An inventory of Antarctic and Subantarctic mysid fauna is presented, together with a summary of the present state of knowledge of species and their taxonomic diversity, geographic and bathymetric distribution patterns. Fifty nine species of Mysidacea (Crustacea, Peracarida) are now known. Of these, 37 were reported for the Antarctic region and 31 for the Magellan region; six species occur further north in the Southern Ocean, but south of 40°S. 51% of the Antarctic Mysidacea are endemic, and the figure for the Magellan region is 48%. Most of the species live hyperbenthically, but some also occur bathy- or mesopelagically. Mysidetes has the most species in the Southern Ocean, and Eucopia australis is the species with the widest bathymetric distribution (600–6000 m depth). It is concluded that an emergence of species onto the Antarctic shelf in the Neogene was quite unlikely, because none of the mysid species is a true deepsea species, and most species occur on the shelf or at the shelf break. It is more probable that present day species colonized the Southern Ocean via shallower waters. The examples of the distribution of different genera suggest that the Mysidacea of the Southern Ocean probably had various geographical origins.
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