The biota of Antarctica is amazingly rich and highly endemic. The phylogenetics of notothenioid fishes has been extensively investigated through analyses of morphological characters, DNA sequences from mitochondrial genes, and single copy nuclear genes. These phylogenetic analyses have produced reasonably similar phylogenetic trees of notothenioids, however a number of phylogenetic questions remain. The nototheniid clade Trematomus is an example of a group where phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved. In this paper we revisit the phylogenetic relationships of Trematomus using both increased taxon sampling and an expanded dataset which includes DNA sequences from two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and 16S rRNA) and one single-copy nuclear gene (RPS7). The Bayesian phylogeny resulting from the analysis of the combined mitochondrial and nuclear gene datasets was well resolved and contained more interspecific nodes supported with significant Bayesian posteriors than either the mitochondrial or nuclear gene phylogenies alone. This demonstrates that the addition of nuclear gene sequence data to mitochondrial data can enhance phylogenetic resolution and increase node support. Additionally, the results of the combined mitochondrial and nuclear Bayesian analyses provide further support for the inclusion of species previously classified as Pagothenia and Cryothenia in Trematomus.
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