Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-559fc8cf4f-67gxp Total loading time: 0.55 Render date: 2021-02-28T10:11:13.800Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true }

Staying rooted: Spelling performance in children with dyslexia

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 December 2018

DERRICK C. BOURASSA
Affiliation:
University of Winnipeg
MEGHAN BARGEN
Affiliation:
University of Winnipeg
MELISSA DELMONTE
Affiliation:
University of Winnipeg
S. HÉLÈNE DEACON
Affiliation:
Dalhousie University
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

Spelling is a key, and telling, component of children’s literacy development. An important aspect of spelling development lies in children’s sensitivity to morphological root constancy. This is the sensitivity to the fact that the spelling of roots typically remains constant across related words (e.g., sing in singing and singer). The present investigation examined the extent to which children with dyslexia and younger typically developing children are sensitive to this feature of the orthography. We did so with a spelling-level matched design (e.g., Bourassa & Treiman, 2008) and by further contrasting results with those for a sample of children of the same chronological age as the dyslexic group. Analyses revealed that the dyslexic children and their spelling-ability matched peers used the root constancy principle to a similar degree. However, neither group used this principle to its maximum extent; maximal use of root constancy did emerge for age matched peers. Overall, the findings support the idea that sensitivity to root constancy in children with dyslexia is characterized by delayed rather than atypical development.

Type
Original Article
Copyright
© Cambridge University Press 2018 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1988). Phoneme segmentation training: Effect on reading readiness. Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 208225.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourassa, D. C., & Treiman, R. (2001). Spelling development and disability: The importance of linguistic factors. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 32, 172181.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourassa, D. C., & Treiman, R. (2003). Spelling in dyslexic children: Analyses from the Treiman-Bourassa Early Spelling Test. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7, 303333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bourassa, D. C., & Treiman, R. (2008). Morphological constancy in spelling: A comparison of children with dyslexia and typically developing children. Dyslexia, 14, 155169.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bourassa, D. C., Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2006). Use of morphology in spelling by children with dyslexia and typically developing children. Memory and Cognition, 34, 703714.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Breadmore, H. L., & Carroll, J. M. (2016). Morphological spelling in spite of phonological deficits: Evidence from children with dyslexia and otitis media. Applied Psycholinguistics, 37, 14391460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carlisle, J. F. (1987). The use of morphological knowledge in spelling derived forms by learning-disabled and normal students. Annals of Dyslexia, 27, 90108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cassar, M., Treiman, R., Moats, L., Pollo, T. C., & Kessler, B. (2005). How do the spellings of children with dyslexia compare with those of nondyslexic children? Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 18, 2947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Chomsky, N., & Halle, M. (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Deacon., S. H. (2008). The metric matters: Determining the extent of children’s knowledge of morphological spelling regularities. Developmental Science, 11, 396406.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deacon, S. H., & Bryant, P. E. (2005). What young children do and do not know about the spelling of inflections and derivations. Developmental Science, 8, 583594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deacon, S. H., & Bryant, P. E. (2006). Getting to the root: Young writers’ sensitivity to the role of root morphemes in the spelling of inflected and derived words. Journal of Child Language, 33, 401417.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deacon, S. H., Cleave, P. L., Baylis, J., Fraser, J. Ingram, E., & Perlmutter, S. (2013). The representation of roots in the spelling of children with Specific Language Impairment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47, 1321.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Deacon, S. H., & Dhooge, S. (2010). Developmental stability and changes in the impact of root consistency on children’s spelling. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 23, 10551069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Deacon, S. H., Kieffer, M., & Laroche, A. (2014). The relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension: Evidence from mediation and longitudinal models. Scientific Studies of Reading, 18, 432451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Donovan, J. L., & Marshall, C. R. (2016). Comparing the verbal self-reports of spelling strategies used by children with and without dyslexia. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 63, 2744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, D. M. (2007). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (4th ed.). Toronto, ON: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Egan, J., & Pring, L. (2004). The processing of inflectional morphology: A comparison of children with and without dyslexia. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 567591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Egan, J., & Tainturier, M. (2011). Inflectional spelling deficits in developmental dyslexia. Cortex, 47, 11791196.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Friend, A., & Olson, R. K. (2008). Phonological spelling and reading deficits in children with spelling difficulties. Scientific Studies of Reading, 12, 90105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hauerwas, L. B., & Walker, J. (2003). Spelling of inflected verb morphology in children with spelling deficits. Learning Disabilities Research & Practise, 15, 2535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hayes, H., Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2006). Children use vowels to help them spell consonants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 94, 2742.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Joshi, R. M., Binks, E., Hougen, M., Dahlgren, M. E., Ocker-Dean, E., & Smith, D. E. (2009). Why elementary teachers might be inadequately prepared to teach reading. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42, 392402.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kemp, N. (2006). Children’s spelling of base, inflected, and derived words: Links with morphological awareness. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 19, 737765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moats, L. C. (1983). A comparison of the spelling errors of older dyslexic and second-grade normal children. Annals of Dyslexia, 33, 121140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Moats, L. C. (1994). The missing foundation in teacher education: Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language. Annals of Dyslexia, 44, 81102.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nelson, H. E. (1980). Analysis of spelling errors in normal and dyslexic children. In U. Frith (Ed.), Cognitive processes in spelling (pp. 475493). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Raaijmakers, J. G., Schrijnemakers, J. M. C., & Gremmen, F. (1999). How to deal with “the language-as-fixed-effect fallacy”: Common misconceptions and alternative solutions. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 416426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Taylor, W. P, Miciak, J., Fletcher, J. M. & Francis, D. J. (2017). Cognitive discrepancy models for specific learning disabilities identification: Simulations of psychometric limitations. Psychological Assessment, 29, 446457.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Treiman, R. (1993). Beginning to spell: A study of first-grade children. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Treiman, R., & Cassar, M. (1996). Effects of morphology on children’s spelling of final consonant clusters. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 63, 141170.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Treiman, R., Cassar, M., & Zukowski, A. (1994). What types of linguistic information do children use in spelling? The case of flaps. Child Development, 65, 13101329.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Treiman, R., & Kessler, B. (2006). Spelling as statistical learning: Using consonantal context to spell vowels. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, 642652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Treiman, R., Zukowski, A., & Richmond-Welty, E. D. (1995). What happened to the “n” of sink? Children’s spellings of final consonant clusters. Cognition, 55, 138.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilkinson, G. (2006). The Wide Range Achievement Test (4th ed.). Wilmington, DE: Wide Range.Google Scholar
Zeno, S. M., Ivenz, S. H., Millard, R. T., & Duvvuri, R. (1995). Educator’s word frequency guide. Brewster, NY: Touchstone Applied Science Associates.Google Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 92
Total number of PDF views: 398 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 19th December 2018 - 28th February 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Staying rooted: Spelling performance in children with dyslexia
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Staying rooted: Spelling performance in children with dyslexia
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Staying rooted: Spelling performance in children with dyslexia
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *