Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Unusual coastal flood impacts in Salmon Valley, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

  • Paul K. Dayton (a1), Kamille Hammerstrom (a2), Shannon C. Jarrell (a1), Stacy Kim (a2), Walter Nordhausen (a3), D.J. Osborne (a4) and Simon F. Thrush (a5)...
Abstract

Large floods bringing significant sediments into the coastal oceans have not been observed in Antarctica. We report evidence of a large flood event depositing over 50 cm of sediment onto the nearshore benthic habitat at Salmon Bay, Antarctica, between 1990 and 2010. Besides direct observations of the sedimentation, the evidence involves a debris flow covering old tyre tracks from the early 1960s, as well as evidence of a considerable amount of sediment transported onto the Salmon Creek delta. We believe that the flood was sourced from the Salmon Glacier and possibly the smaller Blackwelder Glacier. Such floods will be more common in the future and it is important to better understand their ecological impacts with good monitoring programmes.

Copyright
Corresponding author
pdayton@ucsd.edu
References
Hide All
Cazenave, F., Zook, R., Carroll, D., Flagg, M. & Kim, S. 2011. Development of the ROV SCINI and deployment in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. The Journal of Ocean Technology, 6, 4058.
Chinn, T. & Mason, P. 2015. The first 25 years of the hydrology of the Onyx River, Wright Valley, Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Polar Record, 52, 1665.
Dayton, P.K., Robilliard, G.A. & DeVries, A.L. 1969. Anchor ice formation in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, and its biological effects. Science, 163, 273274.
Denton, G.H. & Marchant, D.R. 2000. The geologic basis for a reconstruction of a grounded ice sheet in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, at the Last Glacial Maximum. Geografiska Annaler - Physical Geography, A82, 167211.
Debenham, F. 1965. The genesis of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology, 5, 829832.
Doran, P.T., McKay, C.P., Fountain, A.G., Nylen, T., McKnight, D.M., Jaros, C. & Barrett, J.E. 2008. Hydrological response to extreme warm and cold summers in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, East Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 20, 499509.
Foreman, C.M., Wolf, C.F. & Priscu, J.C. 2004. Impact of episodic warming events on the physical, chemical and biological relationships of lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Aquatic Geochemistry, 10, 239268.
Gow, A.J., Weeks, W.F., Hendrickson, G. & Rowland, R. 1965. New light on the mode of uplift of the fish and fossiliferous moraines of the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology, 5, 813828.
Hall, B.L. & Denton, G.H. 2000. Radiocarbon chronology of Ross Sea drift, eastern Taylor Valley, Antarctica: evidence for a grounded ice sheet in the Ross Sea at the Last Glacial Maximum. Geografiska Annaler - Physical Geography, A82, 305336.
Hall, B.L., Denton, G.H., Heath, S.L., Jackson, M.S. & Koffman, T.N.B. 2015. Accumulation and marine forcing of ice dynamics in the western Ross Sea during the last deglaciation. Nature Geoscience, 8, 625628.
Lewis, A.R., Marchant, D.R., Kowalewski, D.E., Baldwin, S.L. & Webb, L.E. 2006. The age and origin of the Labyrinth, western Dry Valleys, Antarctica: evidence for extensive middle Miocene subglacial floods and freshwater discharge to the Southern Ocean. Geology, 34, 513516.
Lyons, W.B., Tyler, S.W., Wharton, R.A., McKnight, D.M. & Vaughn, B.H. 1998. A late Holocene desiccation of Lake Hoare and Lake Fryxell, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Antarctic Science, 10, 247256.
Mercuri, G., Tatian, M., Momo, F., Fuentes, V. & Sahade, R. 2008. Massive input of terrigenous sediment into Potter Cover during austral summer and the effects on the bivalve Laternula elliptica: a laboratory experiment. In Wienncke, C., Herreyra, G.A., Abele, D. & Marenssi, S., eds. The Antarctic ecosystem of Potter Cove, King-George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo) synopsis of research performed 1999–2006 at the Dallmann Laboratory and Jubany Station. Bremerhaven: Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft, 111117.
Miller, M.F., Fan, Z. & Bowser, S.S. 2015. Sediments beneath multi-year sea ice: deliver by deltaic and eolian processes. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 85, 301314.
Murray, K.T., Miller, M.F. & Bowser, S.S. 2013. Depositional processes beneath coastal multi-year sea ice. Sedimentology, 60, 391410.
Smith, H.T. 1965. Anomalous erosional topography in Victoria Land. Science, 148, 941942.
Speden, I.G. 1960. Post-glacial terraces near Cape Chocolate, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 3, 203217.
Swithinbank, C. 1970. Ice movement in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica. In Gow, A.J., Keeter, C., Langway, C.C. & Weeks, W.F., eds. International Symposium on Antarctic Glaciological Exploration, 1968. Publication 86 of the International Association of Scientific Hydrology. Gentbrugge: Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research, 472487.
Torre, L., Servetto, N., Eory, M.L., Momo, F., Tatian, M., Abele, D. & Sahade, R. 2012. Respiratory responses of three Antarctic ascidians and a sea pen to increased sediment concentrations. Polar Biology, 35, 17431748.
Tsai, V.C. & Rice, J.R. 2010. A model for turbulent hydraulic fracture and application to crack propagation at glacier beds. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, 115, 10.1029/2009JF001474.
Wilson, A.T. 1964. Evidence from chemical diffusions of a climatic change in the McMurdo Dry Valley 1,200 years ago. Nature, 201, 176177.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Antarctic Science
  • ISSN: 0954-1020
  • EISSN: 1365-2079
  • URL: /core/journals/antarctic-science
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed