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A Romano-British Pottery Kiln at Swanpool, Near Lincoln

  • Graham Webster and Norman Booth
Extract

The kiln was first brought to the notice of the Archaeological Research Committee by Mr. F. W. Brookes, who had observed wasters and kiln debris in the rabbit scrapes. The excavation was included in the Committee's first year's programme as it was felt that the pottery would provide a useful dating guide for the upper levels of the Roman city and at the same time give excellent training to the small but enthusiastic band of volunteers at that time being brought together.

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page 61 note 1 Baker, F. T., ‘Roman Pottery Kiln at Lincoln’, Lincs. Magazine, iii, no. 7.

page 61 note 2 Webster, Graham, ‘A Roman Pottery at South Carlton, Lincs’. Antiq. Journ. xxiv.

page 62 note 1 Baker, F. T., Roman Lincoln, 1938, 24.

page 62 note 2 Grimes, W. F., ‘Holt, Denbighshire, The Works-Depôt of the Twentieth Legion at Castle Lyons’, Y Cymmrodor, xli, fig. 31.

page 64 note 1 J. P. Bushe-Fox, Excavations on the Site of the Roman Town at Wroxeter, Shropshire, in 1912, 76.

page 64 note 2 Miller, S. N., The Roman Fort at Balmuildy on the Antonine Wall, 1922, pl. xlii, 45–7.

page 64 note 3 Graham Webster, op. cit., fig. 6, 16; fig. 7, K and x.

page 64 note 4 Gibson, J. R. and Simpson, F. G., ‘A Milecastle at Poltross Burn’, C. & W.A.A.S. n.s. xi, 1911.

page 64 note 5 Hull, M. R., ‘The Pottery from the Roman Signal Stations on the Yorkshire Coast’, Arch. Journ. lxxxix.

page 64 note 6 Philip Corder, The Roman Pottery at Crambeck, Castle Howard, 1928.

page 64 note 7 Oswald, F., ‘The Mortaria of Margidunum and their development from 50 to 400 A.D.’, Antiq. Journ. xxiv.

page 64 note 8 Donald Atkinson, Report on Excavations at Wroxeter, 1923–7, Birmingham Arch. Soc.

page 66 note 1 Op. cit., pl. VII.

page 66 note 2 Philip Corder, The Roman Pottery at Throlam, Holme-on-Spalding Moor, East Yorkshire, 1930, no. 71.

page 66 note 3 Philip Corder and John L. Kirk, A Roman Villa at Langton, near Malton, East Yorkshire, 1932, fig. 26, no. 76.

page 66 note 4 Wheeler, R. E. Mortimer, ‘Segontium and the Roman Occupation of Wales’, Y Cymmrodor, xxxiii (1923), fig. 78, no. 49.

page 66 note 5 Bushe-Fox, J. P., Second Report on the Roman Fort at Richborough, Kent, 1928, pl. xxxii, 164 and 165.

page 66 note 6 R. E. M. Wheeler and T.V. Wheeler, Verulamium, A Belgic and two Roman Cities, 1936, fig. 38, no. 79.

page 66 note 7 R. E. M. Wheeler and T. V. Wheeler, Report on the Prehistoric, Roman and Post-Roman Site in Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, 1932, fig. 27, no. 47.

page 66 note 8 Bushe-Fox, J. P., Excavations at Hengistbury Head in 1911–12, pl. xxv, 7.

page 66 note 9 Sumner, Heywood, Excavations on the New Forest Pottery Sites, 1927, pl. xxxiv, 3.

page 66 note 10 Information kindly supplied by Mr. M. R. Hull; cf. also Colchester Mus. Rep. 1937–44, pl. vi, 5.

page 66 note 11 Joseph, J. K. S. St., Antiq. Journ. xvi, fig. 3, 63.

page 66 note 12 Crambeck and Throlam, op. cit.

page 66 note 13 Hull, M. R., Arch. Journ. lxxxix.

page 66 note 14 F. Oelmann, Die Keramik des Kastells Nieder-bieber, Abb. 12 and p. 37.

page 66 note 15 Dr.Collinge, W. E., ‘Notes on some Roman Mask or Face Vases in the Yorkshire Museum’, Proc. Yorks. Phil. Soc. 1936, pl. VII.

page 66 note 16 Trans. Scarborough Phil. Soc. 1857, p. 20.

page 66 note 17 Pl. xxiii. 4.

page 67 note 1 T. May, The Roman Pottery in Colchester Museum, pl. xli, 137.

page 67 note 2 Oswald, Adrian, ‘A Fortified Villa at Norton Disney’, Antiq. Journ. xvii, nos. 108–10.

page 67 note 3 G. H. Jack, The Romano-British Town of Magna (Kenchester), Herefordshire, 1916, pl. 42, no. 1.

page 67 note 4 Lowther, A. W. G., ‘Report on Excavations at Verulamium in 1934’, Antiq. Journ. xvii, fig. 9, no. 9.

page 67 note 5 M. R. Hull, Colchester Mus. Rep. 1928, pl. x, 203, 6304.

page 67 note 6 Op. cit., fig. 3, 51.

page 67 note 7 Publication forthcoming.

page 67 note 8 Philip Corder and Rev. T. Romans, Excavations at the Roman Town at Brough, East Yorkshire, 1936, no. 157.

page 67 note 9 Op. cit., no. 95.

page 67 note 10 Oswald, Cf. F., ‘The Pottery of a Claudian Well at Margidunum’, J.R.S. xiii, no. 13, pl. xi.

page 68 note 1 SirMacdonald, G. and Curle, A. O., ‘The Roman Fort at Mumrills’, P.S.A. Scot, lxiii, fig. 97; also Verulaminium, fig. 35, no. 63.

page 68 note 2 Colchester Mus. Rep. 1932, pl. vii, 3.

page 68 note 3 Arch. Journ. lxxxix.

page 68 note 4 Op. cit., nos. 95–8.

page 68 note 5 F. Oswald, ‘Margidunum’, J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 15, no. 21, and J.R.S. xvi, pl. v, 1 and 5.

page 68 note 6 Op. cit., no. 74.

page 68 note 7 Cf. F. Oswald, ‘The Pottery from a Third-Century Well at Margidunum’, J.R.S. xvi, pl. v, 2 and 3.

page 68 note 8 R. E. M. Wheeler, ‘The Roman Fort near Brecon’, Y Cymmrodor, xxxvii, 232 and fig. 104.

page 68 note 9 V. E. Nash-Williams, ‘Report on theExcavations carried out in the Prysg Field 1927–9; Part III, The Finds of Pottery’, Arch. Camb. 1932, 35, 81, 386, 444.

page 68 note 10 J. P. Bushe-Fox, Richborough II, 158.

page 68 note 11 J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 15, no. 19.

page 68 note 12 Op. cit., pl. 1, 3.

page 68 note 13 Colchester Mus. Rep. 1932, pl. ix, 3.

page 68 note 14 Cf. Hengistbury Head, pl. xxvi, 8–11.

page 68 note 15 Cf. Brough, 1936, no. 25.

page 68 note 16 J. P. Bushe-Fox, Richborough III, 1932, nos. 336–8.

page 68 note 17 J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 15, nos. 17 and 24.

page 68 note 18 Niederbieber, Taf. 11, 33a.

page 68 note 19 J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 16, no. 10.

page 68 note 20 Corder, Philip, ‘A Pair of Fourth-century Romano-British Pottery Kilns, near Crambeck’, Antiq. Journ. xvii, fig. 4, no. 12. Also Crambeck, 93 and 190.

page 68 note 21 Op. cit., no. 106.

page 69 note 1 Op. cit., pl. iii, 1, 3, 4, 6, 9; pl. xxxv, i; pl. xxxvi.

page 69 note 2 Op. cit., fig. 27, nos. 60 and 61.

page 69 note 3 Richborough II, 185.

page 69 note 4 A. W. G. Lowther, op. cit., fig. 9, no. 8.

page 69 note 5 J. P. Bushe-Fox, Second Report on the Excavations on the Site of the Roman Town at Wroxeter, Shropshire, 1913, 69.

page 69 note 6 Crambeck, no. 34.

page 69 note 7 Op. cit., nos. 47–54.

page 69 note 8 Op. cit., pl. xxxi, 29; pl. xxxiii, 30–2.

page 69 note 9 Op. cit., pl. xxviii, 31.

page 69 note 10 Perkins, J. B. Ward, Antiq. Journ. xviii, fig. 13, no. 6.

page 69 note 11 Philip Corder, The Defences of the Roman Fort at Malton, fig. 14, no. 10; fig. 21, no. 5.

page 69 note 12 Wroxeter II, no. 62.

page 69 note 13 Op. cit., no. 210.

page 69 note 14 Op. cit., pl. xliv, 5; pl. xlv, 7–9, 21–3.

page 69 note 15 Op. cit., fig. 8, no. 13.

page 70 note 1 Op. cit., nos. 31, 35.

page 70 note 2 Op. cit., nos. 143–6.

page 70 note 3 Op. cit., pl. lix.

page 70 note 4 Richborough III, no. 323.

page 70 note 5 Op. cit., fig. 14.

page 70 note 6 J.R.S. xvi, 4.

page 70 note 7 Op. cit., pl. xi, 8 and 9.

page 70 note 8 Op. cit., no. 118.

page 70 note 9 Op. cit., fig. 64, no. 73; fig. 73, no. 217.

page 70 note 10 T. May, The Roman Pottery in the York Museum, pl. lxxi a, 7.

page 70 note 11 T. May and Linnaeus Hope, Catalogue of the Roman Pottery in the Museum, Tullie House, Carlisle, pl. xiv, 125.

page 70 note 12 T. May, The Roman Pottery in the Colchester Museum, pl. li a.

page 70 note 13 Op. cit., p. 226.

page 70 note 14 J.R.S. xvi, pl. v, 2.

page 70 note 15 Op. cit., pl. vii, 191.

page 70 note 16 Op. cit., fig. 15, nos. 91 and 92.

page 70 note 17 Op. cit., fig. 26, no. 74.

page 71 note 1 Op. cit., pl. 1, 3.

page 71 note 2 Op. cit., Abb. 42 and 41, fig. 1.

page 71 note 3 Op. cit., nos. 47–9, and 1–16. fig.

page 71 note 4 Op. cit., no. 109 and fig. 10.

page 71 note 5 Colchester Mus. Rep. 1928, p. 36 and pl. ix, 7198.

page 71 note 6 Miss K. M. Kenyon, ‘The Roman Theatre at Verulamium, St. Albans’, Archaeologia, lxxxiv, 10, no. 16.

page 71 note 7 Op. cit., fig. 9, 8–12.

page 71 note 8 Op. cit., p. 25.

page 71 note 9 Ibid., nos. 1 and 2.

page 72 note 1 Op. cit., pl. xi, 6, 8–12; pl. xvii, 11–16; pl. xxii, 10–15, 17.

page 72 note 2 Crambeck and Throlam, op. cit.

page 72 note 3 Op. cit. 1936, fig. 10, no. 3; fig. 12, no. 61.

page 72 note 4 Op. cit., fig. 8, nos. 1–4.

page 72 note 5 F.R.S. xxxi, op. cit., fig. 15, nos. 3 and 29; fig. 16, nos. 7 and 9.

page 72 note 6 Op. cit., nos. 82, 87, and 98.

page 72 note 7 Op. cit. 1936, fig. 10, no. 1; fig. 12, no. 66.

page 72 note 8 F. Oswald and T. Davies Pryce, An Introduction to the Study of Terra Sigillata, 192.

page 72 note 9 Op. cit., pl. iv, 4; pl. vi, 1 and 2; pl. vii, 1–4; pl. viii, 6–8.

page 72 note 10 Op. cit., pl. viii, 8, resembling D 24 and 25.

page 72 note 11 Op. cit., pl. iii, 78 and 79.

page 72 note 12 Richborough II, nos. 175 and 176.

page 72 note 13 Op. cit., fig. 26, no. 27.

page 72 note 14 Op. cit., fig. 11, no. 30.

page 74 note 1 Op. cit., pl. 1, 17–23; pl. ii, 24–9.

page 74 note 2 Op. cit., fig. 3, no. 4.

page 74 note 3 Op. cit., pl. vii, 5–10; pl. xxi, 19–22; pl. xxiv, 2; pl. xxxii, 17–19; pl. xxxiii, 28.

page 74 note 4 J.R.S. xxxi, op. cit., fig. 15, no. 11; fig. 16, no. 22.

page 74 note 5 Op. cit., fig. 77, nos. 39 and 40.

page 74 note 6 Op. cit., fig. 25, nos. 56–68.

page 74 note 7 Op. cit., pl. vi.

page 74 note 8 Op. cit., fig. 11.

page 74 note 9 Op. cit.

page 74 note 10 Wroxeter III, no. 78.

page 74 note 11 Hall, A. F., ‘A Roman Walled Cemetery at Colchester’, Arch. Journ. ci, fig. 10, no. 3.

page 74 note 12 Charles Green, ‘Glevum and the Second Legion’, J.R.S. xxxiii, nos. 36–9.

page 75 note 1 Op. cit., nos. 50–3.

page 75 note 2 J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 15, nos. 26 and 27.

page 75 note 3 Op. cit., fig. 78, no. 52.

page 75 note 4 Op. cit., nos. 60–2 and 64–75.

page 75 note 5 Op. cit., type 8, fig. 6.

page 76 note 1 Op. cit., fig. 15.

page 76 note 2 Op. cit., pl. iv.

page 76 note 3 Op. cit., fig. 14, nos. 72 and 73; fig. 15, nos. 89 and 90.

page 76 note 4 J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 15, no. 19.

page 76 note 5 Adrian Oswald, The Roman Pottery Kilns at Little London, Torksey, Lincs., 1937, pl. 11, 25b.

page 76 note 6 Op. cit., pl. 11, 1, 2, 4.

page 76 note 7 Cf. Heywood Sumner, op. cit., pl. xxi, 1 and Hengistbury Head, op. cit., pl. xxvii, 15.

page 76 note 8 Holt, nos. 69 and 72; Wroxeter II, no. 48.

page 77 note 1 Op. cit., nos. 98–102.

page 77 note 2 Pl. xlix, 4.

page 77 note 3 Richborough II, no. 150.

page 77 note 4 May, op. cit., pl. xi, 9.

page 77 note 5 Op. cit., no. 86.

page 77 note 6 Lowther, op. cit., fig. 9, no. 9.

page 77 note 7 Atkinson, op. cit., fig. 46, no. D 6.

page 77 note 8 J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 16, no. 16.

page 77 note 9 Colchester Mus. Rep. 1928, pl. xv, 6581 a.

page 77 note 10 Crambeck and Throlam, op. cit.

page 77 note 11 Op. cit., pl. iv, 96–9.

page 77 note 12 Gillam, J. P., ‘Romano-British Derbyshire Ware’, Antiq. Journ. xix.

page 77 note 13 Ibid., fig. 2, no. 4.

page 77 note 14 Corder, 1936, op. cit., nos. 96, 97, 137, 146, and 147; cf. also Margidunum third-century well, op. cit., pl. vi, 10 and 31.

page 78 note 1 Op. cit., fig. 76, no. 12.

page 78 note 2 T. May, ‘On the Pottery from the Waste Heap of Roman Potters' Kilns discovered at Sandford, near Littlemore, Oxon., in 1879’, Archaeologia, lxxii, fig. 5, no. 26.

page 78 note 3 J.R.S. xxxi, fig. 16, no. 10.

page 79 note 1 J.R.S. xvi, op. cit.

page 79 note 2 Antiq. Journ. xvii.

page 79 note 3 Reports forthcoming.

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