Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Ear–voice span and pauses in intra- and interlingual respeaking: An exploratory study into temporal aspects of the respeaking process


Respeaking involves producing subtitles in real time to make live television programs accessible to deaf and hard of hearing viewers. In this study we investigated how the type of material to be respoken affects temporal aspects of respeaking, such as ear–voice span and pauses. Given the similarities between respeaking and interpreting (time constraints) and between interlingual respeaking and translation (interlingual processing), we also tested whether previous interpreting and translation experience leads to a smaller delay or lesser cognitive load in respeaking, as manifested by a smaller number of pauses. We tested 22 interpreters, 23 translators, and a control group of 12 bilingual controls, who performed interlingual (English to Polish) and intralingual (Polish to Polish) respeaking of five video clips with different characteristics (speech rate, number of speakers, and scriptedness). Interlingual respeaking was found to be more challenging than the intralingual one. The temporal aspects of respeaking were affected by clip type (especially in interpreters). We found no clear interpreter or translator advantage over the bilingual controls across the respeaking tasks. However, interlingual respeaking turned out to be too difficult for many bilinguals to perform at all. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to examine temporal aspects of respeaking as modulated by the type of materials and previous interpreting/translation experience. The results develop our understanding of temporal aspects of respeaking and are directly applicable to respeaker training.

Corresponding author
ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE Agnieszka Szarkowska, Instytut Lingwistyki Stosowanej, Uniwersytet Warszawski, Dobra 55, Warszawa 00-312, Poland. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. H. Baayen (2008). Analyzing linguistic data: A practical introduction to statistics using R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

M. Bartłomiejczyk (2006). Strategies of simultaneous interpreting and directionality. Interpreting, 8, 149174. doi:10.1075/intp.8.2.03bar

J. Benesty , M. M. Sondhi , & Y. Huang (2007). Springer handbook of speech processing. New York: Springer.

Ł. Brocki , K. Marasek , & D. Koržinek (2012). Multiple model text normalization for the Polish language. In L. Chen , S. Felfernig , J. Liu , & Z. W. Raś (Eds.), Foundations of intelligent systems (pp. 143148). Berlin: Springer.

G. V. Chernov (1994). Message redundancy and message anticipation in simultaneous interpreting. In S. Lambert & B. Moser-Mercer (Eds.), Bridging the gap: Empirical research in simultaneous interpretation (pp. 139154). Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

I. K. Christoffels , & A. M. B. de Groot (2004). Components of simultaneous interpreting: Comparing interpreting with shadowing and paraphrasing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 227240. doi:10.1017/S1366728904001609

I. K. Christoffels , A. M. B. de Groot , & J. F. Kroll (2006). Memory and language skills in simultaneous interpreters: The role of expertise and language proficiency. Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 324345. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.004

B. Defrancq (2015). Corpus-based research into the presumed effects of short EVS. Interpreting, 17, 2645. doi:10.1075/intp.17.1.02def

S. Díaz-Galaz , P. Padilla , & M. T. Bajo (2015). The role of advance preparation in simultaneous interpreting: A comparison of professional interpreters and interpreting students. Interpreting, 17, 125. doi:10.1075/intp.17.1.01dia

D. Gerver (1969). Effects of grammaticalness, presentation rate, and message length on auditory short-term memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 21, 203208. doi:10.1080/14640746908400214

D. Gile (2009). Basic concepts and models for interpreter and translator training. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

F. Goldman-Eisler (1972). Segmentation of input in simultaneous translation. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 1, 127140. doi:10.1007/BF01068102

O. Kade , & C. Cartellieri (1971). Some methodological aspects of simultaneous interpreting. Babel, 17, 1216.

I. Kurz (2002). Physiological stress responses during media and conference interpreting. In G. Garzone & M. Viezzi (Eds.), Interpreting in the 21st century (pp. 195202). Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

M. Lederer (1978). Simultaneous interpretation: Units of meaning and other features. In D. Gerver & H. W. Sinaiko (Eds.), Language interpretation and communication (pp. 323332). New York: Plenum Press.

T.-H. Lee (2002). Ear voice span in English into Korean simultaneous interpretation. Meta, 47, 596606.

E. W. Myers (1986). AnO (ND) difference algorithm and its variations. Algorithmica, 1, 251266.

F. Pöchhacker (2010). Media interpreting. In Y. Gambier & L. van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of translation studies (Vol. 1, pp. 224226). Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

P. Quaglio (2009). Television dialogue: The sitcom Friends vs. natural conversation. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

A. Remael (2008). Screenwriting, scripted and unscripted language: What do subtitlers need to know? In J. Diaz-Cintas (Ed.), The didactics of audiovisual translation (pp. 5767). Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

P. Romero-Fresco (2012). Respeaking in translator training curricula: Present and future prospects. Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 6, 91112.

M. Russo (2005). Simultaneous film interpreting and users' feedback. Interpreting, 7, 126. doi:10.1075/intp.7.1.02rus

N. Schweda-Nicholson (1987). Linguistic and extra-linguistic aspects of simultaneous interpretation. Applied Linguistics, 8, 194.

R. Setton (1999). Simultaneous interpretation: A cognitive-pragmatic analysis. Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

M. Shlesinger (1994). Intonation in the production and perception of simultaneous interpretation. In S. Lambert & B. Moser-Mercer (Eds.), Bridging the gap: Empirical research in simultaneous interpretation (pp. 225236). Philadelphia, PA: Benjamins.

Š. Timarová , I. Čeňková , R. Meylaerts , E. Hertog , A. Szmalec , & W. Duyck (2014). Simultaneous interpreting and working memory executive control. Interpreting, 16, 139168. doi:10.1075/intp.16.2.01tim

Š. Timarová , B. Dragsted , & I. G. Hansen (2011). Time lag in translation and interpreting: A methodological exploration. In C. Alvstad , A. Hild , & E. Tiselius (Eds.), Methods and strategies of process research: Integrative approaches in translation studies (pp. 121146). Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 15 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 151 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 9th May 2017 - 27th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.