Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice

  • Michael Fischer (a1), David N. Thomas (a2) (a3) (a4), Andreas Krell (a1), Gernot Nehrke (a1), Jörg Göttlicher (a5), Louiza Norman (a2), Klaus M. Meiners (a6) (a7), Catherine Riaux-Gobin (a8) and Gerhard S. Dieckmann (a1)...
Abstract
Abstract

Calcium carbonate precipitation in sea ice is thought to potentially drive significant CO2 uptake by the ocean. However, little is known about the quantitative spatial and temporal distribution of CaCO3 within sea ice, although it is hypothesized that high quantities of dissolved organic matter and/or phosphate (common in sea ice) may inhibit its formation. In this quantitative study of hydrous calcium carbonate as ikaite, sea ice cores and brine samples were collected from pack and land fast sea ice between September and December 2007 during two expeditions, one in the East Antarctic sector and the other off Terre Adélie. Samples were analysed for CaCO3, salinity, dissolved organic carbon/nitrogen, inorganic phosphate, and total alkalinity. No relationship between these parameters and CaCO3 precipitation was evident. Ikaite was found mostly in the uppermost layers of sea ice with maximum concentrations of up to 126 mg ikaite per litre melted sea ice being measured, although both the temporal and horizontal spatial distributions of ikaite were highly heterogeneous. The precipitate was also found in the snow on top of the sea ice at some of the sampling locations.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Quantification of ikaite in Antarctic sea ice
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
michael.fischer@awi.de
References
Hide All
L.G. Anderson E.P. Jones 1985. Measurement of total alkalinity, calcium, and sulfate in natural sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 90, 91949198.

S. Aslam , G.J.C. Uunderwood , H. Kaartokallio , L. Norman , R. Autio , M. Fischer , H. Kuosa , G.S. Dieckmann D.N. Thomas 2012. Dissolved extracellular polymeric substance (dEPS) dynamics and bacterial growth during sea ice formation in an ice tank study. Polar Biology, 35, 661676.

R.A. Berner , J.T. Westrich , R. Graber , J. Smitz C.S. Martens 1978. Inhibition of aragonite precipitation from supersaturated seawater. American Journal of Science, 278, 816837.

J.L. Bischoff , J.A. Fitzpatrick R.J. Rosenbauer 1993. The solubility and stabilization of ikaite CaCO3*6H2O from 0° to 25°C: environmental and paleoclimatic implications for thinolite tufa. The Journal of Geology, 101, 2133.

J.S. Bowman J.W. Deming 2010. Elevated bacterial abundance and exopolymers in saline frost flowers and implications for atmospheric chemistry and microbial dispersal. Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2010GL043020.

J.C. Comiso F. Nishio 2008. Trends in the sea ice cover using enhanced and compatible AMSRE, SSM/I, and SMMR data. Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2007JC004257.

B. Delille , B. Jourdain , A.V. Borges , J.-L. Tison D. Delille 2007. Biogas (CO2, O2, dimethylsulfide) dynamics in spring Antarctic fast ice. Limnology and Oceanography, 52, 13671379.

B. Dickens W.B. Brown 1970. The crystal structure of calcium carbonate hexahydrate at about -120°C. Inorganic Chemistry, 9, 480486.

G.S. Dieckmann , G. Nehrke , C. Uhlig , J. Göttlicher , S. Gerland , M.A. Granskog D.N. Thomas 2010. Brief communication: ikaite CaCO3*6H2O discovered in Arctic sea ice. The Cryosphere, 4, 227230.

G.S. Dieckmann , G. Nehrke , S. Papadimitriou , J. Göttlicher , R. Steininger , H. Kennedy , D. Wolf-Gladrow D.N. Thomas 2008. Calcium carbonate as ikaite crystals in Antarctic sea ice. Geophysical Research Letters, 10.1029/2008GL033540.

B.G.T. Else , T.N. Papakyriakou , R.J. Galley , W.M. Drennan , L.A. Miller H. Thomas 2011. Wintertime CO2 fluxes in an Arctic polynya using eddycovariance: evidence for enhanced air-sea gas transfer during ice formation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2010JC006760.

B. Hales , A. van Geen T. Takahashi 2004. High-frequency measurement of seawater chemistry: flow-injection analysis of macronutrients. Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, 2, 91101.

E.P. Jones A.R. Coote 1981. Oceanic CO2 produced by the precipitation of CaCO3 from brines in sea ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 86, 11 04111 043.

M.T. Kandianis , B.W. Fouke , J.W. Johnson , J. Veysey II W.P. Inskeep 2008. Microbial biomass: a catalyst for CaCO3 precipitation in advection-dominated transport regimes. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 120, 442450.

J.A. Killawee , I.J. Fairchild , J.-L. Tison , L. Janssens R. Lorrain 1998. Segregation of solutes and gases in experimental freezing of dilute solutions: implications for natural glacial systems. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62, 36373655.

H. Kroon 1993. Determination of nitrogen in water: comparison of continuous flow method with online UV digestion with the original Kjedahl method. Analytica Chimica Acta, 276, 287293.

B. Loose , L. Miller , S. Elliott T. Papakyriakou 2011. Sea ice biogeochemistry and material transport across the frozen interface. Oceanography, 24, 202218.

G.M. Marion 2001. Carbonate mineral solubility at low temperatures in the Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-H2O system. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 65, 18831896.

K.M. Meiners , L. Norman , M.A. Granskog , A. Krell , P. Heil D.N. Thomas 2011. Physico-ecobiogeochemistry of East Antarctic pack ice during the winter-spring transition. Deep-Sea Research II, 58, 11721181.

L. Miller , T.N. Papakyriakou , E. Collins , J. Deming , J.K. Ehn , R.W. MacDonald , A. Mucci , O. Owens , M. Raudsepp N. Sutherland 2011. Carbon dynamics in sea ice: a winter flux time series. Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2009JC006058.

D. Nomura , H. Yoshikawa-Inoue , T. Toyota K. Shirasawa 2010. Effects of snow, snowmelting and refreezing processes on air-sea ice CO2 flux. Journal of Glaciology, 56, 262270.

L. Norman , D.N. Thomas , C.A. Stedmon , M.A. Granskog , S. Papadimitriou , R.H. Krapp , K.M. Meiners , D. Lannuzel , P. van der Merwe G.S. Dieckmann 2011. The characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Antarctic sea ice. Deep Sea Research II, 58, 10751091.

S. Papadimitriou , H. Kennedy , G. Kattner , G.S. Dieckmann D.N. Thomas 2004. Experimental evidence for carbonate precipitation and CO2 degassing during sea ice formation. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68, 17491761.

S. Papadimitriou , H. Kennedy , L. Norman , D.P. Kennedy , G.S. Dieckmann D.N. Thomas 2012. The effect of biological activity, CaCO3 mineral dynamics, and CO2 degassing in the inorganic carbon cycle in sea ice in late winter-early spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2012JC008058.

D.K. Perovich J.A. Richter-Menge 1994. Surface characteristics of lead ice. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 16 34116 350.

J. Qian K. Mopper 1996. An automated, high performance, high temperature combustion dissolved organic carbon analyser. Analytical Chemistry, 68, 30903097.

A.M. Rankin E.W. Wolff 2002. Frost flowers: implications for tropospheric chemistry and ice core interpretation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2002JD002492.

S. Rysgaard , J. Bendtsen , L.T. Pedersen , H. Ramløv R.N. Glud 2009. Increased CO2 uptake due to sea ice growth and decay in the Nordic Seas. Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2008JC005088.

S. Rysgaard , R.N. Glud , M.K. Sejr , J. Bendtsen P.B. Christensen 2007. Inorganic carbon transport during sea ice growth and decay: a carbon pump in polar seas. Journal of Geophysical Research, 10.1029/2006JC003572.

S. Rysgaard , R. Glud , K. Lennert , M. Cooper , N. Halden , R.J.G. Leakey , F.C. Hawthorne D. Barber 2012. Ikaite crystals in melting sea ice - implications for pCO2 and pH levels in Arctic surface waters. The Cryosphere, 6, 901908.

S. Rysgaard , J. Bendtsen , B. Delille , G.S. Dieckmann , R.N. Glud , H. Kennedy , J. Mortensen , S. Papadimitriou , D.N. Thomas J.L. Tison 2011. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO2 exchange in the Arctic and Southern oceans. Tellus B, 63, 823830.

M. Sala , B. Delmonte , M. Frezzotti , M. Proposito , C. Scarchilli , V. Maggi , G. Artioli , M. Dapiaggi , F. Marino , P.C. Ricci G. De Giudici 2008. Evidence of calcium carbonates in coastal (Talos Dome and Ross Sea area) East Antarctica snow and firn: environmental and climatic implications. Earth Planetary Science Letters, 271, 4352.

R. Sander , J. Burrows L. Kaleschke 2006. Carbonate precipitation in brine - a potential trigger for tropospheric ozone depletion events. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6, 46534658.

A.P. Worby , A. Steer , J.L. Lieser , P. Heil , D. Yi , T. Markus , I. Allison , R.A. Massom , N. Galin J. Zwally 2011. Regional-scale sea ice and snow thickness distributions from in situ and satellite measurements over East Antarctica during SIPEX 2007. Deep Sea Research II, 58, 11251136.

J.J. Zullig J.W. Morse 1988. Interaction of organic acids with carbonate mineral surfaces in seawater and related solutions: I. fatty acid adsorption. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 16671678.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antarctic Science
  • ISSN: 0954-1020
  • EISSN: 1365-2079
  • URL: /core/journals/antarctic-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary Materials

Fischer Supplementary Material
Appendix

 Word (199 KB)
199 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 65 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 248 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.