Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Language development, metalinguistic awareness, and emergent literacy skills of 3-year-old children in relation to social class

  • Carolyn Chaney (a1)
Abstract

This is an investigation of the relationships among selected aspects of normal language development, emerging metalinguistic skills, concepts about print, and family literacy experiences in 3-year-old children who vary in their socioeconomic backgrounds. Forty-three normally developing children, whose family incomes ranged from under $10,000 to over $100,000, were given 4 tests of language development; 12 metalinguistic tasks measuring phonological awareness, word awareness, and structural awareness; and 2 measures of literacy knowledge. The children's family literacy experiences were described following a parent interview. The data analysis had two main purposes. The first was to examine the family literacy experiences of the children using a qualitative analysis. The second was to describe, in a quantitative way, the relationships among family literacy experiences, socioeconomic factors, language development, metalinguistic performance, and concepts about print. The interview data revealed that, while parents varied in the emphasis they placed on literacy activities, all of the children were at least somewhat involved in literacy activities at home; family report of literacy activities was associated with family income. Quantitative analyses revealed that amount of family literacy involvement and the children's race were related to oral language development, and language development was the most powerful predictor of metalinguistic awareness. When language development was controlled statistically, family literacy and socioeconomic factors had negligible effects on metalinguistic skills; however, knowledge of print concepts was related to metalinguistic performance, especially in the phonological domain, and was associated with the children's family literacy experiences, maternal education, and race.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Department of Speech and Communication Studies, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA, 94132
References
Hide All
Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Anderson, A. B., & Stokes, S. J. (1984). Social and institutional influences on the development and practice of literacy. In Goelman, H., Oberg, A., & Smith, F. (Eds.), Awakening to literacy (pp. 2437). Exeter, NH: Heinemann Educational.
Applebee, A., Langer, J., & Mullis, I. (1988). Who reads best? Factors related to reading achievement in grades 3, 7, and 11. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Backman, J. (1983). The role of psycholinguistic skills in reading acquisition: A look at early readers. Reading Research Quarterly, 18, 466479.
Ball, E. W., & Blachman, B. A. (1991). Does phoneme segmentation in kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26, 4966.
Benton, A. L., & Pearl, D. P. (1977). Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.
Blank, M. (1982). Language and school failure: Some speculations about the relationship between oral and written language. In Feagans, L. & Farran, D. C. (Eds.), The language of children reared in poverty (pp.7594). New York: Academic.
Bowey, J. A. (1986). Syntactic awareness in relation to reading skill and ongoing reading comprehension monitoring. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 41, 282299.
Bowey, J. A., Tunmer, W. E., & Pratt, C. (1984). Development of children's understanding of the metalinguistic term word. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 500512.
Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. (1985). Rhyme and reason in reading and spelling. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Bryant, P., Maclean, M., & Bradley, L. (1990). Rhyme, language and children's reading. Applied Psycholinguistics, 11, 237252.
Burns, J. M. (1989). Concepts about print task. Unpublished work, Southeastern Louisiana University, Hammond.
Burns, J. M., & Richgels, D. J. (1989). An investigation of task requirements associated with the invented spellings of 4-year-olds with above-average intelligence. Journal of Reading Behavior, 21, 114.
Chaney, C. (1989). I pledge a legiance tothe flag: Three studies in word segmentation. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 261281.
Chaney, C. (1992). Language development, metalinguistic skills, and print awareness in three-year-old children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 485514.
Clay, M. M. (1979). Stones - The concepts about print test. Exeter, NH: Heinemann.
Dickinson, D. K., & Snow, C. E. (1987). Interrelationships among prereading and oral language skills in kindergartners from two social classes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2, 125.
Dunn, L. M., & Dunn, L. M. (1981). Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Evans, M., Taylor, N., & Blum, I. (1979). Children's written language awareness and its relation to reading acquisition. Journal of Reading Behavior, 11, 719.
Gibb, C., & Randall, P. E. (1988). Metalinguistic abilities and learning to read. Educational Research, 30, 135141.
Hakes, D. T. (1980). The development of metalinguistic abilities in children. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
Heath, S. B. (1982). What no bedtime story means: Narrative skills at home and school. Language in Society, 11, 4976.
James, S. L., & Blachman, B. B. (1987, 11). Metalinguistic abilities and reading achievement in first through third grades. Paper presented at ASHLA, New Orleans, LA.
Lundberg, I., Frost, J., & Petersen, O. (1988). Effects of an extensive program for stimulating phonological awareness in preschool children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 263285.
McNinch, G. (1974). Awareness of aural and visual word boundary within a sample of first graders. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38, 11271134.
Menyuk, P. (1969). Sentences children use. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.
National Assessment of Educational Progress. (1985). The reading report card: Progress toward excellence in our schools. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Smith, C., & Tager-Flusberg, H. (1982). Metalinguistic awareness and language development. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 34, 449468.
St.John, N. H. John, N. H. (1970). Desegregation and minority group performance. Review of Educational Research, 40, 111134.
Stein, A. (1971). Strategies for failure. Harvard Educational Review, 41, 158204.
Tabachnik, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (1989). Using multivariate statistics (2nd ed.). New York: HarperCollins.
Teale, W. H. (1986). Home background and young children's literacy development. In Teale, W. H. & Sulzby, E. (Eds.), Emergent literacy: Writing and reading (pp. 173205). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Tunmer, W. E., & Bowey, J. A. (1984). Metalinguistic awareness and reading acquisition. In Tunmer, W. E., Pratt, C., & Herriman, M. L. (Eds.). Metalinguistic awareness in children: Theory, research, and implications (pp. 144168). New York: Springer- Verlag.
Tunmer, W. E., Bowey, J. W. & Grieve, R. (1983). The development of young children's awareness of the word as a unit of spoken language. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 12, 567594.
Tunmer, W. E., Herriman, M. L., & Nesdale, A. R. (1988). Metalinguistic abilities and beginning reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 134158.
Tunmer, W. E., Nesdale, A. R., & Wright, A. D. (1987). Syntactic awareness and reading acquisition. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5, 2534.
van, Kleek A., & Bryant, D. (1983, 10). A diary study of very early emerging metalinguistic skills. Paper presented to the Eighth Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, Boston, MA.
Velleman, P. F., & Hoaglin, D. C. (1981). Applications, basics and computing of exploratory data analysis. Boston, MA: Duxbury Press/Wadsworth.
Villaume, S. K., & Wilson, L. C. (1989). Preschool children's explorations of letters in their own names. Journal of Applied Psycholinguistics. 10(3). 283300.
Wagner, R. K., & Torgesen, J. K. (1987). The nature of phonological processing and its causal role in the acquisition of reading skills. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 92212.
Wallach, L., Wallach, M. A., Dozier, M. G., & Kaplan, N. W. (1977). Poor children learning to read do not have trouble with auditory discrimination but do have trouble with phoneme recognition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 3639.
Warren-Leubecker, A., & Carter, B. W. (1988). Reading and growth in metalinguistic awareness: Relations to socio-economic status and reading readiness skills. Child Development, 59, 728742.
Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & EvattPond, R. L. Pond, R. L. (1979). Preschool Language Scale, Rev. Columbus, OH: Merrill.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed