30353048.
Cromer, L., Gibson, J.A.E., Swadling, K.M. Hodgson, D.A. 2006. Evidence for a lacustrine faunal refuge in the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica, during the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 13141323.
Dartnall, H.J.G. 1995. Rotifers, and other aquatic invertebrates, from the Larsemann Hills, Antarctica. Papers and proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, 129, 1723.
Dartnall, H.J.G. Hollwedel, W. 2007. A limnological reconnaissance of the Falkland Islands; with particular reference to the waterfleas (Arthropoda: Anomopoda). Journal of Natural History, 41, 12591300.
Ekman, S. 1905. Cladoceren und Copepoden aus Antarktischen und subantarktischen Binnengewässern gesammelt von der Schwedischen Antarktischen Expedition 1901–1903. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnissen der schwedischen Südpolarexpedition 1901–1903, 5, 140.
Fiers, F., Reid, J.W., Iliffe, T.M. Suárez-Morales, E. 1996. New hypogean cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea) from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Contributions to Zoology, 66, 65102.
Flössner, D. 1984. Two new species of the genera Acanthocyclops and Diacyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda) from Lake Baikal. Limnologica, 15, 149156.
Gibson, J.A.E. Andersen, D.T. 2002. Physical structure of epishelf lakes of the southern Bunger Hills, East Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 14, 253261.
Gibson, J.A.E. Bayly, I.A.E. 2007. New insights into the origins of crustaceans of Antarctic lakes. Antarctic Science, 19, 157163.
Gore, D.B., Rhodes, E.J., Augustinus, P.C., Leishman, M.R., Colhoun, E.A. Rees-Jones, J. 2001. Bunger Hills, East Antarctica: ice free at the Last Glacial Maximum. Geology, 29, 11031106.
Hall, B.L., Denton, G.H., Fountain, A.G., Hendy, C.H. Henderson, G.M. 2010. Antarctic lakes suggest millennial reorganizations of Southern Hemisphere atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 21 35521 359.
Hansson, L.-A., Hylander, S., Dartnall, H.J.G., Lidström, S. Svensson, J.-E. 2011. High zooplankton diversity in the extreme environments of the McMurdo Dry Valley lakes, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 24, 131138.
Hendy, C.H. Hall, B.L. 2006. The radiocarbon reservoir effect in proglacial lakes: examples from Antarctica. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 241, 413421.
Karanovic, T. 2006. Subterranean copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the Pilbara region in Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum, Sup. 70, 1239.
Karanovic, T. Cooper, S.J.B. 2012. Explosive radiation of the genus Schizopera on a small subterranean island in Western Australia (Copepoda: Harpacticoida): unravelling the cases of cryptic speciation, size differentiation and multiple invasions. Invertebrate Systematics, 26, 115192.
Karanovic, T., Grygier, M.J. Lee, W. 2013. Endemism of subterranean Diacyclops in Korea and Japan, with descriptions of seven new species of the languidoides-group and redescriptions of D. brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 and D. suoensis Ito, 1954 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida). ZooKeys, 267, 176.
Karanovic, T. Krajicek, M. 2012. When anthropogenic translocation meets cryptic speciation globalized bouillon originates; molecular variability of the cosmopolitan freshwater cyclopoid Macrocyclops albidus (Crustacea: Copepoda). International Journal of Limnology, 48, 6380.
Klokov, V., Kaup, E., Zierath, R. Haendel, D. 1990. Lakes of the Bunger Hills (East Antarctica): chemical and ecological properties. Polish Polar Research, 11, 147159.
Lindberg, K. 1949. Contributions à l’étude des Cyclopides (Crustacés copépodes). Kunglige Fysiografiska Sällskapets I Lund Förhandlingar, 19, 98121.
Lyons, W.B., Welch, K.A., Snyder, G., Olesik, J., Graham, E.Y., Marion, G.M. Poreda, R.J. 2005. Halogen geochemistry of the McMurdo Dry Valleys lakes, Antarctica: clues to the origin of solutes and lake evolution. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 69, 305323.
Magalhães, C., Stevens, M.I., Cary, S.C., Ball, B.A., Storey, B.C., Wall, D.H., Türk, R. Ruprecht, U. 2012. At limits of life: multidisciplinary insights reveal environmental constraints on biotic diversity in continental Antarctica. PLoS ONE, 7, e44578.
Mazepova, G.F. 1950a. K poznaniiu fauni Cyclopoida oz. Baikal. [Contributions to the knowledge of Cyclopoida fauna of the Lake Baikal.] Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 72, 809812.
Mazepova, G.F. 1950b. Novie vidy ciklopov iz ozera Baikal. [New species of cyclopoids from the Lake Baikal.] Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR, 75, 865868.
Morton, D.W. 1985. Revision of the Australian Cyclopidae (Copepoda, Cyclopoida). 1. Acanthocyclops Kiefer, Diacyclops Kiefer and Australocyclops, gen. nov. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 36, 615634.
Mrázek, A. 1901. Süsswasser-Copepoden. Ergebnisse der Hamburger Magalhaensischen Sammelreise 1892/93 . Hamburg, 6, 129.
Nolan, L., Hogg, I.D., Stevens, M.I. Haase, M. 2006. Fine scale distribution of mtDNA haplotypes for the springtail Gomphiocephalus hodgsoni (Collembola) corresponds to an ancient shoreline in Taylor Valley, continental Antarctica. Polar Biology, 29, 813819.
Parker, B.C., Simmons, G.M., Seaburg, K.G., Cathey, D.D. Allnutt, F.C.T. 1982. Comparative ecology of plankton communities in seven Antarctic oasis lakes. Journal of Plankton Research, 4, 271286.
Pugh, P.J.A., Dartnall, H.J.G. McInnes, S.J. 2002. The non-marine crustacea of Antarctica and the islands of the Southern Ocean: biodiversity and biogeography. Journal of Natural History, 36, 10471103.
Roberts, E.C., Priscu, J.C., Wolf, C., Lyons, W.B. Laybourn-Parry, J. 2004. The distribution of microplankton in the McMurdo Dry Valley Lakes, Antarctica: response to ecosystem legacy or present-day climatic controls? Polar Biology, 27, 238249.
Scott, T. 1914. Remarks on some Copepoda from the Falkland Islands collected by Mr Rupert Vallentin. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, eighth series, 13, 111.
Shacat, J.A., Green, W.J., Decarlo, E.H. Newell, S. 2004. The geochemistry of Lake Joyce, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Aquatic Geochemistry, 10, 325352.
Spigel, R.H. Priscu, J.C. 1998. Physical limnology of the McMurdo Dry Valleys lakes. Antarctic Research Series, 72, 153187.
Stevens, M.I., Greenslade, P., Hogg, I.D. Sunnucks, P. 2006. Southern Hemisphere springtails: could any have survived glaciation of Antarctica? Molecular Biology and Evolution, 23, 874882.
Van Hove, P., Swadling, K.M., Gibson, J.A.E., Belzile, C. Vincent, W.F. 2001. Farthest north lake and fjord populations of calanoid copepods Limnocalanus macrurus and Drepanopus bungei in the Canadian high Arctic. Polar Biology, 24, 303307.
Wharton, R.A. Jr 1994. Stromatolitic mats in Antarctic lakes. In Bertrand-Sarfati, J. & Monty, C., eds. Phanerozoic Stromatolites II. Dordrecht: Springer, 5370.
Williams, M., Siveter, D.J., Ashworth, A.C., Wilby, P.R., Horne, D.J., Lewis, A.R. Marchant, D.R. 2008. Exceptionally preserved lacustrine ostracods from the Middle Miocene of Antarctica: implications for high-latitude palaeoenvironment at 77° south. Proceedings of the Royal Society, B275, 24492454.


Type Description Title
Supplementary materials

Karanovic et al. Supplementary Material

 PDF (9.1 MB)
9.1 MB


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed